Information technology -- Learning, education and training -- Metadata for learning resources

This document provides RDF mappings of the different MLR entities introduced in the MLR framework (ISO/IEC 19788‑1 and its amendment): data element specifications (DESs), resource classes (RCs), data elements (DEs), application profiles (APs), MLR records and data element group specifications (DEGSs). This document associates HTTP IRIs (linguistically neutral and linguistic) to conceptual MLR entities denoted by MLR identifiers. This is needed for the management of MLR entities and their versions. Moreover, this document provides excerpts of an OWL 2 DL ontology for the resource classes and data element specifications (properties) introduced in the ISO/IEC 19788 series.

Technologies de l'information -- Apprentissage, éducation et formation -- Métadonnées pour ressources d'apprentissage

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 19788-7
First edition
2019-04
Information technology — Learning,
education and training — Metadata
for learning resources —
Part 7:
Bindings
Technologies de l'information — Apprentissage, éducation et
formation — Métadonnées pour ressources d'apprentissage —
Partie 7: Liaisons
Reference number
ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
ISO/IEC 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 IRIs/URIs for ISO/IEC 19788 entities.............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.1 MLR identifiers ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 RFC 5141-based identifier for ISO/IEC 19788 standard identifiers ........................................................ 8

5.3 HTTP URIs for MLR entities ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Non-linguistic persistent canonical HTTP URIs for MLR entities ............................................................10

5.4.1 MLR entities other than vocabulary terms ............................................................................................10

5.4.2 MLR vocabulary terms .............................................................................................................................................11

5.4.3 Prefixes for MLR entities non-linguistic persistent canonical HTTP URIs ..................11

5.5 Linguistic persistent canonical HTTP URIs for MLR entities .......................................................................11

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Linguistic identifier for DESs .............................................................................................................................12

5.5.3 Linguistic identifier for RCs .................................................................................................................................15

5.5.4 Linguistic identifier for vocabularies ..........................................................................................................16

5.5.5 Linguistic identifier for vocabulary terms ..............................................................................................16

5.5.6 Linguistic identifier for PRSs ..............................................................................................................................17

5.5.7 Linguistic identifier for DEGSs ..........................................................................................................................17

5.5.8 Linguistic identifier for APs .................................................................................................................................18

6 Data elements: From MLR to RDF ....................................................................................................................................................18

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.1.1 Data elements ..................................................................................................................................................................18

6.1.2 From MLR to RDF: At a glance ...........................................................................................................................20

6.1.3 Mapping of MLR literal content........................................................................................................................20

6.1.4 Prefixes ..................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.2 Data element with literal content ........................................................................................................................................21

6.2.1 Literal content data elements ............................................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Linguistic MLR data element ..............................................................................................................................21

6.2.3 Non-linguistic data element ................................................................................................................................23

6.3 Data element with non-literal content ............................................................................................................................25

6.3.1 Non-literal content data elements .................................................................................................................25

6.3.2 MLR data element ........................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.3 RDF 1.1 data model ....................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.4 Serialization using Turtle 1.1 concrete syntax ....................................................................................26

7 OWL ontology for the ISO/IEC 19788 series .........................................................................................................................27

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 OWL 2 DL ontology for the MLR: MLROnt ...................................................................................................................27

7.2.1 MLROnt ontology expressed using the Manchester syntax .....................................................27

7.2.2 Rendering of the MLROnt ontology ..............................................................................................................31

7.2.3 MLROnt class diagram .............................................................................................................................................35

7.3 Localized versions of the MLROnt ontology ...............................................................................................................36

7.3.1 English localized version of the MLR ontology ...................................................................................36

7.3.2 French localized version of the MLR ontology ....................................................................................38

8 MLR record ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................40

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................40

8.2 RDF dataset encoding of an MLR record .......................................................................................................................40

8.3 Example: An MLR record and its TriG serialization .............................................................................................41

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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)

8.4 Application profile record ..........................................................................................................................................................47

9 MLR vocabularies — SKOS .......................................................................................................................................................................49

9.1 MLR vocabularies ..............................................................................................................................................................................49

9.2 SKOS binding ..........................................................................................................................................................................................50

9.2.1 IRIs for vocabularies ..................................................................................................................................................50

9.2.2 IRIs for concepts in a vocabulary ....................................................................................................................50

9.3 From MLR vocabularies to SKOS ..........................................................................................................................................51

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.3.2 Example: The MLR vocabulary “ISO _IEC _19788 -5:2012: V0200” (A udience

role) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.4 Extension of an MLR vocabulary ..........................................................................................................................................54

9.5 MLR vocabulary dataset...............................................................................................................................................................55

9.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................55

9.5.2 TriG representation of the MLR vocabulary dataset ......................................................................56

Annex A (informative) Globally unique identifiers for resources .......................................................................................58

Annex B (normative) Canonical MLR identifiers ..................................................................................................................................60

Annex C (informative) Description of a learning resource: An example ......................................................................67

Annex D (informative) MLR identifiers and the Web architecture.....................................................................................87

Annex E (informative) Bounded description of a learning resource ...............................................................................91

Annex F (informative) Examples of SPARQL requests against the MLR vocabulary dataset ...................93

Annex G (informative) Interrelations of MLR with other metadata standards and within

MLR itself ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................105

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................111

iv © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see http: //patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 19788 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
Introduction

The primary purpose of the ISO/IEC 19788 series is to facilitate: (1) the description of a learning

resource by providing a standards-based approach to the identification and specification of the

metadata elements required to describe a learning resource, e.g. as a metadata learning resource (MLR)

record; and (2) the search, discovery, acquisition, evaluation, and use of learning resources, for instance

by learners, instructors or automated software processes.

The ISO/IEC 19788 series is modularly structured with all subsequent parts corresponding to a

specified set of user requirements for the identification and specification of metadata elements having

a particular focus and intended use in the description of a learning resource. This includes categories of

metadata elements focused on technical perspectives, pedagogical aspects, availability and intellectual

property aspects, bindings, etc.

This document maps the different ISO/IEC 19788-1 constructs to machine readable/understandable

entities. This document also proposes global (non-linguistic) identifiers for MLR entities and localized

(linguistic) identifiers for the same MLR entities.

The primary purpose of the ISO/IEC 19788 series is to specify elements and their attributes for the

description of learning resources. This includes the rules governing the identification of data elements

and the specification of their attributes.

The ISO/IEC 19788 series provides data elements for the description of learning resources and

resources directly related to learning resources.

The ISO/IEC 19788 series provides principles, rules and structures for the specification of the

description of a learning resource; it identifies and specifies the attributes of a data element as well

as the rules governing their use. The key principles stated in ISO/IEC 19788-1 are informed by a

user requirements-driven context with the aim of supporting multilingual and cultural adaptability

requirements from a global perspective.

ISO/IEC 19788-1 is information technology neutral and defines a set of common approaches, i.e.

methodologies and constructs, which apply to the development of the subsequent parts of the ISO/

IEC 19788 series.
vi © ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
Information technology — Learning, education and
training — Metadata for learning resources —
Part 7:
Bindings

IMPORTANT — All links that are in regular font and blue/underlined are true links. Any other

links (especially in courier font) should not be considered functional.
1 Scope

This document provides RDF mappings of the different MLR entities introduced in the MLR framework

(ISO/IEC 19788-1 and its amendment): data element specifications (DESs), resource classes (RCs), data

elements (DEs), application profiles (APs), MLR records and data element group specifications (DEGSs).

This document associates HTTP IRIs (linguistically neutral and linguistic) to conceptual MLR entities

denoted by MLR identifiers. This is needed for the management of MLR entities and their versions.

Moreover, this document provides excerpts of an OWL 2 DL ontology for the resource classes and data

element specifications (properties) introduced in the ISO/IEC 19788 series.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 639-2, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code

ISO 639-3, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive

coverage of languages

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1:

Country codes

ISO 15924, Information and documentation — Codes for the representation of names of scripts

ISO/IEC 11404, , Information technology — General-Purpose Datatypes (GPD)

ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for

learning resources — Part 1: Framework

ISO/IEC 19788-1:2011/Amd 1:2014, Information technology — Learning, education and training —

Metadata for learning resources — Part 1: Framework/Amendment 1

1) The name and contact information of the Registration Authority for this ISO 639-3 can be found at http: //www

.iso .org/mara.

2) Alpha-2 codes available at http: //www .iso .org/iso/country_codes/iso _3166 _code _lists/country _names _and

_code _elements .htm.
3) Codes available at http: //www .unicode .org/iso15924/codelists .html.

4) Freely available at http: //standards .iso .org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index .html.

5) Freely available at http: //standards .iso .org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index .html.

© ISO/IEC 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)

ISO/IEC 19788-2, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for learning

resources — Part 2: Dublin Core elements

ISO/IEC 19788-2:2011/Amd 1:2016, Information technology — Learning, education and training —

Metadata for learning resources — Part 2: Dublin Core elements/Amendment 1: Non-literal content value

data elements

ISO/IEC 19788-5:2012, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for

learning resources — Part 5: Educational elements

ISO/IEC 19788-8:2015, Information technology — Learning, education and training — Metadata for

learning resources — Part 8: Data elements for MLR records
IETF BCP 47: 2009, Tags for Identifying Languages
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 19788-1 and ISO/

IEC 19788-1:2011/Amd 1:2014 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
conceptual

the qualified entity captures the “essence” of an MLR entity defined in an ISO/IEC 19788

part and further versioned in later parts of ISO/IEC 19788 (e.g. in later editions, amendments or

corrigenda)
EXAMPLE 1 Conceptual DES.
EXAMPLE 2 Conceptual RC.
EXAMPLE 3 Conceptual vocabulary.
EXAMPLE 4 Conceptual vocabulary term.

Note 1 to entry: MLR entities are identified with MLR identifiers, and conceptual MLR entities are identified with

canonical MLR identifiers.
3.2
blank node
element from a blank node set (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: In an RDF graph (3.14) a blank node indicates the existence of a thing, without using an IRI (3.8)

or a literal (3.10) to denote it. A blank node may be thought of as referring to an anonymous resource.

Note 2 to entry: In concrete RDF syntaxes, when identified, blank node identifiers are locally scoped to their

container and are NOT persistent.

Note 3 to entry: The MLR standard does not use blank nodes. Each blank node is replaced by a globally unique IRI

(a Skolem IRI).

Note 4 to entry: In Turtle, a concrete syntax for RDF, blank nodes in triples are expressed as _: followed by a blank

node label (e.g. _:alice, _:0-34-abc).
6) See http://t ools.ietf .org/html/bcp47.
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)
3.3
blank node set

infinite set disjoint from the set of all IRIs (3.8) and the set of all literals (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Any blank node set, the set of all IRIs and the set of all literals are pairwise disjoint.

Note 2 to entry: No other conditions are imposed on a blank node set than being disjoint from IRIs and literals.

3.4
content negotiation

practice of providing multiple representations (3.20) available via the same URI

Note 1 to entry: Which representation is served depends on negotiation between the requesting agent and the

agent serving the representations.

[SOURCE: Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. W3C Recommendation. Available from:

http: //www .w3 .org/TR/2004/REC -webarch -20041215/]
3.5
graph store
mutable container of RDF graphs (3.14) managed by a single service

Note 1 to entry: Graph stores are similar to RDF datasets (3.12), but unlike an RDF dataset, named graphs can be

added to or deleted from a graph store.
Note 2 to entry: A graph store can be viewed as a mutable RDF dataset.

[SOURCE: SPARQL 1.1 Update — W3C Recommendation 21 March 2013, Section 2. Available from: http:

//www .w3 .org/TR/2013/REC -sparql11 -update -20130321/]
3.6
information resource

resource which has the property that all of its essential characteristics can be

conveyed in a message

EXAMPLE The information content of the book “Turtle, Termites, and Traffic Jams” by Mitchel Resnick (ISBN

0-262-18162-2) is an information resource. However, the physical object “Turtle, Termites, and Traffic Jams” book

owned by Gilles Gauthier is not an information resource.

[SOURCE: Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. W3C Recommendation. Available from:

http: //www .w3 .org/TR/2004/REC -webarch -20041215/]
3.7
Internationalized Resource Identifier
IRI
sequence of characters that conforms to the syntax defined in RFC 3987

Note 1 to entry: IRIs may be written on paper, read aloud, stored or transmitted digitally. The same IRI may be

represented in many different ways.
3.8
Internationalized Resource Identifier
IRI

Unicode/ISO/IEC 10646 string that conforms to the syntax defined in RFC 3987

Note 1 to entry: IRIs in the RDF abstract syntax MUST be absolute and MAY contain a fragment identifier.

Note 2 to entry: When IRIs are used in operations that are only defined for URIs, they must first be converted

according to the mapping defined in section 3.1 of RFC 3987. A notable example is retrieval over the HTTP

protocol. The mapping involves UTF-8 encoding of non-ASCII characters, %-encoding of octets not allowed in

URIs, and Punycode-encoding of domain names.
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ISO/IEC 19788-7:2019(E)

[SOURCE: RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax — W3C Recommendation 25 February 2014, Section

3.2. Available from: http: //www .w3 .org/TR/2014/REC -rdf11 -concepts -20140225/]

3.9
language-tagged string
literal (3.10) for which the third component is present

Note 1 to entry: Most concrete RDF syntaxes represent language-tagged strings without the datatype IRI because

it always equals http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#langString.
3.10
literal
entity comprising two or three elements:
— a lexical form, being a Unicode string, which should be in Normal Form C,

— a datatype IRI, being an IRI (3.8) identifying a datatype that determines how the lexical form maps

to a literal value, and
— if and only if the datatype IRI is http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-

ns#langString, a non-empty language tag as defined by BCP 47. The language tag MUST be well-

formed according to section 2.2.9 of BCP 47

[SOURCE: RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax — W3C Recommendation 25 February 2014, Section

3.3. Available from: http: //www .w3 .org/TR/2014/REC -rdf11 -concepts -20140225/]

3.11
media type

metadata for a representation (3.20), as per IETF RFC 6838, that provides format specification and

preferred interpretation for the representation

EXAMPLE image/jpeg, image/svg+xml, text/plain, text/html, text/turtle, video/H264, application/

xhtml+xml, application/trig, application/ld+json, application/json, application/rdf_xml.

Note 1 to entry: Media types, also called Internet media types, were previously called MIME types when used

essentially for email sent through the SMTP protocol.

Note 2 to entry: Registry of Internet media type is available online at http: //www .iana .org/assignments/media

-types.
3.12
RDF dataset
collection of RDF graphs comprising of
— exactly one default graph, being an RDF graph (3.14), and
— zero or more named graphs
Note 1 to entry: The default graph does not have a name and MAY be empty.

Note 2 to entry: Each named graph is a pair consisting of an IRI (3.8) or a blank node (3.2) (the graph name), and

an RDF graph. Graph names are unique within an RDF dataset.
Note 3 to entry: Blank nodes can be shared between graphs in an RDF dataset.

Note 4 to entry: RDF datasets are non-mutable (immutable): adding or removing RDF triples or RDF graphs from

an RDF dataset yields a different RDF dataset.

Note 5 to entry: Despite the use of the word “name” in “named graph”, the graph name is not required to denote

the graph. It is merely syntactically paired with the graph. RDF does not place any formal restrictions on what

resource the graph name may denote, nor on the relationship between that resource and the graph.

[SOURCE: Adapted from RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax — W3C Recommendation 25 February

2014, Section 4. Available from: http: //www .w3 .org/TR/2014/REC -rdf11 -concepts -20140225/]

4 © ISO/IEC
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