Pigments and extenders - Determination of experimentally simulated nano-object release from paints, varnishes and pigmented plastics (ISO 21683:2019)

This document specifies a method for experimental determination of the release of nanoscale pigments and extenders into the environment following a mechanical stress of paints, varnishes and pigmented plastics.
The method is used to evaluate if and how many particles of defined size and distribution under stress (type and height of applied energy) are released from surfaces and emitted into the environment.
The samples are aged, weathered or otherwise conditioned to simulate the whole lifecycle.

Pigmente und Füllstoffe - Bestimmung der experimentell simulierten Freisetzung von Nanoobjekten aus Beschichtungen und pigmentierten Kunststoffen (ISO 21683:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur experimentellen Bestimmung der Freisetzung von nanoskaligen Pigmenten oder Füllstoffen in die Umgebung nach einer mechanischen Beanspruchung von Beschichtungs-stoffen und pigmentierten Kunststoffen fest.
Das Verfahren wird angewendet, um zu bewerten, ob und wie viele Partikel bestimmter Größe und Ver-teilung unter Beanspruchung (Art und Höhe der zugeführten Energie) von Oberflächen freigesetzt und in die Umgebung abgegeben werden.
Die Proben werden gealtert, bewittert oder anderweitig konditioniert, um den gesamten Lebenszyklus zu simulieren.

Pigments et matières de charge - Détermination de la libération simulée de nanoobjets présents dans des peintures, des vernis et des plastiques pigmentés (ISO 21683:2019)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination expérimentale de la libération de pigments et de charges à l'échelle nanométrique dans l'environnement, suite à l'application d'une contrainte mécanique sur les peintures, vernis et plastiques pigmentés.
Cette méthode permet d'évaluer si des particules de taille et de distribution définies soumises à contrainte (type et intensité de l'énergie appliquée) sont libérées par les surfaces et émises dans l'environnement. Elle permet également de déterminer le nombre de particules libérées.
Les échantillons sont vieillis, soumis aux intempéries ou sinon conditionnés de manière à simuler la totalité de leur cycle de vie.

Pigmenti in polnila - Določanje eksperimentalno simuliranega sproščanja nanopredmetov, prisotnih v barvah, lakih in pigmentiranih plastičnih materialih (ISO 21683:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Jun-2020
Publication Date
18-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-Oct-2020
Due Date
17-Dec-2020
Completion Date
19-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
01-december-2020
Pigmenti in polnila - Določanje eksperimentalno simuliranega sproščanja
nanopredmetov, prisotnih v barvah, lakih in pigmentiranih plastičnih materialih
(ISO 21683:2019)

Pigments and extenders - Determination of experimentally simulated nano-object release

from paints, varnishes and pigmented plastics (ISO 21683:2019)

Pigmente und Füllstoffe - Bestimmung der experimentell simulierten Freisetzung von

Nanoobjekten aus Beschichtungen und pigmentierten Kunststoffen (ISO 21683:2019)

Pigments et matières de charge - Détermination de la libération simulée de nanoobjets

présents dans des peintures, des vernis et des plastiques pigmentés (ISO 21683:2019)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21683:2020
ICS:
87.060.10 Pigmenti in polnila Pigments and extenders
SIST EN ISO 21683:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
EN ISO 21683
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 87.060.10
English Version
Pigments and extenders - Determination of experimentally
simulated nano-object release from paints, varnishes and
pigmented plastics (ISO 21683:2019)

Pigments et matières de charge - Détermination de la Pigmente und Füllstoffe - Bestimmung der

libération simulée de nanoobjets présents dans des experimentell simulierten Freisetzung von

peintures, des vernis et des plastiques pigmentés (ISO Nanoobjekten aus Beschichtungen und pigmentierten

21683:2019) Kunststoffen (ISO 21683:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 August 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21683:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
EN ISO 21683:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
EN ISO 21683:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 21683:2019 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 256 "Pigments,

dyestuffs and extenders” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken

over as EN ISO 21683:2020 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 298 “Pigments and extenders” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21683:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21683:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21683
First edition
2019-02
Pigments and extenders —
Determination of experimentally
simulated nano-object release from
paints, varnishes and pigmented
plastics
Pigments et matières de charge — Détermination de la libération
simulée de nanoobjets présents dans des peintures, des vernis et des
plastiques pigmentés
Reference number
ISO 21683:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Specific terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Methods of stress ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 Test specimens requirements .................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Test apparatus requirements ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.2 Stress processes — Process parameters and characteristics ................................................... 6

6 Measuring methods ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1 Measurands ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.2 Aerosol measuring methods ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Test preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Aerosol background ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.3 Aerosol sampling line .................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3.4 Aerosol conditioning .................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Calculation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Examples of parameter specification of stress application methods ................13

Annex B (informative) Selected aerosol measuring equipment ...........................................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 256, Pigments, dyestuffs and extenders.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
Introduction

The possible release of nano-objects (nanoscale pigments and extenders) from paints, varnishes and

pigmented plastics into surrounding air or liquid is an important consideration in health and safety,

for the end user and the environment. Therefore, it is important to obtain data about the propensity of

[10]

pigmented paints and plastics to release nano-objects, thereby allowing exposure to be evaluated ,

controlled and minimized. This property will likely depend on both the physico-chemical properties of

the nano-objects and the matrix containing the nano-objects.

The currently available methods to assess the propensity of pigmented paints, varnishes and plastics

to release nano-objects into the air require energy to be applied to a sample to induce abrasion, erosion

or comminution, which cause dissemination of the particles into the gaseous phase, i.e. generation of

aerosols.

Due to their higher sensitivity, the particle number concentration and the number-weighted particle

size distribution are necessary for the quantification of the release of nano-objects since the particle

mass depends on the cubed particle diameter and the mass concentrations of nano-objects are too low

in order to detect them with currently commercially available instruments. Further measurements,

such as the total particle surface concentration, e.g. References [11] and [12], can be helpful for the

interpretation e.g. in regard to health aspects. If the shape, morphology, porosity, and density of

the particle material are known, an exact conversion into the different quantity types is possible by

measuring the total particle size distribution.

Beside the selection of appropriate measurement instrumentation, a quantitative assessment of

process-induced particle release requires furthermore detailed information on the samples, the

introduced stress and the kind of interconnection with the instruments. Figure 1 shows for example the

single stages, which have to be considered for the quantitative characterization of airborne particulate

release.
[5]

Figure 1 — Stages for the characterization of process-induced airborne particulate release

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21683:2019(E)
Pigments and extenders — Determination of
experimentally simulated nano-object release from paints,
varnishes and pigmented plastics
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for experimental determination of the release of nanoscale pigments

and extenders into the environment following a mechanical stress of paints, varnishes and pigmented

plastics.

The method is used to evaluate if and how many particles of defined size and distribution under stress

(type and height of applied energy) are released from surfaces and emitted into the environment.

The samples are aged, weathered or otherwise conditioned to simulate the whole lifecycle.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9276-1, Representation of results of particle size analysis — Part 1: Graphical representation

ISO/TS 80004-1, Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary — Part 1: Core terms
ISO/TS 80004-2, Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary — Part 2: Nano-objects
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 80004-1, ISO/TS 80004-2

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms and definitions
3.1.1
aerosol
system of solid or liquid particles suspended in gas
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.1]
3.1.2
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size are predominantly exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
3.1.3
nanoparticle

nano-object (3.1.4) with all external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1.2) where the lengths of the longest

and the shortest axes of the nano-object do not differ significantly

Note 1 to entry: If the dimensions differ significantly (typically by more than 3 times), terms such as nanofibre or

nanoplate may be preferred to the term nanoparticle.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.4]
3.1.4
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.1.5
paint

pigmented coating material which, when applied to a substrate, forms an opaque dried film having

protective, decorative or specific technical properties
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.184]
3.1.6
equivalent spherical diameter

diameter of a sphere having the same physical properties as the particle in the measurement

Note 1 to entry: Physical properties are for instance the same settling velocity or electrolyte solution displacing

volume or projection area under a microscope.

Note 2 to entry: The physical property to which the equivalent diameter refers shall be indicated using a suitable

subscript, for example x for equivalent surface area diameter or x for equivalent volume diameter.

S V
[SOURCE: ISO 26824:2013, 1.6]
3.1.7
particle size distribution
PSD

cumulative distribution of the fraction of material smaller (undersize) than given particle sizes,

represented by equivalent spherical diameters or other linear dimensions or distribution density of the

fraction of material in a size class, divided by the width of that class
Note 1 to entry: Particle size distributions are described in ISO 9276-1.
3.1.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
instrument that measures the particle number concentration of an aerosol (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: The sizes of particles detected is usually smaller than several hundred nanometres and larger

than a few nanometres.
Note 2 to entry: A CPC is one possible detector for use with a DEMC.

Note 3 to entry: In some cases, a condensation particle counter may be called a condensation nucleus counter (CNC).

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.5]
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
3.1.9
differential electrical mobility classifier
DEMC

classifier that is able to select aerosol (3.1.1) particles according to their electrical mobility and pass

them to its exit

Note 1 to entry: A DEMC classifies aerosol particle sizes by balancing the electrical force on each particle with

its aerodynamic drag force in an electrical field. Classified particles are in a narrow range of electrical mobility

determined by the operating conditions and physical dimensions of the DEMC, while they can have different sizes

due to difference in the number of charges that they have.
[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.7]
3.1.10
differential mobility analysing system
DMAS

system to measure the size distribution of submicrometre aerosol (3.1.1) particles consisting of a DEMC,

flow metres, a particle detector, interconnecting plumbing, a computer and suitable software

[SOURCE: ISO 15900:2009, 2.8]
3.2 Specific terms and definitions
3.2.1
particle release from paints, varnishes and plastics

transfer of material from paints, varnishes and plastics to a liquid or gas as a consequence of

mechanical stress
3.2.2
particle number release

total number of particles in a specified size range, released from a test specimen as a consequence of

mechanical stress
3.2.3
area-specific particle number release

particle number release (3.2.2), divided by the stressed surface area of the test specimen

3.2.4
mass-specific particle number release
particle number release (3.2.2), divided by the mass of removed material
3.2.5
total volume flow rate

volume flow rate, which takes up all air-transported emissions at the particle source and transfers them

3.2.6
particle number concentration
number of particles per volume of air
3.2.7
process concentration

particle number concentration (3.2.6), which results from the total volume flow rate (3.2.5) and the

particle number release (3.2.2) as a consequence of mechanical stress on the test specimens

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
3.2.8
measuring concentration

particle number concentration (3.2.6), which is calibrated by defined dilution of the process concentration

(3.2.7), in order to establish optimal conditions for the aerosol analysis
3.2.9
model room concentration

particle number concentration (3.2.6), which results from the area-specific particle number release

(3.2.3) under optimal mixing conditions for a defined room height

Note 1 to entry: The model room concentration is independent of the selected test conditions and represents a

reference concentration for real particle number concentrations (e.g. particle pollution in the laboratory) when

the height of the model room has been selected carefully.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols (see Table 1) and abbreviated terms (see

Table 2) apply.
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbol Dimension SI unit
n particle number release Without dimension
n particle number concentration m
n area-specific particle number release m
n mass-specific particle number release kg
3 −1
V total volume flow m s
Table 2 — Abbreviated terms
Abbreviation Meaning
APS aerodynamic particle sizer
CPC condensation particle counter
DEMAS differential electrical mobility analysing system
DEMC differential electrical mobility classifier
EAD electrical aerosol detector
EDX energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
EEPS engine exhaust particle sizer
ELPI electrical low pressure impactor
ESP electrostatic precipitator
FAPES fast aerosol particle emission spectrometer
FMPS fast mobility particle sizer
HEPA high efficiency particulate air filter
ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
ICP-OES inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry
LAS laser aerosol spectrometer
NSAM nanoparticle surface area monitor
OPC optical particle counter
OPS optical particle sizer
PM particulate matter
PSD particle size distribution
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Abbreviation Meaning
SEM scanning electron microscopy
SMPS scanning mobility particle sizer
TEM transmission electron microscopy
TP thermal precipitator
WRAS wide range aerosol sampler
5 Methods of stress
5.1 Test specimens requirements

Coatings applied on respective substrates or solid materials are suitable test specimens. For good

reproducibility the test specimens should be plane and a homogenous distribution of the pigments or

extenders in the matrix material should be given.

For interpretation of the measuring results reference test specimens shall be prepared in addition

to the actual test specimens. Unpigmented or unfilled test specimens can give information on the

influence of these in regard to particle release. For analysing aged or weathered test specimens, unaged

or unweathered equivalent test specimens shall be consulted for data interpretation.

An important aspect is the given condition of the test specimen. Detailed information on preparation

of test specimens, used pigments and extenders, on pre-conditioning and treatment (ageing, exposure)

shall be documented.

Contaminations of the test specimens during preparation, pre-conditioning, pre-treatment, transport,

and storage shall be reduced to a minimum. Finished test specimens shall be analysed promptly in order

to avoid changes of the physico-chemical properties (e.g. hardness, elasticity) of the test specimens due

to impacts of external influences (e.g. temperature variation, UV radiation).

When transporting the test specimens, it shall be observed that the test specimens are not contaminated

due to contact with the container used for transport or other test specimens. The duration of contact

with ambient aerosol shall be minimized as far as possible.
5.2 Test apparatus requirements
5.2.1 General

The test apparatus shall cover the aspects of introduction of the test specimens, the stress application

on the test specimens, and the sampling.

For the verification of systematic analysis, i.e. for obtaining reproducible results, the test specimens

shall be introduced so that the stress is applied only once in order to avoid interferences of repeating

applications of energy and constant changes of the stress intensity of the test specimen under test.

Particle number release quantification requires a test apparatus for the simulation of mechanical

stress. The intensity of mechanical should be adjustable to the physico-chemical properties of the test

specimen. The test apparatus should be described carefully, and appropriate test parameter should be

identified before testing. For testing, the test parameter shall be adjusted, checked, and documented.

In order to enable quantification of particle number release, all of the particles released as consequence

of mechanical stress shall be measured as close as possible to the location of their formation.

NOTE Mechanical stress application on test specimens can lead to thermal particle generation, which could

lead to an overestimation of the particle number release.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 21683:2020
ISO 21683:2019(E)
5.2.2 Stress processes — Process parameters and characteristics

The process parameters to be applied for testing and the derivable process characteristics shall be

selected in correspondence to the materials to be stressed, see Table 3.
NOTE See also Annex A.

Table 3 — Process parameters and characteristics of selected stress application processes

Process (example) Process parameter Process characteristics
— Total volume flow rate — Speed, flow
Overflow
Wind erosion on buildings,
— Nozzle diameter — Suction performance
Stress of flow on moving
vehicles
— Speed, feed of test specimen
— Total volume flow rate — Support pressure
— Normal force — Friction force
— Contact surface — Friction performance
Friction
Skin contact on coatings
— Friction path
— Material combination
— Speed, feed of test specimen
— Total volume flow rate — Support pressure
— Normal force — Tangential force
Abrasion stress
— Contact surface — Cutting force ratio - Cutting
performance - Speed ratio (see
Processing of materials
— Abrasion surface
Reference [1])
during manufacturing of
products, reworking of
— Rotational speed/revolution
damaged surfaces
— Speed, feed of test specimen
— Abrasive paper
6 Measuring methods
6.1 Measurands

The quantification of the particle release requires the analysis of three higher-ranking measurements:

— particle concentration;
— particle size;
— particle material.
The particle size as well a
...

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