Hydrogen fuel quality -- Product specification

This document specifies the minimum quality characteristics of hydrogen fuel as distributed for utilization in vehicular and stationary applications. It is applicable to hydrogen fuelling applications, which are listed in Table 1.

Qualité du carburant hydrogène -- Spécification de produit

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2019
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
25-Feb-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14687
First edition
2019-11
Hydrogen fuel quality — Product
specification
Qualité du carburant hydrogène — Spécification de produit
Reference number
ISO 14687:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Classification and application ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Application ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Hydrogen quality requirements for PEM fuel cell road vehicle application ..........................................4

5.1 Fuel quality specification ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Analytical method ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Hydrogen quality control ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels, quality requirements for PEM fuel cell

stationary applications .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Fuel quality specification ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Quality verification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.2.2 Analytical requirements of the qualification tests .............................................................................. 7

6.2.3 Report results ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.1 Sample size ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Selection of the sampling point ........................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.3 Sampling procedure ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.4 Particulates in gaseous hydrogen ...................................................................................................................... 8

7 Hydrogen quality requirements for applications other than PEM fuel cell road

vehicle and stationary applications ................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.1 Fuel quality specification ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Quality verification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.1 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.2.2 Production qualification tests ...........................................................................................................................10

7.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 Sample size ........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Gaseous samples ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.3 Liquid samples (vaporized).................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Guidance on the selection of the boundary point for PEM fuel cell

stationary applications ...............................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Rationale for the selection of hydrogen impurities to be measured

for PEM fuel cell stationary applications .................................................................................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Pressure swing adsorption and applicability of CO as an indicator

for PEM fuel cell stationary applications .................................................................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 197, Hydrogen technologies.

This first edition of ISO 14687 cancels and replaces ISO 14687-1:1999, ISO 14687-2:2012 and

ISO 14687-3:2014. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigenda ISO 14687-1:1999/Cor 1:2001 and

ISO 14687-1:1999/Cor 2:2008.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Introduction

As mentioned in the Foreword, this document is a combination of three former standards for the

specifications of hydrogen fuel, ISO 14687-1, ISO 14687-2 and ISO 14687-3, incorporating their revisions

at the same time.

In recent years, PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell technologies have shown a remarkable

progress such as lowering of platinum (Pt)-loading, thinned electrolyte membrane, operation with

high current density and operation under low humidity. With this progress, it has become necessary to

reconsider the tolerances of hydrogen impurities for the PEM fuel cells which were previously specified

in ISO 14687-2 and ISO 14687-3.

Therefore, this document has been mainly revised based on the research and development of PEM fuel

[1], [3] to [15]
cells focusing on the following items :
— PEM fuel cell catalyst and fuel cell tolerance to hydrogen fuel impurities;
— effects/mechanisms of impurities on fuel cell power systems and components;

— impurity detection and measurement techniques for laboratory, production and in-field operations;

— fuel cell vehicle demonstration and stationary fuel cell demonstration results.

The grade D and the grade E of this document are intended to apply to PEM fuel cells for road vehicles

and stationary appliances respectively. These aim to facilitate the provision of hydrogen of reliable

quality balanced with acceptable lower cost for the hydrogen fuel supply.

This document reflects the state of the art at the date of its publication, but since the quality

requirements for hydrogen technology applications are developing rapidly, this document may need to

be further revised in the future according to technological progress.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14687:2019(E)
Hydrogen fuel quality — Product specification
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum quality characteristics of hydrogen fuel as distributed for

utilization in vehicular and stationary applications.
It is applicable to hydrogen fuelling applications, which are listed in Table 1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 19880-8, Gaseous Hydrogen — Fuelling stations — Part 8: Fuel Quality Control

ISO 21087, Gas analysis — Analytical methods for hydrogen fuel — Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

cell applications for road vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
boundary point

point between the hydrogen fuel supply equipment (3.13)

and the PEM fuel cell power system (3.9) at which the quality characteristics of the hydrogen fuel are to

be determined
3.2
constituent
component (or compound) found within a hydrogen fuel mixture
3.3
contaminant

impurity that adversely affects the components within the fuel cell system (3.8), the fuel cell power

system (3.9) or the hydrogen storage system
Note 1 to entry: An adverse effect can be reversible or irreversible.
3.4
customer

party responsible for sourcing hydrogen fuel in order

to operate the fuel cell power system (3.9)
3.5
detection limit

lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance with a

stated confidence limit
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
3.6
determination limit
lowest quantity which can be measured at a given acceptable level of uncertainty
3.7
fuel cell

electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant to electrical energy

(DC power), heat and other reaction products
3.8
fuel cell system

power system used for the generation of electricity on

a fuel cell vehicle

Note 1 to entry: The fuel cell system typically contains the following subsystems: fuel cell stack, air processing,

fuel processing, thermal management and water management.
3.9
fuel cell power system

self-contained fuel cell assembly used for the generation

of electricity which is fixed in a place in a specific location

Note 1 to entry: The fuel cell power system typically contains the following subsystems: fuel cell stack, air

processing, thermal management, water management and automatic control system. It is used in applications

such as: distributed power generation, back-up power generation, remote power generation, electricity and heat

co-generation for residential and commercial applications.

Note 2 to entry: For the purposes of the applications, the fuel cell power system does not contain a fuel processing

system due to the location of the boundary point (3.1).
3.10
gaseous hydrogen

hydrogen under gaseous form, purified to a minimum mole fraction as specified in tables in this

document
3.11
hydrogen-based fuel

gas containing a concentration of hydrogen as specified

in tables in this document used for PEM fuel cell for stationary applications
3.12
hydrogen fuel index
mole fraction of a fuel mixture that is hydrogen
3.13
hydrogen fuel supply equipment

equipment used for the transportation or on-site generation of hydrogen fuel, and subsequently for

the delivery to the fuel cell power system (3.9), including additional storage, vaporization and pressure

regulation as appropriate
3.14
irreversible effect

effect, which results in a permanent degradation of the fuel cell system (3.8) or the fuel cell power system

(3.9) performance that cannot be restored by practical changes of operational conditions and/or gas

composition
3.15
liquid hydrogen
hydrogen that has been liquefied, i.e. brought to a liquid state
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
3.16
particulate

solid or liquid such as oil mist that can be entrained somewhere in the production, delivery, storage or

transfer of the hydrogen fuel to a fuel cell system (3.8) or a fuel cell power system (3.9)

3.17
reversible effect

effect, which results in a temporary degradation of the fuel cell system (3.8) or the fuel cell power system

(3.9) performance that can be restored by practical changes of operational conditions and/or gas

composition
3.18
slush hydrogen

hydrogen that is a mixture of solid and liquid at the eutectic (triple-point) temperature

3.19
system integrator

integrator of equipment between the PEM fuel cell

power system (3.9) and the hydrogen supply
4 Classification and application
4.1 Classification

Hydrogen fuel shall be classified according to the following types and grade designations:

a) Type I (grades A, B, C, D and E): gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuel.
b) Type II (grades C and D): liquid hydrogen.
c) Type III: slush hydrogen.
4.2 Application

Table 1 characterizes representative applications of each type and grade of hydrogen fuel.

Table 1 — Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuel classification by application
Type Grade Category Applications Clause
Gaseous hydrogen; internal combustion engines for
A ― transportation; residential/commercial combustion 7
appliances (e.g. boilers, cookers and similar applications)
Gaseous hydrogen; industrial fuel for power generation and
B ― 7
heat generation except PEM fuel cell applications
Gaseous hydrogen; aircraft and space-vehicle ground
C ― 7
support systems except PEM fuel cell applications
Gas
a,b
D ― Gaseous hydrogen; PEM fuel cells for road vehicles 5
PEM fuel cells for stationary appliances 6
1 Hydrogen-based fuel; high efficiency/low power applications
2 Hydrogen-based fuel; high power applications
3 Gaseous hydrogen; high power/high efficiency applications

Grade D may be used for other fuel cell applications for transportation including forklifts and other industrial trucks if

agreed upon between supplier and customer.

Grade D may be used for PEM fuel cell stationary appliances alternative to grade E category 3.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Type Grade Category Applications Clause
Aircraft and space-vehicle on-board propulsion and
C ― 7
electrical energy requirements; off-road vehicles
Liquid
a,b
D ― PEM fuel cells for road vehicles 5
III Aircraft and space-vehicle on-board propulsion
― ― 7
Slush

Grade D may be used for other fuel cell applications for transportation including forklifts and other industrial trucks if

agreed upon between supplier and customer.

Grade D may be used for PEM fuel cell stationary appliances alternative to grade E category 3.

NOTE Biological sources of hydrogen can contain additional constituents (e.g. siloxanes or mercury) that can

affect the performance of the various applications, particularly PEM fuel cells. However, these are not included in

most of the following specifications due to insufficient information.
5 Hydrogen quality requirements for PEM fuel cell road vehicle application
5.1 Fuel quality specification

The quality of hydrogen at dispenser nozzle for grade D hydrogen (see Table 1) shall meet the

requirements of Table 2. The fuel specifications are not process-dependent or feed-stock-specific. Non-

listed contaminants have no guarantee of being benign.

NOTE ISO 19880-8:2019, Annex A provides the rationale for the selection of the impurities specified in

Table 2.
Table 2 — Fuel quality specification for PEM fuel cell road vehicle application
Type I, Type II
Constituents
(assay)
grade D
Hydrogen fuel index (minimum mole fraction) 99,97 %
Total non-hydrogen gases (maximum) 300 μmol/mol
Maximum concentration of individual contaminants
Water (H O) 5 μmol/mol
Total hydrocarbons except methane 2 μmol/mol
(C1 equivalent)
Methane (CH ) 100 μmol/mol
Oxygen (O ) 5 μmol/mol
Helium (He) 300 μmol/mol

For the constituents that are additive, such as total hydrocarbons and total sulphur compounds, the sum of the

constituents shall be less than or equal to the acceptable limit.

The hydrogen fuel index is determined by subtracting the "total non-hydrogen gases" in this table, expressed in mole

percent, from 100 mole percent.

Total hydrocarbons except methane include oxygenated organic species. Total hydrocarbons except methane shall be

measured on a C1 equivalent (μmol/mol).
The sum of measured CO, HCHO and HCOOH shall not exceed 0,2 μmol/mol.

As a minimum, total sulphur compounds include H S, COS, CS and mercaptans, which are typically found in natural gas.

2 2

All halogenated compounds which could potentially be in the hydrogen gas [for example, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and

organic chlorides (R-Cl)] should be determined by the hydrogen quality control plan discussed in ISO 19880-8. Halogenated

compounds shall be measured on a halogen ion equivalent (μmol/mol).

Particulate includes solid and liquid particulates comprises of oil mist. Large particulates can cause issues with vehicle

components and should be limited by using filter as specified in ISO 19880-1. No visible oil shall be found in fuel at a nozzle.

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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Type I, Type II
Constituents
(assay)
grade D
Nitrogen (N ) 300 μmol/mol
Argon (Ar) 300 μmol/mol
Carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 μmol/mol
Carbon monoxide (CO) 0,2 μmol/mol
Total sulphur compounds 0,004 μmol/mol
(S1 equivalent)
Formaldehyde (HCHO) 0,2 μmol/mol
Formic acid (HCOOH) 0,2 μmol/mol
Ammonia (NH ) 0,1 μmol/mol
Halogenated compounds 0,05 μmol/mol
(Halogen ion equivalent)
Maximum particulate concentration 1 mg/kg

For the constituents that are additive, such as total hydrocarbons and total sulphur compounds, the sum of the

constituents shall be less than or equal to the acceptable limit.

The hydrogen fuel index is determined by subtracting the "total non-hydrogen gases" in this table, expressed in mole

percent, from 100 mole percent.

Total hydrocarbons except methane include oxygenated organic species. Total hydrocarbons except methane shall be

measured on a C1 equivalent (μmol/mol).
The sum of measured CO, HCHO and HCOOH shall not exceed 0,2 μmol/mol.

As a minimum, total sulphur compounds include H S, COS, CS and mercaptans, which are typically found in natural gas.

2 2

All halogenated compounds which could potentially be in the hydrogen gas [for example, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and

organic chlorides (R-Cl)] should be determined by the hydrogen quality control plan discussed in ISO 19880-8. Halogenated

compounds shall be measured on a halogen ion equivalent (μmol/mol).

Particulate includes solid and liquid particulates comprises of oil mist. Large particulates can cause issues with vehicle

components and should be limited by using filter as specified in ISO 19880-1. No visible oil shall be found in fuel at a nozzle.

5.2 Analytical method

The analytical methods for measuring constituents in Table 2 shall meet the requirements of ISO 21087.

5.3 Sampling

Guidance on hydrogen sampling methods for gaseous hydrogen fuelling stations is available in

ISO 19880-1.
5.4 Hydrogen quality control

The means of assuring that the hydrogen quality meets the specification in 5.1 shall be based upon

ISO 19880-8.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
6 Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels, quality requirements for PEM fuel cell
stationary applications
6.1 Fuel quality specification

The quality of hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels, supplied to stationary PEM fuel cell appliances,

shall meet the requirements of Table 3 at the boundary point set between the hydrogen fuel supply

equipment and the PEM fuel cell power system.
NOTE 1 Annex A provides guidance for the selection of the boundary point.

NOTE 2 Annex B provides the rationale for the selection of the impurities specified in Table 3.

Type I, grade E hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels, for PEM fuel cell applications for stationary

appliances, specify the following subcategories in order to meet the needs of different stationary

applications, depending on the requirements specified by the manufacturer:

— Type I, grade E, category 1 (hydrogen-based fuel; high efficiency/low power applications).

— Type I, grade E, category 2 (hydrogen-based fuel; high power applications).

— Type I, grade E, category 3 (gaseous hydrogen; high power/high efficiency applications).

Table 3 — Fuel quality specification for PEM fuel cell stationary applications
Constituents Type I, grade E
(assay) Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
Hydrogen fuel index
50 % 50 % 99,9 %
(minimum mole fraction)
Total non-hydrogen gases
50 % 50 % 0,1 %
(maximum mole fraction)
Non-condensing at any Non-condensing at any Non-condensing at any
Water (H O)
ambient conditions ambient conditions ambient conditions
Maximum concentration of individual contaminants
Total hydrocarbons except
methane
10 μmol/mol 2 μmol/mol 2 μmol/mol
(C equivalent)
Methane (CH ) 5 % 1 % 100 μmol/mol
Oxygen (O ) 200 μmol/mol 200 μmol/mol 50 μmol/mol
Sum of nitrogen (N ),
argon (Ar) and helium (He) 50 % 50 % 0,1 %
(mole fraction)

For the constituents that are additive, such as total hydrocarbons and total sulphur compounds, the sum of the

constituents shall be less than or equal to the acceptable limit.

The hydrogen fuel index is determined by subtracting the "total non-hydrogen gases" in this table, expressed in mole

percent, from 100 mole percent.

Each site shall be evaluated to determine the appropriate maximum water content based on the lowest expected

ambient temperature and the highest expected storage pressure.

The maximum concentration of impurities against the total gas content shall be determined on a dry basis.

Total hydrocarbons except methane include oxygenated organic species. Total hydrocarbons except methane shall be

measured on a C1 equivalent (μmolC/mol).
The sum of measured CO, HCHO and HCOOH shall not exceed 0,2 μmol/mol.

As a minimum, total sulphur compounds include H S, COS, CS and mercaptans, which are typically found in natural gas.

2 2

Halogenated compounds includes, for example, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and organic chlorides (R-Cl). Halogenated

compounds shall be measured on a halogen ion equivalent (μmol/mol).
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14687:2019(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Constituents Type I, grade E
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
(assay)
Included in total non-hy- Included in total non-hy-
Carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 μmol/mol
drogen gases drogen gases
Carbon monoxide (CO) 10 μmol/mol 10 μmol/mol 0,2 μmol/mol
Total sulphur compounds
0,004 μmol/mol 0,004 μmol/mol 0,004 μmol/mol
(S1 equivalent)
Formaldehyde (HCHO) 3,0 μmol/mol 0,2 μmol/mol 0,2 μmol/mol
Formic acid (HCOOH) 10 μmol/mol 0,2 μmol/mol 0,2 μmol/mol
Ammonia (NH ) 0,1 μmol/mol 0,1 μmol/mol 0,1 μmol/mol
Halogenated compounds
0,05 μmol/mol 0,05 μmol/mol 0,05 μmol/mol
(halogen ion equivalent)
Maximum particulate
1 mg/kg 1 mg/kg 1 mg/kg
concentration
Maximum particle diameter 75 μm 75 μm 75 μm

For the constituents that are additive, such as total hydrocarbons and total sulphur compounds, the sum of the

constituents shall be less than or equal to the acceptable limit.

The hydrogen fuel index is determined by subtracting the "total non-hydrogen gases" in this table, expressed in mole

percent, from 100 mole percent.

Each site shall be evaluated to determine the appropriate maximum water content based on the lowest expected

ambient temperature and the highest expected storage pressure.

The maximum concentration of impurities against the total gas content shall be determined on a dry basis.

Total hydrocarbons except methane include oxygenated organic species. Total hydrocarbons except methane shall be

measured on a C1 equivalent (μmolC/mol).
The sum of measured
...

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