Heat recovery ventilators and energy recovery ventilators — Method of test for performance — Part 1: Development of metrics for evaluation of energy related performance

This document specifies a method of testing the ventilation and energy related performance of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) that do not contain any supplemental heating (except for defrost), cooling, humidification, or dehumidification components. Exchanger types of HRVs and ERVs are a) fixed-plate exchangers (also known as recuperators), b) rotary exchangers, including heat wheels and total energy wheels (also known as regenerators), and c) heat pipe exchangers using a heat transfer medium, excluding those using mechanical pumping, This document does not provide a method for measuring the response of exchangers to the formation of frost.

Ventilateurs-récupérateurs de chaleur et ventilateurs-récupérateurs d'énergie — Méthode d'essai des performances — Partie 1: Développement de paramètres pour l'évaluation des performances énergétiques

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
29-Apr-2022
Completion Date
16-Jun-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16494-1
First edition
2022-06
Heat recovery ventilators and energy
recovery ventilators — Method of test
for performance —
Part 1:
Development of metrics for evaluation
of energy related performance
Ventilateurs-récupérateurs de chaleur et ventilateurs-récupérateurs
d'énergie — Méthode d'essai des performances —
Partie 1: Développement de paramètres pour l'évaluation des
performances énergétiques
Reference number
ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................................................................................6

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Subscripts ...................................................................... .............................................................................................................................. 7

5 General test requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Test apparatus......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Installation ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Static pressure ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Temperature ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Concentration .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.6 Power input................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.7 Instrument calibration .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Airflow tests .............................................................................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 General conditions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.1.2 Temperature conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.3 Speed control settings ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.4 Unit operating voltage and frequency ............................................................................................................. 9

6.2 Ducted heat recovery ventilators and energy recovery ventilators ....................................................... 9

6.2.1 Airflows measured ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Static pressure conditions ......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Airflow measurement methods for ducted heat recovery and energy

recovery ventilators ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Unducted heat recovery ventilators and energy recovery ventilators .............................................12

6.3.1 Airflow measured...........................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Static pressure conditions ......................................................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Airflow measurement methods for unducted heat recovery and energy

recovery ventilators .....................................................................................................................................................12

7 Tracer gas tests ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12

7.2 Temperature conditions ..............................................................................................................................................................12

7.3 Preconditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 12

7.4 Airflow conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................12

7.5 Unit operating voltage and frequency ............................................................................................................................12

7.6 Tracer gas measurement methods .....................................................................................................................................12

8 Determination of efficiency ..................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 General conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.2 Temperature and humidity conditions: inlets to ventilator .......................................................................13

8.3 Preconditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 13

8.4 Airflow conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................ 13

8.4.1 Required rating point ........................................................................................................................................... .......13

8.4.2 Alternate rating points .............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.5 Static pressure conditions: ducted heat and energy recovery ventilators .................................... 14

8.6 Static pressure conditions: unducted heat and energy recovery ventilators .............................. 14

8.7 Unit operating voltage and frequency ............................................................................................................................ 14

8.8 Thermal performance measurement .............................................................................................................................. 14

9 Performance calculations .......................................................................................................................................................................14

9.1 Performance calculations: ducted ventilators ........................................................................................................ 14

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)

9.2 Performance calculations: unducted ventilators .................................................................................................. 14

9.3 Unit exhaust air transfer ratio (UEATR) ...................................................................................................................... 15

9.4 Net supply airflow ............................................................................................................................................................................ 15

9.4.1 Net supply airflow: ducted units ................................... .................................................................................... 15

9.4.2 Net supply airflow: unducted units ................................................................................................................ 15

9.5 Gross effectiveness, ε ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16

9.6 Coefficient of energy (COE) ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

9.6.1 Coefficient of energy: ducted ventilators, C ................................................................... 17

COE,ducted

9.6.2 Coefficient of energy: unducted ventilators, C ....................................................... 17

COE,unducted

9.7 Effective work (EW) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18

10 Test results ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Airflow measurement methods for both ducted and unducted

ventilators — Test equipment ............................................................................................................................................................20

Annex B (normative) Decay method for measurement of net supply airflow ......................................................21

Annex C (informative) Unit exhaust air transfer ratio measurement methods .................................................23

Annex D (informative) Thermal performance measurement ...............................................................................................27

Annex E (informative) Example data collection and reporting sheets ........................................................................31

Annex F (normative) Required instrument uncertainty ............................................................................................................38

Annex G (informative) Construction of plenums for connection to inlets or outlets not

designed for connection of ductwork .........................................................................................................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 86, Refrigeration and air-conditioning,

Subcommittee SC 6, Testing and rating of air-conditioners and heat pumps.

This first edition of ISO 16494-1 cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16494:2014), which has

been technically revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— consistency with terms’ definition between similar group of ISO standards (ERV and HRV);

— keep editorial rules of ISO/IEC Directives Part 2 (2021);
— general test requirements, chapter 5, was added;
— test condition, T8, was added in Table 1;

— maximum variations of individual readings from specified test conditions in Table F.2 was deleted.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
Heat recovery ventilators and energy recovery
ventilators — Method of test for performance —
Part 1:
Development of metrics for evaluation of energy related
performance
1 Scope

This document specifies a method of testing the ventilation and energy related performance of

heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) that do not contain any

supplemental heating (except for defrost), cooling, humidification, or dehumidification components.

Exchanger types of HRVs and ERVs are
a) fixed-plate exchangers (also known as recuperators),

b) rotary exchangers, including heat wheels and total energy wheels (also known as regenerators),

and

c) heat pipe exchangers using a heat transfer medium, excluding those using mechanical pumping,

This document does not provide a method for measuring the response of exchangers to the formation

of frost.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3966, Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits — Velocity area method using Pitot static tubes

ISO 5167 (all parts), Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices inserted in circular

cross-section conduits running full
ISO 5801, Fans — Performance testing using standardized airways

ISO 13253, Ducted air-conditioners and air-to-air heat pumps — Testing and rating for performance

ISO/IEC 17025:2017, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
3.1
coefficient of energy
COE
COE

total exchanged energy between the airstreams plus the power value of moving air (3.22), divided by the

power input

Note 1 to entry: The formula for determining the coefficient of energy (C ) is given in 9.6.

COE
3.2
duct

insulated or uninsulated closed passage for air that is installed as part of the ventilation system in

lengths determined by the needs of application, and is separate, prior to installation from exterior

terminations such as weather hoods
3.3
ducted ventilator

heat recovery ventilator or energy recovery ventilator which is intended for connection of ducts to one

or more of the airflow inlets or outlets and intended to address a range of static pressure differentials

from the duct(s)
3.4
effective work

total exchanged energy between the airstreams plus the power value of moving air minus the power

input

Note 1 to entry: The formula for determining the effective work (W ) is given in 9.7.

Note 2 to entry: Effective work is expressed in W.
3.5
energy recovery ventilator
ERV

ventilator which is designed to transfer both heat and moisture between two isolated airstreams

3.6
entering exhaust air
exhaust air inlet
return airflow
indoor air entering the ventilator
Note 1 to entry: Indicated in Figure 1 as footnote c.
3.7
entering supply air
supply air inlet
outdoor airflow
outside air entering the ventilator
Note 1 to entry: Indicated in Figure 1 as footnote a.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
Key
1 ventilator Entering supply air (OA).
2 indoor side Leaving supply air (SA).
3 outdoor side Entering exhaust air (RA).
Leaving exhaust air (EA).

Figure 1 — Schematic numbering of airflows for heat and energy recovery ventilators

3.8
external static pressure difference

external static pressure difference between inlet and outlet of an air stream or vi versa and is calculated

as an absolute value
Note 1 to entry: The formula for absolute value is described in 6.2.2.1.
3.9
fixed-plate exchanger

exchanger with multiple alternate airflow channels, separated by a heat or heat and water vapor

transfer plate(s) and connected to supply and exhaust airstreams
3.10
fresh air mass flow rate
supply-mass flowrate of dry air at station 2
3.11
gross effectiveness

measured effectiveness, not adjusted for leakage, motor heat gain, or heat transfer through the unit

casing

Note 1 to entry: The sensible, latent, or total gross effectiveness of an HRV or ERV, at equal airflows, is described

in 9.5.
3.12
heat pipe exchanger

exchanger with an array of finned and sealed tubes that are placed in side-by-side supply and exhaust

airstreams, which may include an internal wick structure in each tube and filled with a heat transfer

medium

Note 1 to entry: thermosiphon exchangers are a subset (or type) of heat pipe exchanger in which the heat transfer

medium moves by gravitational forces only.
3.13
heat recovery ventilator
HRV

ventilator which is designed to transfer only heat between two isolated airstreams

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
3.14
leaving exhaust air
exhaust air outlet
exhaust airflow
indoor air after passing through the ventilator
Note 1 to entry: Indicated in Figure 1 as footnote d.
3.15
leaving supply air
supply air outlet
supply airflow
outside air after passing through the ventilator
Note 1 to entry: Indicated in Figure 1 as footnote b.
3.16
maximum rated airflow

largest leaving supply and entering exhaust airflows, specified by the manufacturer, at which an airflow

test is performed

Note 1 to entry: For ventilators with speed control devices, different maximum rated airflows may be defined for

each speed control setting at which the test is performed.
3.17
minimum rated airflow

smallest leaving supply and entering exhaust airflows, specified by the manufacturer, at which an

airflow test is performed

Note 1 to entry: For ventilators with speed control devices, different minimum rated airflows may be defined for

each speed control setting at which the test is performed.
3.18
model-specific exterior termination system

weather hoods, fittings and through-wall penetrations designed by the ventilator manufacturer

specifically for installation with a specific model of ventilator, that comprise the complete passageway

connecting the ventilators outside air inlet and/or exhaust air outlet to the ventilator

3.19
net supply airflow
2,net
portion of the leaving supply airflow that originated as entering supply airflow

Note 1 to entry: The net supply airflow is represented by the variable Q measured in m /s.

2,net

Note 2 to entry: The formulae for determining net supply airflow are given in 9.4.1 (ducted units) and 9.4.2

(unducted units).
3.20
net supply airflow ratio
ratio determined by dividing net supply airflow by supply airflow

Note 1 to entry: Expressed as a percentage and described in 9.4.1 (see Formula (3)).

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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
3.21
net supply mass flow rate
2,net

portion of the supply mass airflow rate at station 2 that originated as supply mass flow rate at station

2, accounting for R
UEATR
Note 1 to entry: See Formula (9) and Formula (13)
3.22
power value of moving air
vma

rate of pressure energy and kinetic energy of the air delivered by the ventilator

Note 1 to entry: The formula that determines the power value of moving air is given in 9.6.1.

Note 2 to entry: Power value of moving air is expressed in W for P . (see Formula (10)).

vma
3.23
rating points

sets of supply and exhaust airflows, static pressures at inlets and outlets, and speed control setting,

achieved during the airflow performance measurement, at which thermal performance tests (and

exhaust air transfer tests, if applicable) are performed
3.24
rotary exchanger

exchanger with porous discs, fabricated from materials with heat or heat and water vapour retention

capacity, that are regenerated by collocated supply and exhaust airstreams
3.25
speed control device
device incorporated into the ventilator which controls the speed of the fan
3.26
station

location in the test apparatus at which conditions such as temperature, humidity, pressure, or airflows

are measured
Note 1 to entry: Indicated in Figure 1 as footnotes a, b, c and d.
3.27
standard air
3 −5

dry air with a density of 1,204 kg/m and a dynamic viscosity of 1,824 7 × 10 kg/(m∙s)

Note 1 to entry: These conditions approximate dry air at 20 °C and 101,325 kPa absolute.

3.28
static pressure differential
static pressure at supply outlet less the static pressure at exhaust inlet

Note 1 to entry: a positive pressure differential occurs when the static pressure at station (3.26) 2 is higher than

the static pressure at station 3. A negative pressure differential occurs when the static pressure at station 2 is

lower than the static pressure at station 3.
3.29
thermal performance measurement

test procedures which measure the temperature and humidity of the supply air when a ventilator is

operating with the outside air and exhaust air at specific psychrometric conditions

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
3.30
unducted ventilator

heat recovery ventilator or energy recovery ventilator which is not intended for connection of ducts to

any of the airflow inlets or outlets except for model-specific exterior termination systems as defined in

3.18
3.31
unit exhaust air transfer ratio
UEATR
UEATR

tracer gas concentration difference between the leaving supply air (3.15) and the entering supply air

(3.7) divided by the tracer gas concentration difference between the entering exhaust air (3.6) and the

entering supply air (3.7), at a specified airflow
Note 1 to entry: The formula for R is given in 9.3.
UEATR
3.32
ventilator

self-contained unit that includes fans to move air through the heat/energy exchanger

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Symbols
Symbol Definition Units
C Tracer gas concentration at station 1 μmol/mol
C Tracer gas concentration at station 2 μmol/mol
C Tracer gas concentration at station 3 μmol/mol
C Tracer gas concentration (indoor type) μmol/mol
C Tracer gas concentration (rooftop type) μmol/mol
out
C Tracer gas concentration (thru-wall type) μmol/mol
back

C Tracer gas concentration in the test chamber at time zero under attempt i μmol/mol

chamber,i,0
th th

C Tracer gas concentration in the test chamber at attempt i under time t of j μmol/mol

chamber,i,ti,j
C Coefficient of energy (COE) -
COE
c Specific heat of dry air at station 1 kJ/(kg·K)
c Specific heat of dry air at station 2 kJ/(kg·K)
h Enthalpy of the air at station 1 kJ/kg of dry
air
h Enthalpy of the air at station 2 kJ/kg of dry
air
h Enthalpy of the air at station 3 kJ/kg of dry
air
Mass flow rate of dry air at station 2 kg/s
Net mass flow rate of dry air at station 2 kg/s
2,net
P Power input to any other electrical components in the ventilator W
aux
P Power input to all electric motors in the ventilator W
P Power input to ventilator W
P Power value of moving air J/s or W
vma
p Static pressures at station i (i=1,2,3,4) Pa
p Velocity pressure at station i (i=1,2,3,4) Pa
Q Airflows m /s
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16494-1:2022(E)
Symbol Definition Units

Q Average of the three calculated overall airflow rates with the unit under test in m /s

operation as described in B.2.1.1 and B.2.1.2; or
supply airflow

Q Average of the three calculated natural airflow rates of the test chamber with the m /s

ventilator removed as described in B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2; or
supply airflow

Q Average of the three points with each three times calculated overall airflow rates m /s

1,2
with the unit under test in operation as described in B.2.1.1 and B.2.1.2

Q Airflow rate calculated using the data from a test at attempt ith under time t of jth m /s

i,j
as described in B.2.1.1, B.2.1.2, B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2
Q Net supply airflow m /s
2,net
R Net supply airflow ratio (NSAR) %
NSAR
R Unit exhaust air transfer ratio (UEATR) %
UEATR
T Temperature of the entering supply air at station 1 (dry bulb) °C or K
T Temperature of the leaving supply air at station 2 (dry bulb) °C or K
T Temperature of the entering exhaust air at station 3 (dry bulb) °C or K
T Ambient temperature °C or K
T Temperature lab ambient °C or K
LAB
T Temperature lab ambient, average °C or K
LAB,AVE
T Temperature lab ambient, maximum °C
...

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