Determination of the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection materials

ISO 22899-1:2007 describes a method of determining the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection materials and systems. It gives an indication of how passive fire protection materials behave in a jet fire and provides performance data under the specified conditions.

Détermination de la résistance aux feux propulsés des matériaux de protection passive contre l'incendie

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Status
Replaced
Publication Date
25-Nov-2007
Withdrawal Date
25-Nov-2007
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
26-Nov-2007
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22899-1
First edition
2007-12-01
Determination of the resistance to jet
fires of passive fire protection
materials —
Part 1:
General requirements
Détermination de la résistance aux feux propulsés des matériaux de
protection passive contre l'incendie —
Partie 1: Exigences générales
Reference number
ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
ISO 2007
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
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© ISO 2007

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ii © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Test configurations............................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Internal configuration........................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 External configuration.......................................................................................................................... 5

6 Construction of the test items and substrates .................................................................................. 5

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Material .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Nozzle..................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4 Flame re-circulation chamber.............................................................................................................. 6

6.5 Protective chamber............................................................................................................................... 7

6.6 Panel test specimens (internal configuration)...................................................................................8

6.7 Structural steelwork test specimens (internal configuration) ......................................................... 9

6.8 Tubular section test specimens (external configuration)............................................................... 12

6.9 Assembly test specimens.................................................................................................................. 13

7 Passive fire protection materials ...................................................................................................... 15

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.2 Panel test specimens ......................................................................................................................... 15

7.3 Structural steelwork test specimens ................................................................................................ 16

7.4 Tubular section test specimens ........................................................................................................ 16

7.5 Assembly specimens ......................................................................................................................... 17

8 Instrumentation................................................................................................................................... 19

8.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 19

8.2 Panel test specimens ......................................................................................................................... 19

8.3 Structural steelwork test specimens ................................................................................................ 19

8.4 Tubular section test specimens ........................................................................................................ 21

8.5 Assembly specimens ......................................................................................................................... 22

9 Test apparatus and conditions.......................................................................................................... 24

9.1 Nozzle geometry and position........................................................................................................... 24

9.2 Fuel....................................................................................................................................................... 26

9.3 Test environment................................................................................................................................ 26

10 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 26

11 Repeatability and reproducibility...................................................................................................... 29

12 Uncertainty of measurement ............................................................................................................. 29

13 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 30

14 Practical application of test results .................................................................................................. 31

14.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 31

14.2 Performance criteria........................................................................................................................... 31

14.3 Factors affecting the validity of the test........................................................................................... 32

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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)

15 Classification (optional) ..................................................................................................................... 33

15.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 33

15.2 Type of fire........................................................................................................................................... 33

15.3 Type of application ............................................................................................................................. 33

15.4 Critical temperature rise..................................................................................................................... 33

15.5 Period of resistance............................................................................................................................ 33

15.6 Example of application of the rating ................................................................................................. 34

Annex A (normative) Methods of fixing thermocouples............................................................................... 35

Annex B (informative) Example test report.................................................................................................... 37

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 40

iv © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 22899-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

ISO 22899 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the resistance to jet fires of

passive fire protection materials:
⎯ Part 1: General requirements
Further parts of ISO 22899 are planned for future publication.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Introduction

The test described in the procedure described in this part of ISO 22899 is one in which some of the properties

of passive fire protection materials can be determined. This test is designed to give an indication of how

passive fire protection materials will perform in a jet fire. The dimensions of the test specimen may be smaller

than typical items of structure and plant and the release of gas may be substantially less than that which might

occur in a credible event. However, individual thermal and mechanical loads imparted to the passive fire

protection material, from the jet fire defined in the procedure described in this part of ISO 22899, have been

shown to be similar to those by large-scale jet fires resulting from high-pressure releases of natural gas.

NOTE 1 Guidance on the applicability of the test will be covered in a future part of ISO 22899.

Although the method specified has been designed to simulate some of the conditions that occur in an actual

jet fire, it cannot reproduce them all exactly and the thermal and mechanical loads do not necessarily coincide.

The results of this test do not guarantee safety but may be used as elements of a fire risk assessment for

structures or plant. This should also take into account all the other factors that are pertinent to an assessment

of the fire hazard for a particular end use. The test is not intended to replace the hydrocarbon fire resistance

[2]
test (ISO/TR 834-3/EN 1363-2 ) but is seen as a complementary test.

NOTE 2 Users of this part of ISO 22899 are advised to consider the desirability of third-party

certification/inspection/testing of product conformity with this part of ISO 22899.

vi © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Determination of the resistance to jet fires of passive fire
protection materials —
Part 1:
General requirements

CAUTION — the attention of all persons concerned with managing and carrying out this fire resistance

test is drawn to the fact that fire testing may be hazardous and that there is a possibility that toxic

and/or harmful smoke and gases may be evolved during the test. Mechanical and operational hazards

may also arise during the construction of the test elements or structures, their testing and disposal of

test residues.

An assessment of all potential hazards and risks to health shall be made and safety precautions shall

be identified and provided. Appropriate training shall be given to relevant personnel.

1 Scope

This part of ISO 22899 describes a method of determining the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection

materials and systems. It gives an indication of how passive fire protection materials behave in a jet fire and

provides performance data under the specified conditions.

It does not include an assessment of other properties of the passive fire protection material such as

weathering, ageing, shock resistance, impact or explosion resistance, or smoke production.

2 Normative references

ISO 630:1995, Structural steels — Plates, wide flats, bars, sections and profiles

ISO/TR 834-3, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 3: Commentary on test

method and test data application

ISO 13702, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Control and mitigation of fires and explosions on offshore

production installations — Requirements and guidelines
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
assembly
unit or structure composed of a combination of materials or products, or both
3.2
cellulosic fire
fire involving combustible material such as wood, paper, furniture, etc.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
3.3
critical temperature

maximum temperature that the equipment, assembly or structure to be protected may be allowed to reach

3.4
critical time
minimum time required to reach the critical temperature
3.5
fire barrier

separating element that resists the passage of flame and/or heat and/or effluents for a period of time under

specified conditions
3.6
fire resistance

ability of an item to fulfil, for a stated period of time, the required stability and/or integrity and/or thermal

insulation, and/or other expected duty (reaching the critical temperature) specified in a standard fire-resistance

test
3.7
fire test

procedure designed to measure or assess the performance of a material, product, structure or system to one

or more aspects of fire
3.8
flame re-circulation chamber

mild steel box, open at the front, into which the jet fire is directed giving a re-circulating flame resulting in a

fireball
NOTE Materials other than mild steel may be used when appropriate.
3.9
integrity

ability of a separating element, when exposed to fire on one side, to prevent the passage of flames and hot

gases or occurrence of flames on the unexposed side, for a stated period of time in a standard fire resistance

test
3.10
intermediate-scale test
test performed on an item of medium dimensions

NOTE A test performed on an item of which the maximum dimension is between 1 m and 3 m is usually called “an

intermediate-scale test”. This part of ISO 22899 describes an intermediate-scale jet fire test.

3.11
jet fire
ignited discharge of propane vapour under pressure
3.12
jet nozzle
assembly from which the flammable material issues
3.13
outside specimen diameter

specimen diameter measured to the outer surface of the passive fire protection system on a tubular specimen

3.14
passive fire protection

coating or cladding arrangement or free-standing system which, in the event of fire, will provide thermal

protection to restrict the rate at which heat is transmitted to the object or area being protected

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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)

NOTE The term passive is used to distinguish the systems tested, including those systems that react chemically e.g.

intumescents, from active systems such as water deluge.
3.15
passive fire protection material

coating or cladding that, in the event of a fire, will provide thermal protection to restrict the rate at which heat is

transmitted to the object or area being protected
3.16
passive fire protection system

removable jacket or inspection panel, cable transit system, pipe penetration seal or other such system that, in

the event of a fire, will provide thermal protection to restrict the rate at which heat is transmitted to the object

or area being protected
3.17
penetration seal

system used to maintain the fire resistance of a separating element at the position where there is provision for

services to pass through the separating element
3.18
pool fire

combustion of flammable or combustible hydrocarbon liquid spilled and retained on a surface

3.19
protective chamber

mild steel box, open at the front and back, which is designed to be attached to the rear of the flame

re-circulation chamber to shield the rear of the flame re-circulation chamber from environmental influences

NOTE A protective chamber is not required for tubular section tests but may be used to provide additional stability to

the flame re-circulation chamber.
4 Principle

The method provides an indication of how passive fire protection materials perform in a jet fire that may occur,

for example, in petrochemical installations. It aims at simulating the thermal and mechanical loads imparted to

passive fire protection material by large-scale jet fires (see Bibliography [3]) resulting from high-pressure

releases of flammable gas, pressure liquefied gas or flashing liquid fuels. Jet fires give rise to high convective

and radiative heat fluxes as well as high erosive forces. To generate both types of heat flux in sufficient

quantity, a 0,3 kg s sonic release of gas is aimed into a shallow chamber, producing a fireball with an

extended tail. The flame thickness is thereby increased and hence so is the heat radiated to the test specimen.

Propane is used as the fuel since it has a greater propensity to form soot than does natural gas and can

therefore produce a flame of higher luminosity. High erosive forces are generated by the release of the sonic

velocity gas jet 1 m from specimen surface.
5 Test configurations
5.1 General
There are two basic configurations under which the test can be operated:

a) an internal configuration where one or more of the inner faces of the box incorporates the test

construction;

b) an external configuration where the test construction is installed on supports in front of the box.

These two alternative configurations are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 protective chamber
2 jet nozzle
3 supports

4 flame re-circulation chamber either with coated inner surfaces or with the rear face replaced by a panel to form the

test construction
Figure 1 — Layout for internal configuration
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 flame re-circulation chamber
2 flame re-circulation chamber support
3 test construction
4 test construction support
5 jet nozzle
Figure 2 — Layout for external configuration
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
5.2 Internal configuration

The internal test configuration is used for determining the jet fire resistance of:

a) protection systems for plane surfaces;
b) protection systems for edge features;
c) bulkheads and other separating elements;
d) penetration systems used in conjunction with bulkheads.
5.3 External configuration

The external test configuration is used for determining the jet fire resistance of protected hollow sections or

assemblies mounted on hollow sections.
6 Construction of the test items and substrates
6.1 General

The key items required for the test are the jet release nozzle, the flame re-circulation chamber and a

protective chamber. These items are all required for the internal configurations of the test and the test

specimen forms all or part of the flame re-circulation chamber. In the external configurations of the test, the

flame re-circulation chamber is only used to help produce the fireball and it is not necessary to use the

protective chamber.
6.2 Material

The material normally used is 10 mm thick steel plate complying with ISO 630:1995, Grade Fe 430. All welded

construction shall be used and all welds shall be 5 mm fillet and continuous unless otherwise stated. All

dimensions are in millimetres and, unless otherwise stated, the following tolerances shall be used:

⎯ whole number ± 1,0 mm
⎯ decimal to point ,0 ± 0,4 mm
⎯ decimal to point ,00 ± 0,2 mm
⎯ angles ± 0’ 30”
⎯ radii ± 0,4 mm
6.3 Nozzle

The fuel is released towards the specimen from a nozzle. The tapered, converging nozzle shall be of length

200 ± 1 mm, inlet diameter 52 ± 0,5 mm and outlet diameter 17,8 ± 0,2 mm. Figure 3 shows the details of

construction. The nozzle shall be constructed of heat resistant stainless steel. Provisions shall be made for

fitting a sighting device.

The side, top and bottom walls of the flame re-circulation chamber shall be constructed from mild steel of

10 mm thickness. The rear wall of the chamber shall either be constructed of 10 mm thick steel welded to the

sides of the chamber or of a panel bolted on to form the rear wall. If the substrate material is not steel or the

substrate thickness is not 10 mm, the material and thickness used shall be stated in the test report. The

details of construction of the flame re-circulation chamber are given in Figure 5.

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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 3 — Nozzle
6.4 Flame re-circulation chamber

The flame re-circulation chamber, having nominal internal dimensions 1 500 mm × 1 500 mm × 500 mm, shall

be used for each test. The chamber is flanged at the rear to allow bolting on of a panel when required and

attachment, by bolting or clamping, of the protective chamber when required. A general view of the flame

re-circulation chamber is shown in Figure 4.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 jet position
2 flame re-circulation chamber
Figure 4 — General view of flame re-circulation chamber

Details of the flange construction, apart from the hole spacing, are not given as one of two methods may be

used.

a) The flanges may be constructed by welding L-section steel to the rear of each wall.

b) For structural steelwork specimens, the rear wall may be constructed by continuously welding a

1 620 mm × 1 620 mm plate on to the rear of the flame re-circulation chamber and drilling holes at the

appropriate locations in the plate extending beyond the sides of the chamber.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)

Inner walls that do not form part of the specimen, e.g. the sidewalls in a panel test, shall be protected from

distortion by a ceramic board insulation material or other suitable form of passive fire protection material.

NOTE If the substrate is not steel, the material used for construction of the specimen should be at the discretion of

the test laboratory and any third-party certifying body.
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 lifting lug, 25 mm thick machined steel
2 sixteen holes drilled, ∅ 18
Figure 5 — Construction of flame re-circulation chamber
6.5 Protective chamber

The protective chamber (nominal internal dimensions 1 500 mm × 1 500 mm × 1 000 mm) is used to shield

the rear of the flame re-circulation chamber from environmental influences in the internal configuration of the

test. It shall generally be constructed from mild steel of 10 mm thickness and shall be open at the front and

back and flanged at the front to allow fitting to the rear of the flame re-circulation chamber with no visible air

gaps.

A general view of the protective chamber is shown in Figure 6 and details of construction in Figure 7.

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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Figure 6 — General view of protective chamber
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 lifting lug, 25 mm thick machined steel
2 sixteen holes drilled, ∅ 18
Figure 7 — Construction of protective chamber
6.6 Panel test specimens (internal configuration)

The panel test specimen shall consist of a flame re-circulation chamber, with the rear wall replaced by the

panel to be tested. The panel is sandwiched between the flame re-circulation chamber and the protective

chamber as illustrated in Figure 8. The connection between the panel and the flame re-circulation chamber

shall be gas tight. The method of mounting depends on the type of passive fire protection as described in 7.1.

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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 jet position
2 flame re-circulation chamber
3 protective chamber
4 panel
Figure 8 — Position of panel

For cases that simulate steelwork with no corners or edge features; or cylindrical vessels, pipes and tubular

sections of outside diameter greater than 500 mm, a 1 620 mm × 1 620 mm panel shall be constructed from

10 mm thick steel. The details of construction are shown in Figure 9. If the substrate material is not steel or

the thickness is not 10 mm, the material and thickness used shall be stated in the test report.

6.7 Structural steelwork test specimens (internal configuration)

The structural steelwork test specimen shall consist of the flame re-circulation chamber with the addition of a

20 mm thick central web, 250 mm deep, to simulate corner or edge features such as stiffening webs or edges

of “I” beams. A general view of the test specimen is illustrated in Figure 10.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 9 — Construction of panels
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 jet position with web
2 flame re-circulation chamber
3 simulated corner or edge feature of "I" beam
Figure 10 — General view of structural steelwork test specimen

Details of the construction of a structural steelwork specimen are given in Figure 11. For a structural steelwork

test, the rear wall shall be constructed of 10 mm thick steel. The bottom flange may be omitted if desired. The

web shall comprise two 10 mm thick steel plates, which are slotted before being welded together, to have

thermocouples inserted and fixed in accordance with the methods given in Annex A. Holes shall be drilled in

the rear wall of the flame re-circulation chamber to match the slot positions. Details of construction of the web

are given in Figure 12. If the substrate material is not steel or the steel thickness of the web and rear wall is

different from 20 mm and 10 mm respectively, the material and thickness used shall be stated in the test

report.
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ISO 22899-1:2007(E)

When testing passive fire protection materials used to protect structural sections with substrates other than

steel or when the thickness of the corner or edge feature on the structural section is different from 20 mm, the

central web and rear wall of the flame re-circulation chamber may be constructed
...

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