Connectors for electronic equipment - Tests and measurements -- Part 25-7: Test 25g - Impedance, reflection coefficient and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)

Describes test methods to measure impedance, reflection coefficient, and voltage standing wave ratio in the time and frequency domains. Applies to interconnect assemblies, such as electrical connectors and cable assemblies, within the scope of IEC technical committee 48.

Steckverbinder für elektronische Einrichtungen - Mess- und Prüfverfahren -- Teil 25-7: Prüfung 25g - Impedanz, Reflexionskoeffizient und Spannungsstehwellenverhältnis

Connecteurs pour équipements électroniques - Essais et mesures -- Partie 25-7: Essai 25g - Impédance, coefficient de réflexion et rapport d'ondes stationnaires en tension (VSWR)

Décrit les méthodes d'essai pour mesurer l'impédance, le coefficient de réflexion, et le rapport d'ondes stationnaires en tension dans les domaines temporel et fréquentiel. S'applique aux ensembles d'interconnexion, tels que les connecteurs électriques, et aux câbles équipés, dans le domaine d'application du comité d'études 48 de la CEI.

Konektorji za elektronsko opremo – Preskusi in meritve – 25-7. del: Preskus 25g – Impedanca, odbojni koeficient in razmerje napetostnega stojnega vala (IEC 60512-25-7:2004)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2005
Due Date
01-Dec-2005
Completion Date
01-Dec-2005

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 60512-25-7:2005
English language
39 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60512-25-7:2005
STANDARD
december 2005
Konektorji za elektronsko opremo – Preskusi in meritve – 25-7. del: Preskus
25g – Impedanca, odbojni koeficient in razmerje napetostnega stojnega vala
(IEC 60512-25-7:2004)
Connectors for electronic equipment – Tests and measurements – Part 25-7: Test
25g – Impedance, reflection coefficient and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
(IEC 60512-25-7:2004)
ICS 31.220.10 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 60512-25-7:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60512-25-7
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM March 2005
ICS 31.220.10
English version
Connectors for electronic equipment –
Tests and measurements
Part 25-7: Test 25g –
Impedance, reflection coefficient
and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
(IEC 60512-25-7:2004)
Connecteurs pour équipements Steckverbinder für elektronische
électroniques – Einrichtungen -
Essais et mesures Mess- und Prüfverfahren
Partie 25-7: Essai 25g – Teil 25-7: Prüfung 25g –
Impédance, coefficient de réflexion Impedanz, Reflexionskoeffizient und
et rapport d'ondes stationnaires Spannungsstehwellenverhältnis
en tension (VSWR) (IEC 60512-25-7:2004)
(CEI 60512-25-7:2004)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-03-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60512-25-7:2005 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60512-25-7:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 48B/1479/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 60512-25-7, prepared by SC 48B,

Connectors, of IEC TC 48, Electromechanical components and mechanical structures for electronic

equipment, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 60512-25-7 on 2005-03-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2005-12-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2008-03-01
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60512-25-7:2004 approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
60512-25-7
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
2004-12
Connecteurs pour équipements électroniques –
Essais et mesures –
Partie 25-7:
Essai 25g – Impédance, coefficient de réflexion,
et rapport d'ondes stationnaires en tension
(VSWR)
Connectors for electronic equipment –
Tests and measurements –
Part 25-7:
Test 25g – Impedance, reflection coefficient,
and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
 IEC 2004 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
International Electrotechnical Commission
МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

1 Scope and object ..............................................................................................................9

2 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................9

3 Test resources................................................................................................................11

3.1 Equipment .............................................................................................................13

3.2 Fixture...................................................................................................................13

4 Test specimen ................................................................................................................17

4.1 Description ............................................................................................................17

5 Test procedure ...............................................................................................................17

5.1 Time domain .........................................................................................................17

5.2 Frequency domain .................................................................................................21

6 Details to be specified.....................................................................................................23

7 Test documentation ........................................................................................................25

Annex A (normative) Measurement system rise time.............................................................27

Annex B (informative) Determination of the near end and far end of the specimen ................33

Annex C (informative) Calibration standards and test board reference traces ........................35

Annex D (informative) Interpreting TDR impedance graphs...................................................45

Annex E (informative) Terminations – Electrical....................................................................51

Annex F (informative) Practical guidance – variable rise time................................................57

Annex G (informative) Printed circuit board design considerations for electronics

measurements ......................................................................................................................59

Annex H (informative) Test signal launch hardware ..............................................................67

Figure A.1 – Example of rise-time measurement points .........................................................27

Figure A.2 – Example of TDR output; 2 curves (different rise times) and start and stop

specimen points ....................................................................................................................29

Figure A.3 – Example of analyzer output, impedance versus log frequency plot......................31

Figure C.1 – Typical mother-board test fixture .......................................................................37

Figure C.2 – Typical daughter-board test fixture ....................................................................37

Figure C.3 – Example of near-end reference trace.................................................................43

Figure D.1 – Example of an impedance profile of connector using a measurement

system rise time of 35 ps.......................................................................................................47

Figure D.2 – Example of impedance profiles of cable at the rise time of 35 ps and 1 ns .........49

Figure E.1 – Single-ended terminations .................................................................................53

Figure E.2 – Differential (balanced) terminations ...................................................................55

Figure G.1 – Microstrip (a) and stripline (b) geometries .........................................................59

Figure G.2 – Buried microstrip geometry................................................................................61

Table 1 – Additional measurement system rise time (including fixture and filtering) ................19

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
CONNECTORS FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT –
TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS –
Part 25-7: Test 25g – Impedance, reflection coefficient,
and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60512-25-7 has been prepared by subcommittee 48B: Connectors,

of IEC technical committee 48: Electromechanical components and mechanical structures for

electronic equipment.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
48B/1479/FDIS 48B/1506/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 7 –

IEC 60512-25 consists of the following parts, under the general title Connectors for electronic

equipment – Tests and measurements:
Part 25-1: Test 25a – Crosstalk ratio
Part 25-2: Test 25b – Attenuation (insertion loss)
Part 25-3: Test 25c – Rise time degradation
Part 25-4: Test 25d – Propagation delay
Part 25-5: Test 25e – Return loss
Part 25-6: Test 25f – Eye pattern and jitter

Part 25-7: Test 25g – Impedance, reflection coefficient, and voltage standing wave ratio

(VSWR)

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 9 –
CONNECTORS FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT –
TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS –
Part 25-7: Test 25g – Impedance, reflection coefficient,
and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)
1 Scope and object

This part of IEC 60512 applies to interconnect assemblies, such as electrical connectors and

cable assemblies, within the scope of IEC technical committee 48.

This standard describes test methods to measure impedance, reflection coefficient, and

voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) in the time and frequency domains.

NOTE These test methods are written for test professionals who are knowledgeable in the electronics field and are

trained to use the referenced equipment. Because the measurement values are heavily influenced by the fixturing

and equipment, this method cannot describe all of the possible combinations. The major equipment manufacturers

provide application notes for a more in-depth technical description of how to optimize the use of their equipment. It

is imperative that the referencing document include the necessary description and sketches for the test professional

to understand how to set up and perform the requested measurements.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
measurement system rise time

rise time measured with the fixture in place, without the specimen, and with filtering (or

normalization). Rise time is typically measured from 10 % to 90 % levels
2.2
specimen environment impedance

impedance presented to the signal conductors by the fixture. This impedance is a result of

transmission lines, termination resistors, attached receivers or signal sources, and fixture

parasitics
2.3
reflection coefficient

ratio of the reflected to incident voltages at any given point. The reflection coefficient is given

V Z − Z
reflected L O
Γ = = = s
V Z + Z
incident L O
where Z is the fixture or specimen impedance and Z is the specimen environment
L O
impedance.

NOTE In the time domain, the reflection coefficient symbol typically used is rho (ρ), while gamma (Γ) is used for

frequency-domain measurements.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 11 –
2.4
impedance

total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current at a particular frequency. It

is a combination of the resistance (R) and reactance (X) measured in ohms (Ω). The equation

for impedance as a function of s-parameters is:
1+ s  
()1+ ρ
Z = Z = R + jX = Z
0 0 
1− s ()1− ρ
11  
2.5
voltage standing wave ratio
VSWR

ratio of the maximum magnitude of the voltage on a line to the minimum magnitude at any

given point. VSWR can be expressed by the following equations:
V V + V
max inc refl
VSWR = =
V V − V
min inc refl
(1 + Γ )
VSWR =
1 − Γ
2.6
scattering parameter (s-parameter)

reflection coefficient at the input port of the device under test, defined as the ratio of the

reflected voltage to the incident voltage
2.7
termination (electronics usage)

impedance connected to the end of a transmission line, typically to minimize reflected energy

on the line
2.8
step amplitude

voltage difference between the 0 % and 100 % levels, ignoring overshoot and undershoot

3 Test resources

Care should be taken when establishing the equivalence between time- and frequency-domain

measurements. The relationship between the two is complex, and the application of

bandwidth = (0,35/rise time) should not be used without further computations and
understanding.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 13 –
3.1 Equipment
3.1.1 Time domain

3.1.1.1 A Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is preferred as the measurement accuracy is

improved with the use of a step function, although an oscilloscope and pulse generator may be

used. A network analyzer may be used with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) software.

NOTE The test professional should be aware of limitations of any mathematical operation performed by an

instrument (for example, FFT).
3.1.1.2 Variable rise time

A means should be provided for varying the signal rise time if required. This may be included

within the test equipment itself, or possibly through additional filtering or software.

NOTE The test professional should be aware of limitations of any mathematical operation performed by an

instrument or software; for example, normalization or filtering.
3.1.1.3 Differential measurements

The test equipment shall have the capability to perform differential measurements directly, or

provisions shall be made to calculate the impedance from multiple single-ended
measurements.
3.1.2 Frequency domain
3.1.2.1 A vector network analyzer or impedance analyzer shall be used.

NOTE 1 The test professional should be aware of the frequency limitations of the fixture.

NOTE 2 The test professional should be aware of any limitations of any mathematical functions performed (for

example, normalization, inverse FFT, or software filtering.)
3.1.2.2 Differential measurements
For differential measurements, a network analyzer and baluns may be used.

NOTE The test professional should be aware of the electrical characteristics of the baluns that become part of the

test fixture and can significantly affect the measurement.
3.2 Fixture

The fixture(s) shall allow for enough measurements throughout the specimen so that variations

in geometries, materials, transmission paths, etc. may be demonstrated and provide a

representative sampling of specimen performance.

NOTE The fixture geometry and materials will impact the measurements due to the fixture parasitics. Usually, the

intended use of the product dictates the most meaningful way to fixture it.
3.2.1 Specimen environment impedance

Unless otherwise specified in the referencing document, the specimen environment impedance

shall match the impedance of the test equipment. Typically this will be 50 Ω for single-ended

measurements and 100 Ω for differential measurements.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 15 –
3.2.2 Terminations

When using termination resistors, care should be taken to minimize the parasitic reactances of

the terminators over the range of test frequencies (see Annex E).
3.2.3 Calibration features
See Annex C for calibration and reference traces.

NOTE The term “calibration” used in this document is not to be confused with the periodic factory equipment

calibration. Calibration is used in the sense of characterizing the fixture so that when the “fixture plus specimen”

measurement is taken, the characteristics of the specimen alone can be accurately determined.

3.2.3.1 Time domain

The fixture shall include features such that the near and far ends of the specimen may be

determined in time (see Annex B). The calibration plane should be as close to the specimen as

possible. When the fixture includes a pc board with line traces connecting two connectors, it

shall have a reference trace(s) that will allow the measurement system rise time to be

measured. The reference trace shall have starting points and end points at the same location

as the DUT (device under test) starting point and end point. This is because the reference

trace(s) length shall be the same as the pc board traces.
3.2.3.2 Frequency domain

It is necessary to include fixture features that will allow for the open, short, and load

measurements to be taken. This may be accomplished by one of two methods. Firstly, provide

reference traces that include the open, load and short standards. Secondly, provide an

interface where these standards can be applied directly to the end of the fixture and

immediately before the input plane of the device under test. When using the open/short

method, the fixture shall include features such that measurements may be conducted with the

far end of the driven line both open-circuited and short-circuited.

NOTE Other calibration techniques (such as through-reflect-line) may be used. The fixture should incorporate

features appropriate to that (these) calibration method(s).
3.2.4 Single-ended

The fixture shall allow one signal line to be driven at a time. The far end of the driven line shall

be terminated in the specimen environment impedance (typically 50 Ω). It is recommended that

a length of transmission line be added after the sample that has a propagation delay greater

than twice the measurement system rise time. Unless otherwise specified in the referencing

document,
– a 1:1 signal to ground ratio shall be used;
– designated ground lines shall be commoned on both the near and far end;

– adjacent signal lines shall be terminated in the specimen environment impedance.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 17 –
3.2.5 Differential

The fixture shall allow one signal pair to be driven at a time. The driven pair shall be terminated

in the specimen environment impedance (typically 100 Ω). It is recommended that a length of

transmission line be added after the specimen that has a propagation delay greater than twice

the measurement system rise time. Unless otherwise specified in the referencing document,

– a 2:1 signal to ground ratio shall be used (one signal pair for each ground return);

– designated ground lines shall be commoned on both the near and far end;

– adjacent signal lines shall be terminated in the specimen environment impedance.

NOTE For differential applications in the frequency domain using a 2-port network analyzer, the fixture will include

the use of baluns.
4 Test specimen
4.1 Description
For this test procedure, the test specimen shall be as follows.
4.1.1 Separable connectors
A mated connector pair.
4.1.2 Cable assembly
Assembled connectors and cables, and mating connectors.
5 Test procedure
5.1 Time domain

5.1.1 Calibrate the equipment and fixture according to the manufacturer’s specified

measurement techniques using precision impedance standards and/or cabling. The calibration

plane is to be directly at the input interface of the specimen (see 3.2.3.1 for more detailed

information).

5.1.2 Connect the TDR signal line(s) to the reference line(s) of the test fixture.

5.1.3 Unless otherwise specified in the referencing document, the signal rise time shall be the

fastest signal of which the equipment is capable. If a slower signal rise time is also desired to

approximate the application conditions, one of the rise times in Table 1 may be used. Measure

and record the measurement system rise time from the reference line, as shown in Figure A.1.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 19 –
Table 1 – Additional measurement system rise time
(including fixture and filtering)
Typical application rise time in which the specimen Measurement system rise time
will be used
ps
100 − 500 100
500
>500 − 1 000
> 1 000 1 000

5.1.4 Measure, record, and plot the requested parameters for the test fixture (impedance,

reflection coefficient, and/or voltage). If the equipment does not have the capability to display

the requested parameter directly, see the applicable definition in Clause 2 for conversion

equations.

5.1.5 Connect the TDR line(s) to the driven line(s) of the fixture with the specimen installed.

5.1.6 Place the specimen a minimum of 5 cm from any objects that may introduce error into

the measurement.

5.1.7 Determine the near end and far end of the specimen. Annex B describes a method for

determining the near and far end of the specimen.

5.1.8 Display and record the requested electrical parameter on the test equipment. If the

equipment does not have the capability to display the requested parameter directly, see the

applicable definition in Clause 2 for conversion equations. Refer to Figure A.2 for an example

of a TDR plot, and Annex D for examples of interpreting TDR impedance graphs.
5.1.8.1 Single-ended measurement
Set the test equipment to display the driven signal line waveform.
5.1.8.2 Differential measurement

Set the test equipment to display a waveform representing the difference between the two

driven signal line waveforms, (typically, “Trace 1 minus Trace 2”).

NOTE If not available within the TDR equipment, this mathematical function may be accomplished by collecting

the raw voltage data with an acquisition system and manipulating the data with appropriate software.

5.1.9 When required, vary the measurement system rise time and repeat 5.1.2 through 5.1.8.

Record the measurement system rise times with the corresponding data.

NOTE When varying measurement system rise times, the test professional should be aware of limitations of any

math operation performed by an instrument (for example, normalization or software filtering).

5.1.10 If requested, repeat 5.1.5 through 5.1.9 for multiple lines throughout the specimen.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
60512-25-7  IEC:2004 – 21 –
5.2 Frequency domain
5.2.1 General

5.2.1.1 Calibrate the equipment and fixture according to the manufacturer’s specifications

using precision impedance standards and/or cabling. The calibration plane is to be directly at

the input interface of the specimen (see 3.2.3.2 for more detailed information).

NOTE The test professional is reminded that the calibration should be performed in the mode to be used for the

measurements, for example, s .
5.2.1.2 Fixture measurement

Set the analyzer for a single port (or comparable) measurement. Select the display mode for

the desired parameter (impedance, reflection coefficient, return loss, VSWR) as specified in

the referencing document. If using a network analyzer, measure and record s . Refer to Figure

A.3 for an example of a network analyzer plot. It is recommended that the following equipment

settings be used:
– cartesian plots with a logarithmic frequency scale and linear Y-axis;
– minimum of 201 measurement points;
– maximum smoothing of 1 %.

If the equipment is not capable of displaying the requested parameter directly, see the

applicable definition in Clause 2 for conversion equations.
5.2.2 Specimen measurement – Direct method

5.2.2.1 Connect the analyzer line(s) to the driven line(s) of the fixture with the specimen

installed. Terminate the far end of the test specimen in the specimen environment impedance.

5.2.2.2 Place the specimen a minimum of 5 cm from any object that may introduce error into

the measurement.

5.2.2.3 Measure and record the requested parameter values over the specified test frequency

range or discrete frequencies. If the equipment is not capable of displaying the requested

parameter directly, see the applicable definition in Clause 2 for conversion equations.

5.2.2.4 If requested, repeat 5.2.2.1 through 5.2.2.3 on multiple lines throughout the specimen.

5.2.2.5 When additional measurements with different test frequencies or ranges are required,

perform the calibration step defined in 5.2.1.1, then repeat 5.2.2.1 through 5.2.2.4 as

necessary.
5.2.3 Specimen measurement – Open/short method
5.2.3.1 Connect the analyzer line(s) to the driven line(s) of the fixture with t
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.