Rough-terrain trucks — Safety requirements and verification — Part 1: Variable-reach trucks

Chariots tout-terrain — Exigences de sécurité et vérification — Partie 1: Chariots à portée variable

General Information

Publication Date
Withdrawal Date
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
Ref Project


Buy Standard

ISO 10896-1:2012 - Rough-terrain trucks -- Safety requirements and verification
English language
40 pages
sale 15% off
sale 15% off

Standards Content (Sample)

STANDARD 10896-1
First edition
Rough-terrain trucks — Safety
requirements and verification —
Part 1:
Variable-reach trucks
Chariots tout-terrain — Exigences de sécurité et vérification —
Partie 1: Chariots à portée variable
Reference number
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
ISO 2012

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
© ISO 2012
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s
member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction . v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 3
4 Requirements . 7
4.1 General . 7
4.2 Starting/moving . 7
4.3 Brakes . 8
4.4 Electrical and electronic systems . 8
4.5 Controls . 9
4.6 Power systems and accessories .12
4.7 Stabilizing devices .13
4.8 Design requirements for maintenance purposes .13
4.9 Systems for lifting, tilting and reaching .13
4.10 Operator’s station .15
4.11 Operator access .19
4.12 Protective measures and devices .20
4.13 Stability .21
4.14 Visibility .21
4.15 External lighting devices .21
4.16 Fire protection .22
4.17 Retrieval, transportation, lifting and towing .22
4.18 Noise .22
5 Verification of requirements and safety measures .23
5.1 General .23
5.2 Functional verification .23
5.3 Structural verification .23
5.4 Maximum load-lowering speed verification .24
6 Information for use .24
6.1 General .24
6.2 Operator’s and maintenance manuals .25
6.3 Marking .27
6.4 Load charts .27
Annex A (informative) List of significant hazards .29
Annex B (normative) Attachments and attachment brackets .34
Annex C (normative) Elevating/tiltable operator’s stations .37
Annex D (informative) Consistency of direction of motion for load-handling controls .39
Bibliography .40
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 10896-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 110, Industrial trucks, Subcommittee SC 4,
Rough-terrain trucks.
ISO 10896 consists of the following parts, under the general title Rough-terrain trucks — Safety requirements
and verification:
— Part 1: Variable-reach trucks
Slewing trucks, lorry-mounted trucks, freely swinging loads and straight-masted trucks are to form the subjects
of future parts 2, 3, 4 and 5.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
Variable-reach trucks are known by a variety of terms, including “telehandlers” and “multi-purpose handlers”.
The variable-reach rough-terrain trucks covered by this part of ISO 10896 are designed to transport loads to
and place them on elevated work areas and can be driven on unimproved or disturbed terrain.
They can also be equipped with a variety of attachments (e.g. fork arms, bale spikes) and interchangeable
equipment (e.g. mowers, sweepers).
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
Rough-terrain trucks — Safety requirements and verification —
Part 1:
Variable-reach trucks
1 Scope
This part of ISO 10896 specifies general safety requirements for non-slewing, variable-reach rough-terrain
trucks (hereafter known as “trucks”), with an articulated or rigid chassis and equipped with a telescopic lifting
means (pivoting boom) on which a load-handling device such as a carriage with fork arms is typically fitted.
Fork arms and other integrated attachments are considered to be parts of the truck.
Other standards, in addition to the relevant provisions of this part of ISO 10896, can apply to the attachments.
This part of ISO 10896 is not applicable to the following:
a) industrial variable-reach trucks covered by ISO 3691-2;
b) machines designed primarily for earth-moving, such as loaders, even if their buckets are replaced by fork
arms (see ISO 20474);
c) trucks designed primarily with variable-length load suspension elements (e.g. chain, ropes) from which the
load may swing freely in all directions (mobile cranes) ;
d) trucks fitted with personnel/work platforms, designed to move persons to elevated working positions ;
e) trucks designed primarily for container handling.
The significant hazards covered by this part of ISO 10896 are listed in Annex A. This part of ISO 10896 does
not address hazards that can occur
— during manufacture,
— when handling suspended loads, which may swing freely,
— when using trucks on public roads,
— when operating in potentially explosive atmospheres, or
— with a battery, LPG or hybrid as the primary power source.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document
(including any amendments) applies.
ISO 2330, Fork-lift trucks — Fork arms — Technical characteristics and testing
ISO 2867:2011, Earth-moving machinery — Access systems
ISO 3449, Earth-moving machinery — Falling-object protective structures — Laboratory tests and
performance requirements
1) Additional requirements for trucks intended for freely swinging load applications, their lifting devices and attachments,
and personnel/work platform applications on trucks, are being developed by ISO/TC 110/SC4.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
ISO 3450, Earth-moving machinery — Wheeled or high-speed rubber-tracked machines — Performance
requirements and test procedures for brake systems
ISO 3457, Earth-moving machinery — Guards — Definitions and requirements
ISO 3471:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Roll-over protective structures — Laboratory tests and
performance requirements
ISO 3795, Road vehicles, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry — Determination of burning
behaviour of interior materials
ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety signs
and safety markings
ISO 3864-2, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 2: Design principles for product
safety labels
ISO 5053, Powered industrial trucks — Terminology
ISO 5353, Earth-moving machinery, and tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Seat index point
ISO 6016:2008, Earth-moving machinery — Methods of measuring the masses of whole machines, their
equipment and components
ISO 6682, Earth-moving machinery — Zones of comfort and reach for controls
ISO 6683, Earth-moving machinery — Seat belts and seat belt anchorages — Performance requirements and tests
ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment ― Registered symbols
ISO 7096:2000, Earth-moving machinery — Laboratory evaluation of operator seat vibration
ISO 9244, Earth-moving machinery — Machinery safety labels — General principles
ISO 9533, Earth-moving machinery — Machine-mounted audible travel alarms and forward horns — Test
methods and performance criteria
ISO 10263-3, Earth-moving machinery — Operator enclosure environment — Part 3: Pressurization test method
ISO 10570, Earth-moving machinery — Articulated frame lock — Performance requirements
ISO 11112:1995, Earth-moving machinery — Operator’s seat — Dimensions and requirements. Amended by
ISO 11112:1995/Amd 1:2001
ISO 12508, Earth-moving machinery — Operator station and maintenance areas — Bluntness of edges
ISO 13284, Fork-lift trucks — Fork-arm extensions and telescopic fork arms — Technical characteristics and
strength requirements
ISO 13732-1, Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Methods for the assessment of human responses to
contact with surfaces — Part 1: Hot surfaces
ISO 13849-1, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles for design
ISO 13850, Safety of machinery — Emergency stop — Principles for design
ISO 15817, Earth-moving machinery — Safety requirements for remote operator control
ISO 16528-1:2007, Boilers and pressure vessels — Part 1: Performance requirements
ISO 16528-2, Boilers and pressure vessels — Part 2: Procedures for fulfilling the requirements of ISO 16528-1
2) The database on Graphical Symbols for Use on Equipment contains the complete set of graphical symbols included in
IEC 60417 and ISO 7000:
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
ISO 21507, Earth-moving machinery — Performance requirements for non-metallic fuel tanks
ISO 22915-10, Industrial trucks — Verification of stability — Part 10: Additional stability test for trucks operating
in the special condition of stacking with load laterally displaced by powered devices
ISO 22915-14, Industrial trucks — Verification of stability — Part 14: Rough-terrain variable-reach trucks
ISO 22915-20, Industrial trucks — Verification of stability — Part 20: Additional stability test for trucks operating
in the special condition of offset load, offset by utilization
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5053 and the following apply.
rough-terrain truck
truck designed for operation on unimproved natural terrain as well as the disturbed terrain of work sites
compact truck
truck having a maximum height in normal travel mode of 2 150 mm, a maximum operating mass according to
ISO 6016 of 6 000 kg, and/or a maximum width in normal travel mode of 1 850 mm
rated capacity
maximum load permitted by the manufacturer at the standard load centre distance that the truck is
capable of lifting and transporting on fork arms (3.13) in normal conditions with the boom fully retracted
SEE: Figure 1.
rated capacity
maximum load that the attachment is permitted by its manufacturer to handle in normal operation
under specified conditions
Note to entry The rated capacity of the attachment can be associated with the load centre distance. See Table 1.
actual capacity
maximum load at a specified load centre distance, established by the manufacturer based on component
strength and truck stability, that the truck can carry, lift and stack to a specified lift height and reach (3.6), in
normal operation
SEE: Figure 1.
Note 1 to entry The actual capacity depends on the configuration of the truck in respect of variables including lift height,
the reach of the boom, the actual load centre, load-handling devices and stabilizing devices.
Note 2 to entry It defines the load-handling ability of the particular truck as equipped. Additional actual capacity with
removable attachments, where permitted, may also be established by the appropriate stability test or by calculation verified
by empirical data.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
distance between two vertical parallel planes, one plane being tangent to the front of the outside diameter of
the front tyres or tracks, the other plane being tangent to the curve described by the centre of gravity of the load
moving from its highest position to its lowest position
SEE: Figure 1.
NOTE In practice, the reach can be measured by referring to a point, g, corresponding to the vertical projection of the
centre of gravity, G, of the load onto the plane of the top surface of the fork arms (3.13), as shown in Figure 1.
d reach
D standard load centre distance
G centre of gravity of the load
g point corresponding to vertical projection of G
Q rated capacity
Q actual capacity at maximum lift height
Q actual capacity at maximum reach
Figure 1 — Parameters for determining actual capacity of a truck with fork arms
lift height
height from the ground to the upper face of the fork arms or underside of the load, whichever is the lower
4 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
standard load centre distance
distance from the centre of gravity of the load, horizontally rearwards to the front of the fork shanks and
vertically downwards to the upper faces of the fork arms (3.13)
SEE: Figure 1.
Note to entry Table 1 gives standard load centre distances in relation to their rated capacities.
Table 1 — Standard load centre distances and rated capacities
Rated capacity Standard load centre distance
kg mm
400 500 600 900 1 200
0 < 1 000 X X
c b
≥ 1 000 < 5 000 X X
≥ 5 000 < 10 000 X
≥ 10 000 < 20 000 X X X
≥ 20 000 < 25 000 X X
≥ 25 000 X
NOTE Trucks may be rated for special applications with load centres related to those applications.
600 mm is used in the USA.
600 mm is used in Asia, Australia and the USA.
500 mm is typically used in Europe.
lost load centre
effective thickness
horizontal shift in the standard load centre that may occur when removable attachments are added to a truck
axle oscillation locking-mechanism
mechanism designed to lock oscillation of an axle to improve truck stability
stabilizing devices
extendable and/or pivoting mechanical supports used to improve the stability of a truck when stationary
lateral levelling
change in the lateral inclination angle between the chassis and the ground made to ensure that the boom
operates in a vertical plane even when the truck is positioned on a side slope
fork arms
device comprising two or more solid fork arms, each consisting of a shank (vertical portion) and blade, which
is hook- or shaft-mounted, fitted on the carriage and usually adjusted manually
pivoting support member that permits horizontal and vertical placement of the load or attachment (3.17)
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
crab steering mode
steering mode where all wheels of the truck steer in the same direction
normal operating position
position specified by the manufacturer in which the operator is able to control the truck operations, including
load-handling functions
Note to entry Other positions may be necessary if it is not possible to control all the functions of the truck from a
single position.
component or assembly of components which can be mounted on the attachment bracket (3.18) for a specific use
attachment bracket
device fitted at the end of the boom to connect and lock interchangeable attachments (3.17) without the use of
a tool to facilitate quick interchange of attachments
slewing movement not greater than 5° to either side of the longitudinal axis of the truck
SEE: Figure 2.
Figure 2 — Non-slewing movement
boom float
control mode that uses gravity to allow an attachment (3.17) at the end of the boom to follow a contour
(e.g. the ground)
maximum working pressure
highest pressure at which a hydraulic circuit is intended to operate under normal operating conditions
articulated truck
truck in which steering is achieved by displacement of the front and rear frames around a central pivot
level ground
ground with a gradient of (0 ± 2) %
6 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
truck powered using of two or more distinct power sources
4 Requirements
4.1 General
4.1.1 Sharp edges and acute angles
Sharp edges and acute angles shall meet the requirements specified in ISO 12508 in areas to which the
operator can be exposed during operation, access, egress and daily maintenance.
4.1.2 Stored energy components
Components that store energy and can cause a risk of injury during removal or disassembly, e.g. hydraulic
accumulators and spring-applied brakes, shall be provided with a means to release the energy before removal
or disassembly and shall be clearly marked.
4.2 Starting/moving
4.2.1 Unauthorized starting
All trucks shall be provided with a device (e.g. key, key pad, magnetic card) that prevents starting without the
use of such device.
4.2.2 Unintended movement
Trucks shall be fitted with a device which prevents the engine being started while the drive system is engaged.
When the drive system direction control is in neutral, provisions shall be made to locate and maintain it in its
neutral position.
4.2.3 Uncontrolled motion
The truck shall not move from rest, on level ground, until the drive system has been engaged.
4.2.4 Powered travel movement
Means shall be provided to prevent powered travel when the operator is not in the normal operating position.
Powered travel shall not occur automatically when the operator returns to the normal operating position without
an additional operation, e.g. by reset of the direction control to neutral.
Application of the parking brake shall apply neutral travel control.
4.2.5 Non-activation of the parking brake
Means shall be provided to warn the operator, if he/she leaves the operating position when the parking brake
is not applied.
4.2.6 Inching pedal
If an inching pedal is fitted, it shall be depressed to modulate the transmission and may apply the service brake.
It shall be capable of being operated by the operator’s left foot. If there is no separate means of applying the
service brake, the inching pedal shall be a single pedal capable of being operated equally by either foot.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 7

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
4.3 Brakes
4.3.1 General
Trucks shall be equipped with service brake(s), secondary brake(s) and parking brake systems, complying with
the following requirements for wheeled trucks, as specified in ISO 3450.
NOTE Local road regulations may apply when trucks are used on roads.
Where electromechanical brake systems are fitted, they shall be applied mechanically and released electrically.
Where hydromechanical parking brakes are fitted, they shall be applied mechanically and released hydraulically.
When the operator manually releases the parking brake from the normal operating position, it shall not disable
the service brakes.
4.3.2 Failure of energy supply
Failure of the energy supply shall not result in loss of braking for automatically applied brakes.
4.4 Electrical and electronic systems
4.4.1 General
Electrical components and conductors shall be installed in such a way as to minimize damage from exposure to
environmental conditions (corresponding to the use of the truck intended by the manufacturer) that can cause
Electrical component insulation shall have flame-retardant properties. Means to prevent abrasion of electrical
component insulation shall be provided, e.g. when routed through frames and bulkheads.
Electrical wires/cables not protected by over-current devices shall not be routed such that they are in contact
with pipes and hoses containing fuel.
For safety-related functions of control system(s), the principles outlined in ISO 13849-1 shall be followed, or
methods providing similar protection shall be applied.
4.4.2 Degree of protection
Depending on the location/installation of electrical and electronic components, the following degrees of
protection are required:
a) all components installed on the truck’s exterior or directly exposed to the environment shall have a minimum
degree of protection corresponding to IP55 (according to IEC 60529);
b) for all components installed in the operator’s enclosed cab or protected against the environment, the
protection shall be designed and executed so as to safeguard the intended function under expected and
intended conditions.
4.4.3 Electrical connections
Electric wires and cables used to connect components in electric circuits shall be marked and identified, using
ISO 9247 as guidance.
This requirement does not apply to electrical circuits used for anti-theft systems, when fitted.
4.4.4 Over-current protective devices
Electric equipment, except the starter motor, alternator and combustion pre-heater, shall be protected by an
over-current device (e.g. fuse) or other device giving the same protection.
8 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
4.4.5 Batteries
Batteries shall be securely mounted in a ventilated location that provides access for maintenance.
Batteries and/or battery locations shall be designed and built or covered to minimize any hazard to the operator
caused by battery acid or acid vapours in the event of overturning the truck.
Electrically energized wires and cables (not connected to the frame) and connectors shall be covered with
insulation material.
4.4.6 Battery disconnection
It shall be possible to disconnect batteries quickly, e.g. by a quick coupling or an accessible isolator switch.
Symbol 2063 of ISO 7000 may be used for identification.
4.5 Controls
4.5.1 General
The controls (hand levers, joysticks, pedals, switches, etc.) and indicators of the truck and attachment shall
be as follows:
a) easy to access from the operator’s position;
b) clearly identified, indelible and visible in the operator’s station; if appropriate, graphical symbols in
accordance with ISO 7000 may be used and shall be described in the operator’s manual (see 6.2);
c) designed such that movement of the controls to activate the functions and indicators corresponds to the
intended effect or common practice whenever possible.
For safety-related functions of the control system(s), the principles outlined in ISO 13849-1 shall be followed,
or methods providing similar protection shall be applied. See also 4.4.1.
Remote-operator-controlled systems fitted to the truck shall comply with the relevant provisions of ISO 15817,
using ISO 6682 and ISO 10968 as guidance. Multiple operating positions
If more than one operating position is fitted, the use of the controls at one operating position shall preclude the use
of the controls at others, except for the emergency stop, which shall be operable from all active operating positions.
The emergency stop shall comply with ISO 13850. Controls of trucks accessible from ground level
Where controls are accessible from the ground, means shall be provided to minimize the possibility of actuating
them from the ground (e.g. protection by door, guard or by interlocking devices). Inadvertent activation
Controls that can cause a hazard due to inadvertent activation when the operator gets into or out of the normal
operator position shall be so arranged, deactivated or guarded as to minimize the risk. A deactivation device
shall either be self-acting or acting by compulsory activation of the relevant device.
4.5.2 Differential locking
If the truck is equipped with a pedal-operated differential lock, depressing the pedal shall lock the differential.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 9

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 10896-1:2012(E)
If the truck is equipped with a differential l

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.