Automation systems and integration — Industrial data — Visualization elements of digital twins

This document analyses visualization elements that are key components of the interface between the physical asset and the avatar (digital replica of the physical asset).

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 24464
First edition
2020-11
Automation systems and
integration — Industrial data —
Visualization elements of digital twins
Reference number
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Motivation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Digital twin visualization............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Core technologies of digital twin ............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Sensor ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Data ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.4 Analytics .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.5 Actuator ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.6 Integration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Visualization elements of digital twin ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Detail elements of digital twin visualization ................................................................................................................. 5

6 Use cases ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Differences compared with augmented reality (AR) and cyber physical system (CPS) ..........11

Annex A (informative) Analysis of international standards for the digital twin visualization .............12

Annex B (informative) Fidelity measure .......................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Introduction

This document analyses visualization elements to be shared or integrated between an avatar (digital

replica) and a physical asset. Three component models of the digital twin, which are physical asset,

avatar, and realtime interface, are adopted and elaborated in this document. The fidelity measure of the

interface between the avatar and the physical asset is discussed.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Automation systems and integration — Industrial data —
Visualization elements of digital twins
1 Scope

This document analyses visualization elements that are key components of the interface between the

physical asset and the avatar (digital replica of the physical asset).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
administration shell
bridge between a tangible asset and the IoT world
3.1.2
asset
economic resource, or something of value
3.1.3
avatar
digital replica of a physical asset
3.1.4
digital twin
compound model composed of a physical asset, an avatar and an interface
3.1.5
fidelity
level of accuracy whereby a copy reproduces its source
3.1.6
level of detail

decrease in complexity of a 3D model representation as it moves away from the viewer or according to

other metrics such as object importance, viewpoint-relative speed or position
3.1.7
physical asset
asset which exist in the real world
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
3.1.8
accuracy
measurement deviation from true value and its scatter

Note 1 to entry: Accuracy consists of trueness (proximity of measurement results to the true value) and precision

(repeatability or reproducibility of the measurement).
3.1.9
reality

sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent, as opposed to that which is only imaginary

3.1.10
realtime
guarantee response within specified time constraints
Note 1 to entry: Often referred to as "deadlines".
3.1.11
shape

form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties

such as color, texture or material type
3.1.12
STEP model
product model which is described according to ISO 10303
3.1.13
synchronization

joining up of multiple processes at a certain point, in order to reach an agreement or commit to a certain

sequence of action
3.1.14
visualization
technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AI artificial intelligence
AR augmented reality
CAD computer aided design
CAE computer aided engineering
CG computer graphics
CPS cyber physical system
DPI dots per inch
DTw digital twin
LoD level of detail
MAR mixed and augmented reality
MR mixed reality
O&M operation and maintenance
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
P&ID piping and instrumentation diagram
RPM revolutions per minute
VR virtual reality
XR extended reality
4 Motivation

There is a need for standardization of visualization elements that should be shared or integrated

[2]

between a physical asset and an avatar (or digital replica) . As defined in this document, the digital

twin is composed of a physical asset, an avatar, and an interface. Figure 1 shows this separation of the

concept (three components model) and visualization elements of the digital twin.
Figure 1 — Classification of terminologies of digital twin visualization
5 Digital twin visualization
5.1 Core technologies of digital twin
5.1.1 General
[3]

Core technologies of the digital twin that Deloitte consulting introduced are sensors, actuators,

integration, data, analytics. More technologies can be defined for the visualization of digital twins.

5.1.2 Sensor

Sensors that are attached to operating equipment can send the status (such as position, temperature,

pressure, vibration, RPM) of the equipment to a user in near-realtime.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
5.1.3 Data

Sensor data collected in near-realtime are generated continuously. The result can be a big data that is a

collection of operating status information of the equipment.
5.1.4 Analytics

The technology which analyses big data is called analytics. As a bulk of digital sensor information is

collected through the internet, the quantity of data exceeds the amount that human’s analysing abilities.

Consequently, data analysing technology using a computer with AI capability is being spotlighted.

5.1.5 Actuator

Once big data about the operating status is analysed by analytics, operating parameters of the product

can be optimized and the operating status is adjusted based on the analysis result. The delivery device

of modified parameters to drive the machine is an actuator.
5.1.6 Integration

The operating status information and the control information should be shared between the avatar and

the physical asset for the integration of the digital twin. The interface component of a digital twin as is

defined in this document enables the sharing and integration.
5.2 Visualization elements of digital twin

The relations between keywords which are being discussed among digital twin experts in Korea are

shown in Figure 2. Data models or product models in the STEP standard (ISO 10303) which are being

standardized can be regarded as elements of avatars. Not only design models, but also models for

production or manufacturing are included in ISO 10303. There are also digital models for visualization

that are specified in certain standards (see Annex A).
Figure 2 — Sample relations among keywords of digital twins

For the visualization of digital twins, most of the methods of virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality

(AR) can be utilized. Visualizing properties such as shape, color, and texture of an avatar or a digital

replica should be included, and animation also should be included.

Visualization of sensor data which shows the operating status of a physical asset should also be added

for the visualization of digital twins. It is similar to the visualization elements of a post-processor in

numerical simulations.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)

Additionally, visualization elements are dependent on the lifecycle of the product. The information that

digital twins should share is changing along the lifecycle of a product which is usually made of plan,

design, manufacturing, O&M, or discard, so that visualization elements change along the lifecycle of the

product.

At the beginning of a product lifecycle, there is no physical asset. There is only the avatar or the digital

replica. The conceptual product inside the mind of the designer is modeled as an avatar inside a

computer at the beginning. The avatar is tested or simulated inside a virtual manufacturing system and

the physical product then is realized into a physical asset through physical manufacturing. Only from

this time both twins (avatar and physical asset) exist and can be integrated by sharing realtime status

data from sensors and control parameters to actuators.
5.3 Detail elements of digital twin visualization

3D printing and 3D laser scanning, which have recently been under research and development also

require a visualization model. In addition to the traditional CAD or mesh models, points cloud models

are also being introduced. Depending on the fidelity of the avatar, different levels of detail (LoD) are

being used as shown in Table 1.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)

Table 1 — Classification of plant equipment models based on level of detail (LoD)

LoD Type Description Example (Valve)
— Simple model
(3-dimensionalized symbol from
Symbol-level model
P&ID)
(Basic design stage, send
to equipment manufac-
— Model in default libraries (known as
turer)
catalog model) provided by a plant
CAD system.
— Model that plant manufacturer re-
models based on vendor-package
(ranges from collection of 2D
Production model
drawings to detail 3D model) of
2 (Production design stage
equipment (LoD 5)
of plant)
— The product model which is suitable
for plant construction
— Model that plant owner or operating
Handover model
company requests
3 (Reconstructed model
— Has different LOD depending on the
from scanned data)
requests
— A points cloud model from 3D
scanning during or after construction
Scanned model
of the plant
(during or after construc-
tion
— It shows additional material such as
of plant)
insulation material surrounding the
equipment
— Detail model of vendor for producing
the equipment
— Contains detail (geometric, non-
Detailed model from
geometric) information about the
5 equipment manufactur-
equipment e.g. internal geometry as
ing (Vendor)
well as detailed surface information
— Due to security issues, only vendors
have the model

Visualization of the operational status of a product is a long-standing area in computer graphics (CG),

which is known as scientific visualization. It is better to utilize existing technologies in the CG domain

and to include CG technologies as the visualization elements of the digital twin.

Animation requires the use of motion texture which uses data obtained through a motion capturing

sensors. Further development of technology is needed to apply the animation technology to the points

cloud models in addition to the traditional animation of polygon meshes. Motion texture can play a role

in complementing the weakness of kinematics-based animations, and similarly, the weakness of CAD

models can be complemented by the laser-scanned models or points cloud. The merge of data from the

avatar (polygons or motion from kinematics) with data from the physical asset (points cloud or motion

texture) can enhance the fidelity of the digital twin.
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
------
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 24464
First edition
2020-12
Automation systems and
integration — Industrial data —
Visualization elements of digital twins
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/IEC
JTC 1/SC 24 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Motivation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Digital twin visualization............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 Core technologies of digital twin ............................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Sensor ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Data ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.4 Analytics .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.5 Actuator ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.6 Integration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Visualization elements of digital twin ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Detail elements of digital twin visualization ................................................................................................................. 5

6 Use cases ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Differences compared with augmented reality (AR) and cyber physical system (CPS) ..........11

Annex A (informative) Analysis of international standards for the digital twin visualization .............12

Annex B (informative) Fidelity measure .......................................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Introduction

This document analyses visualization elements to be shared or integrated between an avatar (digital

replica) and a physical asset. Three component models of the digital twin, which are physical asset,

avatar, and realtime interface, are adopted and elaborated in this document. The fidelity measure of the

interface between the avatar and the physical asset is discussed.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
Automation systems and integration — Industrial data —
Visualization elements of digital twins
1 Scope

This document analyses visualization elements that are key components of the interface between the

physical asset and the avatar (digital replica of the physical asset).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
administration shell
bridge between a tangible asset and the IoT world
3.1.2
asset
economic resource, or something of value
3.1.3
avatar
digital replica of a physical asset
3.1.4
digital twin
compound model composed of a physical asset, an avatar and an interface
3.1.5
fidelity
level of accuracy whereby a copy reproduces its source
3.1.6
level of detail

decrease in complexity of a 3D model representation as it moves away from the viewer or according to

other metrics such as object importance, viewpoint-relative speed or position
3.1.7
physical asset
asset which exist in the real world
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
3.1.8
accuracy
measurement deviation from true value and its scatter

Note 1 to entry: Accuracy consists of trueness (proximity of measurement results to the true value) and precision

(repeatability or reproducibility of the measurement).
3.1.9
reality

sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent, as opposed to that which is only imaginary

3.1.10
realtime
guarantee response within specified time constraints
Note 1 to entry: Often referred to as "deadlines".
3.1.11
shape

form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties

such as color, texture or material type
3.1.12
STEP model
product model which is described according to ISO 10303
3.1.13
synchronization

joining up of multiple processes at a certain point, in order to reach an agreement or commit to a certain

sequence of action
3.1.14
visualization
technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message
3.2 Abbreviated terms
AI artificial intelligence
AR augmented reality
CAD computer aided design
CAE computer aided engineering
CG computer graphics
CPS cyber physical system
DPI dot per inch
DTw digital twin
LoD level of detail
MAR mixed and augmented reality
MR mixed reality
O&M operation and maintenance
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
P&ID piping & instrumentation diagram
RPM revolution per minute
VR virtual reality
XR extended reality
4 Motivation

There is a need for standardization of visualization elements that should be shared or integrated

[1]

between a physical asset and an avatar (or digital replica) . As defined in this document, the digital

twin is composed of a physical asset, an avatar, and an interface. Figure 1 shows this separation of the

concept (three components model) and visualization elements of the digital twin.
Figure 1 — Classification of terminologies of digital twin visualization
5 Digital twin visualization
5.1 Core technologies of digital twin
5.1.1 General
[2]

Core technologies of the digital twin that Deloitte consulting introduced are sensors, actuators,

integration, data, analytics. More technologies can be defined for the visualization of digital twins.

5.1.2 Sensor

Sensors that are attached to operating equipment can send the status (such as position, temperature,

pressure, vibration, RPM) of the equipment to a user in near-realtime.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)
5.1.3 Data

Sensor data collected in near-realtime are generated continuously. The result can be a big data that is a

collection of operating status information of the equipment.
5.1.4 Analytics

The technology which analyzes big data is called analytics. As a bulk of digital sensor information is

collected through the internet, the quantity of data exceeds the amount that human’s analyzing abilities.

Consequently, data analyzing technology using a computer with AI capability is being spotlighted.

5.1.5 Actuator

Once big data about the operating status is analyzed by analytics, operating parameters of the product

can be optimized and the operating status is adjusted based on the analysis result. The delivery device

of modified parameters to drive the machine is an actuator.
5.1.6 Integration

The operating status information and the control information should be shared between the avatar and

the physical asset for the integration of the digital twin. The interface component of a digital twin as is

defined in this document enables the sharing and integration.
5.2 Visualization elements of digital twin

The relations between keywords which are being discussed among digital twin experts in Korea are

shown in Figure 2. Data models or product models in STEP standard (ISO 10303) which are being

standardized by ISO/TC184/SC4 can be regarded as elements of avatars. Not only design models, but

also models for production or manufacturing are included in ISO 10303. There are also digital models

for visualization that are specified in SC4 standards (see Annex A).
Figure 2 — Sample relations among keywords of digital twins

For the visualization of digital twins, most of the methods of virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality

(AR) can be utilized. Visualizing properties such as shape, color, and texture of an avatar or a digital

replica should be included, and animation also should be included.

Visualization of sensor data which shows the operating status of a physical asset should also be added

for the visualization of digital twins. It is similar to the visualization elements of a post-processor in

numerical simulations.
4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)

Additionally, visualization elements are dependent on the lifecycle of the product. The information that

digital twins should share is changing along the lifecycle of a product which is usually made of plan,

design, manufacturing, O&M, or discard, so that visualization elements change along the lifecycle of the

product.

At the beginning of a product lifecycle, there is no physical asset. There is only the avatar or the digital

replica. The conceptual product inside the mind of the designer is modeled as an avatar inside a

computer at the beginning. The avatar is tested or simulated inside a virtual manufacturing system and

the physical product then is realized into a physical asset through physical manufacturing. Only from

this time both twins (avatar and physical asset) exist and can be integrated by sharing realtime status

data from sensors and control parameters to actuators.
5.3 Detail elements of digital twin visualization

3D printing and 3D laser scanning, which have recently been under research and development also

require a visualization model. In addition to the traditional CAD or mesh models, points cloud models

are also being introduced. Depending on the fidelity of the avatar, different levels of detail (LoD) are

being used as shown in Table 1.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TR 24464:2020(E)

Table 1 — Classification of plant equipment models based on level of detail (LoD)

LoD Type Description Example (Valve)
— Simple model
(3-dimensionalized symbol from
Symbol-level model
P&ID)
(Basic design stage, send
to equipment manufac-
— Model in default libraries (known as
turer)
catalog model) provided by a plant
CAD system.
— Model that plant manufacturer re-
models based on vendor-package
(ranges from collection of 2D
Production model
drawings to detail 3D model) of
2 (Production design stage
equipment (LoD 5)
of plant)
— The product model which is suitable
for plant construction
— Model that plant owner or operating
Handover model
company requests
3 (Reconstructed model
— Has different LOD depending on the
from scanned data)
requests
— A points cloud model from 3D
scanning during or after construction
Scanned model
of the plant
(during or after construc-
tion
— It shows additional material such as
of plant)
insulation material surrounding the
equipment
— Detail model of vendor for producing
the equipment
— Contains detail (geometric, non-
Detailed model from
geometric) information about the
5 equipment manufactur-
equipment e.g. internal geometry as
ing (Vendor)
well as detailed surface information
— Due to security issues, only vendors
have the model

Visualization of the operational status of a product is a long-standing area in computer graphics (CG),

which is known as scientific visualization. It is better to utilize existing technologies in the CG domain

and to include CG technologies as the visualization elements of the digital twin.

Animation requires the use of motion texture which uses data obtained through a motion capturing

sensors. Further development of technology is needed to apply the animation technology to the points

cloud models in addition to the traditional animation of polygon meshes. Motion texture can play a role

in complementing the weakness of kinematics-based animations, and similarly, the weakness of CAD

models can be complemented by the laser-scanned models or points cloud. The merge of data from the

avatar (polygons or motion from kinematics) with data from the physical asset (points cloud or motion

text
...

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