Liquid hydrogen -- Land vehicle fuel tanks

ISO 13985:2006 specifies the construction requirements for refillable fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen used in land vehicles as well as the testing methods required to ensure that a reasonable level of protection from loss of life and property resulting from fire and explosion is provided. It is applicable to fuel tanks intended to be permanently attached to land vehicles.

Hydrogène liquide -- Réservoirs de carburant pour véhicules terrestres

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Published
Publication Date
19-Oct-2006
Current Stage
9060 - Close of review
Start Date
03-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13985
First edition
2006-11-01
Liquid hydrogen — Land vehicle fuel
tanks
Hydrogène liquide — Réservoirs de carburant pour véhicules terrestres
Reference number
ISO 13985:2006(E)
ISO 2006
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
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© ISO 2006

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ii © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 General requirements........................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Mechanical stresses............................................................................................................................. 3

4.3 Thermal stresses .................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4 Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5 Design .................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6 Insulation ............................................................................................................................................... 5

4.7 Accessories........................................................................................................................................... 6

4.8 Manufacturing and assembly .............................................................................................................. 7

5 Type tests .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 Approval of new designs ..................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Inner tank burst pressure test ............................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Thermal autonomy test ........................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Maximum filling level test .................................................................................................................... 8

5.5 Accessory type tests............................................................................................................................ 8

6 Routine tests and inspection............................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Pressure test ......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Leak test ................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4 Verification of the dimensions ............................................................................................................ 9

6.5 Destructive and non-destructive tests of welded joints................................................................... 9

6.6 Visual inspection .................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Marking and labelling ........................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 Marking method .................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Inner tank markings.............................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Outer jacket markings ........................................................................................................................ 10

7.4 Temporary markings for first filling.................................................................................................. 10

Annex A (normative) Fuel tank operating ranges......................................................................................... 11

Annex B (informative) Hydrogen compatibility ............................................................................................. 12

Annex C (normative) Fuel tank type tests ..................................................................................................... 13

Annex D (normative) Accessory type tests................................................................................................... 15

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13985 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 197, Hydrogen technologies.
iv © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
Introduction

The fuel tanks described in this International Standard are intended to be used in conjunction with the fuelling

system interface described in ISO 13984.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13985:2006(E)
Liquid hydrogen — Land vehicle fuel tanks
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the construction requirements for refillable fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen

used in land vehicles as well as the testing methods required to ensure that a reasonable level of protection from

loss of life and property resulting from fire and explosion is provided.

This International Standard is applicable to fuel tanks intended to be permanently attached to land vehicles.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 188:1998, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Accelerated ageing and heat resistance tests

ISO 1431-1, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Resistance to ozone cracking — Part 1: Static and

dynamic strain testing

ISO 2768-1, General tolerances — Part 1: Tolerances for linear and angular dimensions without individual

tolerance indications
ISO 6957, Copper alloys — Ammonia test for stress corrosion resistance
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests
ISO 13984, Liquid hydrogen — Land vehicle fuelling system interface
ISO 21010, Cryogenic vessels — Gas/materials compatibility

ISO 21013-3, Cryogenic vessels — Pressure-relief accessories for cryogenic service — Part 3: Sizing and

capacity determination
ISO 21014, Cryogenic vessels – Cryogenic insulation performance

ISO 21028-1, Cryogenic vessels — Toughness requirements for materials at cryogenic temperature — Part 1:

Temperatures below −80 °C

ISO 21029-1:2004, Cryogenic vessels — Transportable vacuum insulated vessels of not more than

1 000 litres volume — Part 1: Design, fabrication, inspection and tests
ISO 23208, Cryogenic vessels — Cleanliness for cryogenic service
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
accessory

device fixed directly to the inner tank or outer jacket of a fuel tank such as a pressure relief valve, shut-off

valve, non-return valve or level gauge
3.2
boil-off management system
system that controls the boil off of gas under normal conditions
3.3
burst pressure

pressure that causes the rupture of a pressure vessel subjected to a constant increase of pressure during a

destructive test
3.4
design temperature

temperature of the inner tank, the outer jacket and all other accessories to which fabrication drawings,

inspections and physical measurements such as volume are referred
3.5
fuel tank
vessel used for the storage of cryogenic hydrogen
3.6
hydrogen conversion system
system designed for the consumption of hydrogen for energy transformation
3.7
impermissible fault range
pressure range within which an unwanted event is to be expected (see Annex A)
3.8
inner tank
part of the fuel tank that contains liquid hydrogen
3.9
level gauge
device that measures the level of liquid hydrogen in the fuel tank
3.10
maximum allowable working pressure
MAWP

maximum pressure to which a component is designed to be subjected to and which is the basis for

determining the strength of the component under consideration
3.11
normal operating range
range planned for the process values (see Annex A)

NOTE In the case of inner tanks, the normal operating range of the inner tank pressure is from 0 MPa to the set

pressure of the primary pressure relief valve, which is lower than or equal to the MAWP of the inner tank.

3.12
outer jacket
part of the fuel tank that encases the inner tank(s) and its insulation system
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
3.13
outer pressure
pressure acting on the outside of the inner tank or outer jacket
3.14
permissible fault range

range between the normal operating range and the impermissible fault range (see Annex A)

3.15
pressure
gauge pressure against atmospheric pressure, unless otherwise stated
3.16
thermal autonomy

time of the pressure increase in the inner tank measured from a starting pressure of 0 MPa at the

corresponding boiling point of hydrogen (−253 °C) up to MAWP of the inner tank

NOTE The thermal autonomy is a measure of the quality of the insulation of the fuel tank.

4 Requirements
4.1 General requirements

The fuel tank and its accessories shall function in a correct and safe way. It shall withstand and remain gas

tight when subjected to the mechanical, thermal and chemical stresses specified in this International Standard.

4.2 Mechanical stresses
4.2.1 Inner/outer pressure
4.2.1.1 Inner tank
The inner tank shall be designed to resist the following inner test pressure:
p = 1,3 (MAWP + 0,2)
test
where
p is the test pressure, expressed in megapascals (MPa);
test

MAWP is the maximum allowable working pressure of the inner tank, expressed in megapascals (MPa).

The inner tank and its accessories shall be designed to resist an outer pressure of 0,2 MPa.

4.2.1.2 Outer jacket
The outer jacket shall be designed to resist an outer pressure of 0,2 MPa.
4.2.2 Accelerations
4.2.2.1 General

The fuel tank and its accessories shall be mounted and protected so that the accelerations shown in Table 1

can be absorbed without structural damage to the fuel tank and its accessories. No uncontrolled release of

hydrogen is permitted.
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
Table 1 — Accelerations
Vehicle categories Accelerations
Vehicles of categories M and N
20 g in the direction of travel
1 1
8 g horizontally perpendicular to the direction of travel
Vehicles of categories M and N 10 g in the direction of travel
2 2
5 g horizontally perpendicular to the direction of travel
Vehicles of categories M and N 6,6 g in the direction of travel
3 3
10 g horizontally perpendicular to the direction of travel
The vehicle categories include the following:

⎯ Category M : Vehicles used for the transportation of passengers and comprising not more than eight seats in

addition to the driver’s seat.

⎯ Category M : Vehicles used for the transportation of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to

the driver’s seat, and having a maximum mass that does not exceed 5 000 kg.

⎯ Category M : Vehicles used for the transportation of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to

the driver’s seat, and having a maximum mass exceeding 5 000 kg.

⎯ Category N : Vehicles used for the transportation of goods and having a maximum mass that does not exceed

3 500 kg.

⎯ Category N : Vehicles used for the transportation of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 3 500 kg, but

not exceeding 12 000 kg.

⎯ Category N : Vehicles used for the transportation of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 12 000 kg.

4.2.2.2 Inner and outer support

When exposed to the accelerations described in Table 1, the stress in the support elements shall not exceed

50 % of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material (R , calculated according with the linear stress

model).

The allowable stress in the support elements may not have to be calculated if it can be demonstrated that the

fuel tank supports the accelerations given in Table 1 without any structural damage to the inner tank or its

supports.
4.3 Thermal stresses
4.3.1 Design temperature

The design temperature of the inner tank, the outer jacket and the accessories shall be 20 °C. In addition, the

inner tank, the outer jacket and the accessories shall be designed to withstand a temperature range from the

lowest to the highest possible operating temperatures that will be encountered in service.

4.3.2 Ambient temperature

The fuel tank shall be designed to withstand ambient temperatures ranging from −40 °C to 85 °C. If the fuel

tank is to be installed in areas of internal heat sources such as the internal combustion engine compartment of

a vehicle, the fuel tank shall be designed for an ambient temperature of 120 °C, or a lower value if

substantiated by calculations.
4.3.3 Operating temperature

The thermal stresses produced by the operating conditions shall be considered. The inner vessel and the

other components that may be in contact with liquid hydrogen shall be designed to operate at −253 °C.

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ISO 13985:2006(E)
4.4 Materials

The materials of the fuel tank and its accessories shall be compatible, as applicable, with:

a) hydrogen;

b) other media and fluids found in a land vehicle environment, such as coolants and battery acid.

NOTE Recommendations for lowering the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement are given in Annex B.

Materials used at low temperatures shall meet the toughness requirements of ISO 21028-1. For non-metallic

materials, low temperature suitability shall be validated by an experimental method, taking into account the

service conditions.

The materials used for the outer jacket shall ensure the integrity of the insulation system, and their elongation

at fracture, at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, shall be at least 12 %.

A corrosion allowance does not need to be added for the inner tank. A corrosion allowance does not need to

be added on other surfaces, if they are protected against corrosion.

For welded vessels, welds shall have properties equivalent to those specified for the parent material for all

temperatures that the material may encounter.
4.5 Design
4.5.1 Design validation

The design of the fuel tank shall be validated in accordance with the design options specified in 10.1 of

ISO 21029-1:2004.
4.5.2 Inner tank and outer jacket

Unless the design is validated as per option 10.1.3 of ISO 21029-1:2004, the design of the inner tank and the

outer jacket shall meet all the design rules specified in 10.3 of ISO 21029-1:2004. If the design is validated as

per option 10.1.3 of ISO 21029-1:2004, the exceptions specified in 10.1.3 of ISO 21029-1:2004 shall apply.

Unless indicated otherwise, the general tolerances of ISO 2768-1 shall apply.
4.6 Insulation
4.6.1 General requirements

The insulation system installed on a fuel tank shall meet the requirements of ISO 21014.

Except in the vicinity of the pressure relief valves, no ice shall form on the outer wall of the fuel tank under

normal operating conditions.

When exposed to fire as per 5.3, the thermal autonomy of the fuel tank, equipped with vacuum insulation and

fire protection measures (if present), shall be at least 5 min.

The insulation of the accessories shall prevent liquefaction of the air in contact with the outer surfaces, unless

a system is to be provided for collecting and vaporizing the liquefied air. If such a system is to be used, the

materials of accessories shall be compatible with an atmosphere enriched with oxygen according to

ISO 21010.
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
4.6.2 Getters/absorbents

Getters/absorbents reacting with hydrogen outgas and/or moisture and atmospheric gas contaminants may be

used for vacuum maintenance and assisting the insulation performance.
4.7 Accessories
4.7.1 General requirements

Accessories shall have a minimum working pressure equal to the MAWP of the inner tank.

No casting shall be used for any of the accessories.
4.7.2 Pressure relief valves for the inner tank

The inner tank shall be protected with a primary pressure relief valve that limits the pressure inside the inner

tank to not more than 121 % of the MAWP of the inner tank. This pressure relief valve shall be connected

directly to the highest part of the inner tank in its design position under normal operating conditions.

The inner tank shall also be protected by a secondary pressure relief valve that shall not operate below 110 %

of the set pressure of the primary pressure relief valve. The secondary pressure relief valve shall ensure that

the pressure in the inner tank does not, under any circumstances, exceed the permissible fault range of the

inner tank. For example, in the case of steel inner tanks, the maximum set pressure of the secondary pressure

relief valve shall be 136 % of the MAWP of the inner tank. For other materials, an equivalent level of safety

shall be applied based on the permissible fault range.

The inner tank pressure relief valves shall, after discharge, close at a pressure higher than 90 % of the set

pressure of the pressure relief valve and remain closed at all lower pressures.

The sizing of the inner tank pressure relief valves shall be done in accordance with ISO 21013-3.

The rating of the inner tank pressure relief valves shall be clearly marked. A lead seal or equivalent system

shall be installed on these pressure relief valves in order to provide a physical impediment to tampering.

4.7.3 Lines incorporating pressure relief valves

No isolating valve shall be installed between the inner tank and its pressure relief valves. The primary and the

secondary pressure relief valves of the inner tank may be connected to the inner tank by the same line.

The lines in front of and behind the pressure relief valves shall not impede their function.

4.7.4 Protection of the outer jacket

The outer jacket shall be protected by means of a pressure relief device preventing bursting of the outer jacket

or collapsing of the inner tank.
4.7.5 Automatic shut-off valves and non-return valves

The fuel tank shall be provided with shut-off valves for the purpose of securing the refuelling lines and the fuel

supply lines to the hydrogen conversion system(s).

All hydrogen fuel supply lines to the hydrogen conversion system(s), except the lines to the boil-off

management system, shall be secured with automatic shut-off valves. These valves shall be mounted directly

on or within the fuel tank.

The refuelling line shall be secured by either a manually or an automatically operated shut-off valve, which

shall always be closed except during the refuelling process. If the fuelling connector receptacle is not mounted

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ISO 13985:2006(E)

directly on the fuel tank, a second isolation valve shall be used. This valve may be a manual shut-off valve, an

automatic shut-off valve or a non-return valve. When two isolation valves are required, one shall be mounted

directly on or within the fuel tank.
The automatic shut-off valves shall close with loss of motive power.
4.7.6 Overfill protection gauge

The fuel tank shall be equipped with a measuring gauge that measures the level of liquid in the inner tank as it

approaches the maximum filling level with an accuracy of ± 2 % of the inner tank capacity.

4.7.7 Maximum filling level

A system shall be provided for preventing the fuel tank from being overfilled. This system may work in

conjunction with the refuelling station.

The filling process shall not cause any pressure relief valve to operate during the filling process. The filling

process shall not lead to operating conditions that the boil-off management system is not designed for, and

therefore cannot handle.

Under all circumstances and regardless of the fuel condition and the maximum operating pressure of the inner

tank, the filling volume of liquid hydrogen shall not exceed the maximum filling level of the inner tank specified

by the fuel tank manufacturer.
4.7.8 Pressure maintaining system

The fuel tank shall be equipped with a pressure maintaining system that is capable of maintaining the fuel tank

at its required operating pressure at the maximum product consumption and duration, as specified by the

manufacturer. Liquid air that may form during the pressure maintaining system operation shall be collected

and discharged to a safe location.
4.7.9 Inspection openings
Inspection openings shall not be provided on the inner tank or the outer jacket.
4.8 Manufacturing and assembly

The manufacturing of the fuel tank (e.g. forming, heat treatment, welding) shall be carried out according to

Clause 11 of ISO 21029-1:2004.

The number of joints on the fuel tank should be minimized. For metallic materials, joints within the annular

space between the inner tank and outer jacket shall be welded.

The accessories of the fuel tank shall be mounted in a way that the system and its components function

properly and are gas tight.
5 Type tests
5.1 Approval of new designs

Type tests shall be conducted on each new design, and on finished fuel tanks that are representative of

normal production, complete with identification marks. All fuel tanks subjected to burst pressure and thermal

autonomy tests shall be made unserviceable after the tests are completed.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 13985:2006(E)

The fuel tank manufacturer shall retain the type test results for the intended life of the fuel tank design. The

test data shall also document the dimensions, wall thickness and weight of each of the test fuel tanks. If more

fuel tanks are subjected to the tests than are required, all results shall be documented.

5.2 Inner tank burst pressure test

One sample of a finished inner tank shall be subjected to a burst pressure test in accordance with C.1 and

meet the requirements therein.
5.3 Thermal autonomy test

Two finished fuel tanks shall be subjected to a thermal autonomy test in accordance with C.2 and meet the

requirements therein.
5.4 Maximum filling level test

Two finished fuel tanks shall be subjected to a maximum filling level test in accordance with C.3 and meet the

requirements therein.
5.5 Accessory type tests

Each fuel tank accessory, with the exception of pressure relief valves (see 4.7.2) and cryogenic valves (see

4.7.5), shall be subjected to type tests according to Annex D.
6 Routine tests and inspection
6.1 General

The tests and inspections specified in 6.2 to 6.6 shall be performed on each fuel tank.

6.2 Pressure test

The inner tank and the pipework situated between the inner tank and the outer jacket shall be subjected to an

inner hydrostatic pressure test at room temperature with a suitable test media.
The test pressure shall be:
p = 1,3 (MAWP + 0,2)
test
where
p is the test pressure, expressed in megapascals (MPa);
test

MAWP is the maximum allowable working pressure of the inner tank, expressed in megapascals (MPa).

The pressure test shall be performed before the outer jacket is mounted. The pressure in the inner tank shall

be increased at an even rate until the test pressure is reached. The inner tank shall remain under the test

pressure without the addition of test media for at least 10 min to establish that the pressure is not decreasing.

After the test, the inner tank shall not show any signs of visible permanent deformation nor leaks. Inner tanks

that do not pass the test because of permanent deformation shall be rejected and shall not be repaired. Inner

tanks that do not pass the test because of leakage may be accepted after repair and retesting.

Upon completion of the test, the inner tank shall be emptied, cleaned, and dried according to ISO 23208.

A test report shall be drawn up and the inner tank shall be marked if accepted.
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ISO 13985:2006(E)
6.3 Leak test

After final assembly, the fuel tank shall be helium leak tested with a gas mixture containing a minimum of

10 % of helium using a mass spectrometer leak detector capable of detecting leaks ranging from

−9 3 −9 3

1 × 10 cm /s at 20 °C and 101,325 kPa to 10 × 10 cm /s at 20 °C and 101,325 kPa. There shall be no

detectable leak. The fuel tank accessories shall be leak tested in accordance with D.2, except that the test

shall be performed only at 20 °C ± 5 °C.
6.4 Verification of the dimensions
The following dimensions shall be verified:

a) for cylindrical fuel tanks, the roundness of the inner tank shall be measured and not exceed the

requirements specified in 11.5.4.2 of ISO 21029-1:2004;

b) departure from a straight line of the inner tank and outer jacket shall be measured and not exceed the

requirements specified in 11.5.4.3 of ISO 21029-1:2004.
6.5 Destructive and non-destructive tests of welded joints
The destructive and non-destructive tests
...

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