Space systems — Mass properties control

This document describes a process for managing, controlling and monitoring the mass properties of space systems. The relationship between this management plan and the performance parameters for mass properties to be met throughout the mission is described. Ground handling, dynamics analysis and test set-ups that rely on accurate mass properties inputs are identified. This document covers all programme phases from pre-proposal through to end of life.

Systèmes spatiaux — Contrôle des propriétés de masse

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Nov-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
01-Sep-2022
Completion Date
16-Nov-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22010
Second edition
2022-11
Space systems — Mass properties
control
Systèmes spatiaux — Contrôle des propriétés de masse
Reference number
ISO 22010:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Mass properties control plan ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Control process ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Basis of the process .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Requirements definition ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.3 Mass reduction plan ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.4 Mass properties control board (MPCB) ......................................................................................................... 4

5.2.5 Mass allocation and trend analysis .................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.6 Mass properties monitoring .................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.7 Subcontractor mass properties control ......................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3.2 Control plan ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3.3 Report plan .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.3.4 Analysis plan .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3.5 Verification plan ................................... ........................................................................................................ ....................... 6

5.3.6 Status reports ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.7 Trend analysis reports .................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.4 Analysis ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4.2 Flight hardware analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4.3 Ground handling ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4.4 Special analysis ........................................................................................................................................... ......................... 8

5.4.5 Verification .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) Mass growth guidelines ...................................................................................................................................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 22010:2007), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— the reference to ANSI/AIAA S-120-2015 has been changed to ANSI/AIAA S-120-2015 (2019);

— the reference to "SAWE Recommended Practice Number A-3 (RP-A-3), Mass Properties Control for

Space Systems" has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
Introduction

This document establishes the minimum requirements for providing adequate control of the mass

properties of space systems to meet mission requirements. In addition, many recommended practices

that add value to the mass properties monitoring tasks are presented. Throughout this document, the

minimum essential criteria are identified by the use of the key word “shall.” Recommended criteria are

identified by the use of the key word “should,” and while not mandatory, are considered to be of primary

importance in providing timely and accurate mass properties support for contracts. It is advisable

that deviations from the recommended criteria only occur after careful consideration and thorough

evaluation have shown alternative methods to be satisfactory.
The requirements can be tailored for each specific space programme application.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22010:2022(E)
Space systems — Mass properties control
1 Scope

This document describes a process for managing, controlling and monitoring the mass properties of

space systems. The relationship between this management plan and the performance parameters for

mass properties to be met throughout the mission is described. Ground handling, dynamics analysis

and test set-ups that rely on accurate mass properties inputs are identified. This document covers all

programme phases from pre-proposal through to end of life.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 22108, Space systems — Non-flight items in flight hardware — Identification and control

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
basic mass

best engineering estimate based on an assessment of the most recent baseline design, excluding mass

growth allowance (3.8)
3.2
calculated properties

mass properties (3.9) determined from released drawings or controlled computer models

3.3
contractor limit

predicted mass (3.13) plus a contractor margin (3.4) to allow for uncertainties during the design cycle

3.4
contractor margin
system margin
difference between the contractor limit (3.3) and the predicted mass (3.13)
3.5
customer reserve
allowance defined by the customer according to the agreements of the contract
3.6
estimated properties

mass properties (3.9) determined from preliminary data, such as sketches or calculations from layout

drawings
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
3.7
mass control parameters

factors used as an indicator of the basic mass (3.1), predicted mass (3.13) and margins/limits for a space

system (3.14)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
3.8
mass growth allowance

predicted change to the basic mass (3.1) of an item, based on an assessment of the design and fabrication

status of the item and an estimate of the in-scope design changes that may still occur

Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
Note 2 to entry: This mass growth allowance is not intended to be a tolerance.

Note 3 to entry: Figure 1 is an illustration of related terms commonly used in reporting mass properties (3.9)

during the development of space systems (3.14) hardware.
Key
X time 6 mass growth allowance
Y mass 7 basic mass
1 mission limit 8 authorization to proceed
2 contractor limit 9 preliminary design review
3 customer reserve 10 critical design review
4 contractor margin/system margin 11 actual mass
5 predicted mass 12 system delivery
Figure 1 — Mass control parameters
3.9
mass properties
mass, centre of gravity, moments of inertia, and products of inertia
3.10
mass properties categories
criteria used to indicate the confidence in or maturity of the design
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ISO 22010:2022(E)
3.11
measured properties

mass properties (3.9) determined by measurement or by comparison of nearly identical components, for

which measured mass properties are available
3.12
mission limit
maximum mass that can satisfy all of the mission performance requirements
3.13
predicted mass

sum of the basic mass (3.1) and the mass growth allowance (3.8), intended to estimate the final mass at

system delivery
3.14
space system
system that contains at least a space, a ground or a launch segment

Note 1 to entry: This document addresses only flight systems: launch vehicles, satellites, space vehicles, or

components thereof.
4 Abbreviated terms
ACS attitude control system
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ATP authorization to proceed
GSE ground support equipment
MPCB mass properties control board
NTE not to exceed
TPM technical performance measurement
5 Mass properties control plan
5.1 General
A mass properties control plan shall be documented.

A mass properties control plan shall be based on the critical parameters that need to be controlled. In

some cases, that may only be mass. In the extreme, a spin-stabilized space system may have a set of

requirements that warrants control of all the mass properties, including final measurements of mass,

centre of mass, and moments and products of inertia. The depth and detail of analysis, reporting and

testing shall reflect the critical parameters.
5.2 Control process
5.2.1 Basis of the process

The mass properties control process shall be started in the pre-proposal or conceptual design phases,

where an initial mass budget is established. A proposal team may be established so as to guide

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ISO 22010:2022(E)

subsystem and component mass allocations and the launch vehicle selection process, if applicable. This

team should be supported by other members who have experience in the allocation process.

NOTE Space system mass is a prime concern. Without early mass properties control, there is a significant

risk of performance, schedule, and/or cost problems later in the programme.

The control process after authorization to proceed (ATP) may include one or more of the following

elements:

a) understanding of the flow-down of requirements that affect mass properties analysis and test

plans;
b) a mass reduction plan;
c) implementation of a mass properties control board (MPCB);
d) mass allocation and trend analysis;
e) mass properties monitoring;
f) subcontractor mass control.

Application of some of the more stringent elements listed above is contingent on available mass and

stability margins, cost considerations and the planned verification (measurement versus analysis)

schema. The various elements and their applicability are discussed in 5.2.2 to 5.2.7.

5.2.2 Requirements definition

There shall be a review of all requirements that affect mass properties including, but not limited to,

the contractual, attitude control, mission and ground handling requirements. Different space system

designs have different mass properties requirements.

EXAMPLE A space system that is spin-stabilized throughout its mission requires a finer balance than one

that is three-axis-stabilized.
5.2.3 Mass reduction plan

After establishing a credible mass summary during the proposal phase, a database shall be used with

the tools necessary to develop a predicted mass for the space system at delivery. A contractor or system

mass margin against the contractor limit shall be determined. If the mass margin is not sufficient, a

rigorous mass reduction programme should be initiated. In this case, the programme office should fully

support the effort.

Mass reduction is generally a costly undertaking, therefore it is advisable that programme offices

allocate a sufficient budget to accomplish the goal. A historical database of previous weight reduction

ideas is advisable.
5.2.4 Mass properties control board (MPCB)

In conjunction with a mass reduction plan, an MPCB may be convened to audit the mass properties

database, critically review designs for optimum mass, and perform cost/mass trades as well as review

margins. The MPCB should have a programme office and systems engineering representation. Some of

the MPCB members should also have experience with this process. The MPCB should have the authority

to direct design changes that reduce mass, within the considerations of cost, schedule and technical

performance. MPCB members should attend all design reviews to ensure that mass optimisation is

...

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