Textiles - Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their blends - Part 1: Fibre identification using microscopy methods (ISO 20706-1:2019, Corrected version 2020-03)

This Standard specifies methods for the identification of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) using both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This document is also applicable to blends of these bast fibres and products made from them.

Textilien - Qualitative und quantitative Analyse einiger Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie) und ihrer Mischungen - Teil 1: Identifikation der Fasern mittels Mikroskopie (ISO 20706-1:2019, korrigierte Fassung 2020-03)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Identifizierung einiger Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie) unter Anwendung sowohl von Lichtmikroskopie (LM) als auch von Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (REM) fest. Dieses Dokument ist auch anzuwenden für Mischungen dieser Bastfasern und für Produkte, die aus ihnen hergestellt werden.

Textiles - Analyses qualitative et quantitative de certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) et de leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Identification des fibres à l'aide de méthodes microscopiques (ISO 20706-1:2019, Version corrigée 2020-03)

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes pour l'identification de certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) par microscopie optique (MO) et par microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB). Le présent document est également applicable aux mélanges de ces fibres libériennes et aux produits fabriqués à partir de ces fibres.

Tekstilije - Kvalitativna in kvantitativna analiza nekaterih ličnatih vlaken (lanu, konoplje, ramije) in njihovih mešanic - 1. del: Identifikacija vlaken z mikroskopskimi metodami (ISO 20706-1:2019, popravljena verzija 2020-03)

Ta standard določa metode za identifikacijo nekaterih ličnatih vlaken (lanu, konoplje, ramije) z uporabo mikroskopske metode s svetlobo (LM) in vrstičnega elektronskega mikroskopa (SEM). Dokument je uporaben tudi za mešanice teh ličnatih vlaken in izdelke iz njih.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2019
Publication Date
12-Jan-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Jan-2020
Due Date
09-Mar-2020
Completion Date
13-Jan-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
01-februar-2020

Tekstilije - Kvalitativna in kvantitativna analiza nekaterih ličnatih vlaken (lanu,

konoplje, ramije) in njihovih mešanic - 1. del: Identifikacija vlaken z
mikroskopskimi metodami (ISO 20706-1:2019, popravljena verzija 2020-03)

Textiles - Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie)

and their blends - Part 1: Fibre identification using microscopy methods (ISO 20706-

1:2019, Corrected version 2020-03)

Textilien - Qualitative und quantitative Analyse einiger Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie)

und ihrer Mischungen - Teil 1: Identifikation der Fasern mittels Mikroskopie (ISO 20706-

1:2019, korrigierte Fassung 2020-03)

Textiles - Analyses qualitative et quantitative de certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre,

ramie) et de leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Identification des fibres à l'aide de méthodes

microscopiques (ISO 20706-1:2019, Version corrigée 2020-03)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20706-1:2019
ICS:
59.060.10 Naravna vlakna Natural fibres
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 59.060.01
English Version
Textiles - Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some
bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their blends - Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy methods (ISO
20706-1:2019, Corrected version 2020-03)

Textiles - Analyses qualitative et quantitative de Textilien - Qualitative und quantitative Analyse einiger

certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) et de Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie) und ihrer Mischungen

leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Identification des fibres à - Teil 1: Identifikation der Fasern mittels Mikroskopie

l'aide de méthodes microscopiques (ISO 20706-1:2019, (ISO 20706-1:2019, korrigierte Fassung 2020-03)

Version corrigée 2020-03)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 December 2019.

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 08 April 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20706-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20706-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38

"Textiles" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles and textile products” the

secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20706-1:2019, Corrected version 2020-03 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20706-

1:2019 without any modification.
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20706-1
First edition
2019-12
Corrected version
2020-03
Textiles — Qualitative and
quantitative analysis of some bast
fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their
blends —
Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy
methods
Textiles — Analyses qualitative et quantitative de certaines fibres
libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) et de leurs mélanges —
Partie 1: Identification des fibres à l'aide de méthodes microscopiques
Reference number
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.1 Laboratory sample ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Preparation of the test specimens .......................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.1 Selection of the test specimens ........................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.2 Preparation of a test specimen ............................................................................................................................ 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 LM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.1 Longitudinal view ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.3 SEM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.3.1 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.3.2 Longitudinal view (optional) ................................................................................................................................ 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Photomicrographs of flax (Light microscopy and SEM) ......................................................8

Annex B (informative) Photomicrographs of hemp (Light microscopy and SEM) .............................................12

Annex C (informative) Photomicrographs of ramie (Light microscopy and SEM) .............................................15

Annex D (informative) Rationale ...........................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex E (normative) Polarized light test to distinguish flax and hemp .......................................................................20

Annex F (normative) Twisting direction test to distinguish flax and hemp .............................................................23

Annex G (informative) Decoloration ..................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex H (normative) Sampling of the laboratory sample ..........................................................................................................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20706 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.

This corrected version of ISO 20706-1:2019 incorporates the following corrections:

— in 8.3, the SEM procedure structure has been corrected;
— in 7.2.1, the missing reference to Annex H has been added.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Among bast fibres used for textiles, flax and hemp are the most expensive. Flax is grown mainly (85 %) in

a small coastal area of Northern Europe; hemp textile products are rare. Ramie is less expensive than flax

and hemp: 10 % to 20 % cheaper for medium count yarns — and the difference increases for fine counts.

Flax and other bast fibres, such as hemp and ramie exhibit great similarities in their physical and

chemical properties, so that their fibre specie and their blends are difficult to distinguish from each

other by both mechanical and chemical methods. In addition, these fibres show nearly resembling fibre

morphology. It is very difficult to accurately identify the fibre species and accurately determine the

fibre content of such fibre blends by current testing means.

Research works on accurate identification of bast fibre has been a long undertaking.

In order to promote fair labelling of products and anti-counterfeiting protection, The European

Confederation of Flax and Hemp (CELC) created the Bast Fibre Authority in 2013, inviting laboratories,

research centres and providers of quality and control services to develop a common technical protocol.

Five laboratories joined in 2013 and comparison testing were carried out between them on May–June

2014 and January–February 2015.

NOTE CELC, founded in 1951, is a non-profit organization and an association for reflection, market analysis,

industry concertation and strategic orientations. CELC is the only agro-industrial European organization that

covers all stages of production and processing of flax/linen and hemp. It is the chosen representative of more

than 10,000 firms in 14 European countries, promoting the fibre from plant to finished product (including

sections dealing with agriculture, retting/scutching, trading, spinning, weaving and technical uses).

At present, the most widely used and reliable ones include light microscopy (LM) method and scanning

electron microscopy (SEM) method. The advantage of LM method is that the internal morphology

of fibres can be observed, but some subtle surface structures are not able to be clearly displayed.

Decoloration process can be carried out on dark samples for testing, while improper decoloration

process will affect the judgment of fibre analyst.

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method shows opposite characteristics to those of LM method.

Therefore, some types of fibres need to be identified by scanning electron microscope.

When some samples are difficult to be identified, light microscopy method and scanning electron

microscopy method should be used together to identify in order to utilize the advantages of both

methods.

It is proven in practice that accuracy of fibre analysis is highly related to the ample experience, fully

understanding and extreme familiarity of the fibre analyst to the morphology of various types of bast

fibres. Therefore, besides text description, a large amount of micrographs of different types of flax,

hemp and ramie are given in Annex A, Annex B, Annex C and Annex D of this document.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Textiles — Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some
bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their blends —
Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy methods
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for the identification of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) using

both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This document is also applicable

to blends of these bast fibres and products made from them.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 20705:2019, Textiles — Quantitative microscopical analysis — General principles of testing

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 20705 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bast fibre

composite fibre obtained from the bast of certain plants, mainly constituted of cellulose and

accompanied with incrusting and intercellular materials (pectin bodies, hemicellulose, lignin)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 2.3.
3.2
flax
fibre from the basts of flax Linum usitatissimum
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.5.
3.3
hemp
fibre from the basts of Cannabis sativa
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.1.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
3.4
ramie
fibre from the basts of ramie Boehmeria nivea, Boehmeria tenacissima
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.6.
3.5
technical fibre

assembly of ultimate fibres (usually 20 to 40 ultimate fibres) as it occurs in the plant after extraction

(mechanical, chemical, etc.)
3.6
ultimate fibre

unitary fibre obtained from a fibre bundle after removal of non-cellulosic components including pectins

3.7
lumen

canal in the centre of the fibre where are located the cells and organites, surrounded by the plasma-

membrane and cell walls
3.8
knot

cell walls deformations with changes in the chemical or/and physical structures which have been

formed either during the growth of the plant or during processing forming like a ring around the fibre

3.9
pit

cavity in the lignified cell walls of xylem conduits (vessels and tracheids) that are essential components

in the water-transport system of higher plants

Note 1 to entry: The pit membrane, which lies in the centre of each pit, allows water to pass between xylem

conduits but limits embolism and the spread of vascular pathogens in the xylem.
3.10
crack

structural default induced during mechanical process (e.g. scutching, cross section cutting)

3.11
longitudinal striate
structural appearance along the fibre due to fibre shape ridges
3.12
test specimen unit
linear portion of a single thread
[SOURCE: ISO 20705:2019, 3.1]
4 Principle

A longitudinal view image and/or cross view image of fibres representative of a test specimen is

magnified to an appropriate scale/size under optical light microscope and/or SEM. All bast fibre species

found in the test specimens are identified by the difference in fibre morphology among different types

of certain bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie).
5 Apparatus

Use the apparatus described in ISO 20705, together with those described in 5.1 and 5.2.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)

5.1 Transmitted-light type microscope (described in ISO 20705:2019, 5.1), shall be capable of

providing a magnification of × 250 to × 500. The focal of this type of microscope shall be capable of

discriminate details up to 2 µm to 3 µm; therefore, a magnification factor of at least × 400 is recommended.

The transmitted-light type microscope shall comprise:

— a light condenser that includes a diaphragm based on Köhler illumination to obtain image with high

resolution;

— a polarized device (i.e. polarizer and analyser) with a retardation plate of 530 nm (known as “red

plate”).

5.2 Visual microscopic image analyser, shall comprise a microscope, a camera, a computer, a data

acquisition card, exclusive analysing software and a display. The objective and ocular of the microscope

shall be capable of providing at least a magnification of × 500. The focal of this type of microscope shall

be capable of discriminate details up to 2 µm to 3 µm.
6 Reagents

Use the reagents described in ISO 20705, together with reagents described in 6.1 and 6.2.

6.1 Water, Grade 3 according to ISO 3696.
6.2 (Clear) glycerine.
7 Sampling
7.1 Laboratory sample

Principles of the selection of the laboratory sample shall be according to Annex H.

7.2 Preparation of the test specimens
7.2.1 Selection of the test specimens

Select the test specimens as described in ISO 20705, together with selection described in Annex H for

finished products. Select sub-samples (e.g. fabrics or yarns) representative of the materials used in the

finished products and then select and prepare the test specimen as described in ISO 20705.

7.2.2 Preparation of a test specimen

Follow the test specimen preparation for cross view described in ISO 20705, together with those

described specifically for longitudinal view below.

Instead of snippet cuttings, put basically parallel fibres from the fibre bundle or the test specimen unit

(by untwisting) on the LM slide (in 2 places) or, if required, on the SEM stub (then, in this case, prepare

a duplicate stub).

The specific preparation for longitudinal view on SEM may be carried out if required because it is

worthless as SEM longitudinal views of flax, hemp or ramie are similar and do not lead to give clues to

differentiate these bast fibres (see Annex D).
8 Procedure

Follow the general procedure described in ISO 20705, and then proceed as follows.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
8.1 General

Carry out both longitudinal view and cross view procedures, except when only ramie is identified (by

cross view preferably – or longitudinal view), using either LM and/or SEM.
NOTE 1 For justification of this instruction, see Annex D.

Identify the fibre species, based on the comparative fibre morphology attributes of flax, hemp and

ramie, as listed in Table 1.
NOTE 2 The fibre morphology attributes are based on ultimate fibres.
Record the pictures of the identified fibres.
At least 100 fibres shall be identified.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
Table 1 — Comparative fibre morphology attributes of flax, hemp and ramie
FLAX HEMP RAMIE
POINTS OF
CHARACTERISTICS VIEW
INTEREST

(see photomicrographs in Annex A) (see photomicrographs in Annex B) (see photomicrographs in Annex C)

Knot External morphol- Longitudinal Knot diameter is mostly greater Knot diameter is as large as fibre Knot diameter is as large as fibre

ogy than body. body.
the fibre body diameter.
Knots may frequently not cover the Knots may frequently not cover the
Knots cover the whole fibre whole fibre diameter. whole fibre diameter.
diameter.
Knots present some disorientation
(due to helicoidal path) into V shape.

Knot repetition / Longitudinal Knots are frequent on one portion There is presence of knots but less There is presence of knots but less

intervals (but knots may be absent on some frequent than flax frequent than flax
portions)

Pit Pit presence Longitudinal (only LM) Pits are less frequent, (only LM) Pits with medium (only LM) Pits are very frequent

less visible. frequency and visible and oriented in all
directions, often in V, Y or X shapes

Fibre surface Longitudinal striates Longitudinal The polygonal shape of the ultimate The polygonal shape of the ultimate Due to circumvolutions of the

fibre leads to get few longitudinal fibre leads to get few longitudinal surfaces, there is a presence of

striates. striates. numerous longitudinal striates.

(only LM) Note that they are not to (only LM) Note that they are not to (only LM) Note that they are not to

be confused with the lumen. be confused with the lumen. be confused with stronger lines

due to irregular shapes (U, Z…).

Overall shape Morphology Longitudinal No twisting visible if the fibres No twisting visible if the fibres Fibre may be twisted, due to

have a small lumen and are full have a small lumen and are full transformation during spinning,

mature. If the fibres have not mature. If the fibres have not occurring on some flattened ramie

reached their maturity and have reached their maturity and have fibres [not visible on raw fibres

a large lumen, a longitudinal a large lumen, a longitudinal before spinning]
twist is nonetheless possible twist is nonetheless possible

Cross Pentagonal shape with small lumen Pentagonal shape with small lumen Most fibres have a flattened shape

if mature fibre. Non mature fibres if mature fibre. Non mature fibres and have a large lumen.

are flattened and have larger are flattened and have larger
lumen. The corners of the lumen. The corners of the
pentagonal shape are generally a bit pentagonal shape are generally a bit
sharper than hemp. more rounded than flax
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
Table 1 (continued)
FLAX HEMP RAMIE
POINTS OF
CHARACTERISTICS VIEW
INTEREST

(see photomicrographs in Annex A) (see photomicrographs in Annex B) (see photomicrographs in Annex C)

Lumen Longitudinal (only LM) Lumen is visible. (only LM) Lumen is visible if (only LM) In relation to the fibre

ultimate fibre. orientation, some lumens are
visible and wider.

Cross Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly

very small and circular while lumen very small and circular while lumen wider than flax or hemp lumen and

of a non mature fibre is wider and of a non mature fibre is wider and follows the flattened shape of the

follows the flattened shape of the follows the flattened shape of the fibre. From the outer wall of the

fibre fibre fibre to the wall of the lumen
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
01-februar-2020

Tekstilije - Kvalitativna in kvantitativna analiza nekaterih ličnatih vlaken (lanu,

konoplje, ramije) in njihovih mešanic - 1. del: Identifikacija vlaken z
mikroskopskimi metodami (ISO 20706-1:2019)

Textiles - Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie)

and their blends - Part 1: Fibre identification using microscopy methods (ISO 20706-

1:2019)

Textilien - Qualitative und quantitative Analyse einiger Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie)

und ihrer Mischungen - Teil 1: Identifikation der Fasern mittels Mikroskopie (ISO 20706-

1:2019)

Textiles - Analyses qualitative et quantitative de certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre,

ramie) et de leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Identification des fibres à l'aide de méthodes

microscopiques (ISO 20706-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 20706-1:2019
ICS:
59.060.10 Naravna vlakna Natural fibres
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 59.060.01
English Version
Textiles - Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some
bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their blends - Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy methods (ISO
20706-1:2019)

Textiles - Analyses qualitative et quantitative de Textilien - Qualitative und quantitative Analyse einiger

certaines fibres libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) et de Bastfasern (Flachs, Hanf, Ramie) und ihrer Mischungen

leurs mélanges - Partie 1: Identification des fibres à - Teil 1: Identifikation der Fasern mittels Mikroskopie

l'aide de méthodes microscopiques (ISO 20706- (ISO 20706-1:2019)
1:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 December 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

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COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
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© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 20706-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
EN ISO 20706-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 20706-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38

"Textiles" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 248 “Textiles and textile products” the

secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 20706-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 20706-1:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20706-1
First edition
2019-12
Textiles — Qualitative and
quantitative analysis of some bast
fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their
blends —
Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy
methods
Textiles — Analyses qualitative et quantitative de certaines fibres
libériennes (lin, chanvre, ramie) et de leurs mélanges —
Partie 1: Identification des fibres à l'aide de méthodes microscopiques
Reference number
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7.1 Laboratory sample ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Preparation of the test specimens .......................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.1 Selection of the test specimens ........................................................................................................................... 3

7.2.2 Preparation of a test specimen ............................................................................................................................ 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 LM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.1 Longitudinal view ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.3 SEM procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8.3.1 Cross view .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.3.2 Apply the procedure as described in ISO 20705:2019, 8.3.2 .................................................... 7

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Photomicrographs of flax (Light microscopy and SEM) ......................................................8

Annex B (informative) Photomicrographs of hemp (Light microscopy and SEM) .............................................12

Annex C (informative) Photomicrographs of ramie (Light microscopy and SEM) .............................................15

Annex D (informative) Rationale ...........................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex E (normative) Polarized light test to distinguish flax and hemp .......................................................................20

Annex F (normative) Twisting direction test to distinguish flax and hemp .............................................................23

Annex G (informative) Decoloration ..................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex H (normative) Sampling of the laboratory sample ..........................................................................................................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20706 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Among bast fibres used for textiles, flax and hemp are the most expensive. Flax is grown mainly (85 %) in

a small coastal area of Northern Europe; hemp textile products are rare. Ramie is less expensive than flax

and hemp: 10 % to 20 % cheaper for medium count yarns — and the difference increases for fine counts.

Flax and other bast fibres, such as hemp and ramie exhibit great similarities in their physical and

chemical properties, so that their fibre specie and their blends are difficult to distinguish from each

other by both mechanical and chemical methods. In addition, these fibres show nearly resembling fibre

morphology. It is very difficult to accurately identify the fibre species and accurately determine the

fibre content of such fibre blends by current testing means.

Research works on accurate identification of bast fibre has been a long undertaking.

In order to promote fair labelling of products and anti-counterfeiting protection, The European

Confederation of Flax and Hemp (CELC) created the Bast Fibre Authority in 2013, inviting laboratories,

research centres and providers of quality and control services to develop a common technical protocol.

Five laboratories joined in 2013 and comparison testing were carried out between them on May–June

2014 and January–February 2015.

NOTE CELC, founded in 1951, is a non-profit organization and an association for reflection, market analysis,

industry concertation and strategic orientations. CELC is the only agro-industrial European organization that

covers all stages of production and processing of flax/linen and hemp. It is the chosen representative of more

than 10,000 firms in 14 European countries, promoting the fibre from plant to finished product (including

sections dealing with agriculture, retting/scutching, trading, spinning, weaving and technical uses).

At present, the most widely used and reliable ones include light microscopy (LM) method and scanning

electron microscopy (SEM) method. The advantage of LM method is that the internal morphology

of fibres can be observed, but some subtle surface structures are not able to be clearly displayed.

Decoloration process can be carried out on dark samples for testing, while improper decoloration

process will affect the judgment of fibre analyst.

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method shows opposite characteristics to those of LM method.

Therefore, some types of fibres need to be identified by scanning electron microscope.

When some samples are difficult to be identified, light microscopy method and scanning electron

microscopy method should be used together to identify in order to utilize the advantages of both

methods.

It is proven in practice that accuracy of fibre analysis is highly related to the ample experience, fully

understanding and extreme familiarity of the fibre analyst to the morphology of various types of bast

fibres. Therefore, besides text description, a large amount of micrographs of different types of flax,

hemp and ramie are given in Annex A, Annex B, Annex C and Annex D of this document.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
Textiles — Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some
bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) and their blends —
Part 1:
Fibre identification using microscopy methods
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for the identification of some bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie) using

both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This document is also applicable

to blends of these bast fibres and products made from them.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3696, Water for analytical laboratory use — Specification and test methods

ISO 20705:2019, Textiles — Quantitative microscopical analysis — General principles of testing

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 20705 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bast fibre

composite fibre obtained from the bast of certain plants, mainly constituted of cellulose and

accompanied with incrusting and intercellular materials (pectin bodies, hemicellulose, lignin)

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 2.3.
3.2
flax
fibre from the basts of flax Linum usitatissimum
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.5.
3.3
hemp
fibre from the basts of Cannabis sativa
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.1.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
3.4
ramie
fibre from the basts of ramie Boehmeria nivea, Boehmeria tenacissima
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 6938:2012, 3.2.2.6.
3.5
technical fibre

assembly of ultimate fibres (usually 20 to 40 ultimate fibres) as it occurs in the plant after extraction

(mechanical, chemical, etc.)
3.6
ultimate fibre

unitary fibre obtained from a fibre bundle after removal of non-cellulosic components including pectins

3.7
lumen

canal in the centre of the fibre where are located the cells and organites, surrounded by the plasma-

membrane and cell walls
3.8
knot

cell walls deformations with changes in the chemical or/and physical structures which have been

formed either during the growth of the plant or during processing forming like a ring around the fibre

3.9
pit

cavity in the lignified cell walls of xylem conduits (vessels and tracheids) that are essential components

in the water-transport system of higher plants

Note 1 to entry: The pit membrane, which lies in the centre of each pit, allows water to pass between xylem

conduits but limits embolism and the spread of vascular pathogens in the xylem.
3.10
crack

structural default induced during mechanical process (e.g. scutching, cross section cutting)

3.11
longitudinal striate
structural appearance along the fibre due to fibre shape ridges
3.12
test specimen unit
linear portion of a single thread
[SOURCE: ISO 20705:2019, 3.1]
4 Principle

A longitudinal view image and/or cross view image of fibres representative of a test specimen is

magnified to an appropriate scale/size under optical light microscope and/or SEM. All bast fibre species

found in the test specimens are identified by the difference in fibre morphology among different types

of certain bast fibres (flax, hemp, ramie).
5 Apparatus

Use the apparatus described in ISO 20705, together with those described in 5.1 and 5.2.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)

5.1 Transmitted-light type microscope (described in ISO 20705:2019, 5.1), shall be capable of

providing a magnification of × 250 to × 500. The focal of this type of microscope shall be capable of

discriminate details up to 2 µm to 3 µm; therefore, a magnification factor of at least × 400 is recommended.

The transmitted-light type microscope shall comprise:

— a light condenser that includes a diaphragm based on Köhler illumination to obtain image with high

resolution;

— a polarized device (i.e. polarizer and analyser) with a retardation plate of 530 nm (known as “red

plate”).

5.2 Visual microscopic image analyser, shall comprise a microscope, a camera, a computer, a data

acquisition card, exclusive analysing software and a display. The objective and ocular of the microscope

shall be capable of providing at least a magnification of × 500. The focal of this type of microscope shall

be capable of discriminate details up to 2 µm to 3 µm.
6 Reagents

Use the reagents described in ISO 20705, together with reagents described in 6.1 and 6.2.

6.1 Water, Grade 3 according to ISO 3696.
6.2 (Clear) glycerine.
7 Sampling
7.1 Laboratory sample

Principles of the selection of the laboratory sample shall be according to Annex H.

7.2 Preparation of the test specimens
7.2.1 Selection of the test specimens

Select the test specimens as described in ISO 20705, together with selection described in for finished

products. Select sub-samples (e.g. fabrics or yarns) representative of the materials used in the finished

products and then select and prepare the test specimen as described in ISO 20705.

7.2.2 Preparation of a test specimen

Follow the test specimen preparation for cross view described in ISO 20705, together with those

described specifically for longitudinal view below.

Instead of snippet cuttings, put basically parallel fibres from the fibre bundle or the test specimen unit

(by untwisting) on the LM slide (in 2 places) or, if required, on the SEM stub (then, in this case, prepare

a duplicate stub).

The specific preparation for longitudinal view on SEM may be carried out if required because it is

worthless as SEM longitudinal views of flax, hemp or ramie are similar and do not lead to give clues to

differentiate these bast fibres (see Annex D).
8 Procedure

Follow the general procedure described in ISO 20705, and then proceed as follows.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
8.1 General

Carry out both longitudinal view and cross view procedures, except when only ramie is identified (by

cross view preferably – or longitudinal view), using either LM and/or SEM.
NOTE 1 For justification of this instruction, see Annex D.

Identify the fibre species, based on the comparative fibre morphology attributes of flax, hemp and

ramie, as listed in Table 1.
NOTE 2 The fibre morphology attributes are based on ultimate fibres.
Record the pictures of the identified fibres.
At least 100 fibres shall be identified.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
Table 1 — Comparative fibre morphology attributes of flax, hemp and ramie
FLAX HEMP RAMIE
POINTS OF
CHARACTERISTICS VIEW
INTEREST

(see photomicrographs in Annex A) (see photomicrographs in Annex B) (see photomicrographs in Annex C)

Knot External morphol- Longitudinal Knot diameter is mostly greater Knot diameter is as large as fibre Knot diameter is as large as fibre

ogy than body. body.
the fibre body diameter.
Knots may frequently not cover the Knots may frequently not cover the
Knots cover the whole fibre whole fibre diameter. whole fibre diameter.
diameter.
Knots present some disorientation
(due to helicoidal path) into V shape.

Knot repetition / Longitudinal Knots are frequent on one portion There is presence of knots but less There is presence of knots but less

intervals (but knots may be absent on some frequent than flax frequent than flax
portions)

Pit Pit presence Longitudinal (only LM) Pits are less frequent, (only LM) Pits with medium (only LM) Pits are very frequent

less visible. frequency and visible and oriented in all
directions, often in V, Y or X shapes

Fibre surface Longitudinal striates Longitudinal The polygonal shape of the ultimate The polygonal shape of the ultimate Due to circumvolutions of the

fibre leads to get few longitudinal fibre leads to get few longitudinal surfaces, there is a presence of

striates. striates. numerous longitudinal striates.

(only LM) Note that they are not to (only LM) Note that they are not to (only LM) Note that they are not to

be confused with the lumen. be confused with the lumen. be confused with stronger lines

due to irregular shapes (U, Z…).

Overall shape Morphology Longitudinal No twisting visible if the fibres No twisting visible if the fibres Fibre may be twisted, due to

have a small lumen and are full have a small lumen and are full transformation during spinning,

mature. If the fibres have not mature. If the fibres have not occurring on some flattened ramie

reached their maturity and have reached their maturity and have fibres [not visible on raw fibres

a large lumen, a longitudinal a large lumen, a longitudinal before spinning]
twist is nonetheless possible twist is nonetheless possible

Cross Pentagonal shape with small lumen Pentagonal shape with small lumen Most fibres have a flattened shape

if mature fibre. Non mature fibres if mature fibre. Non mature fibres and have a large lumen.

are flattened and have larger are flattened and have larger
lumen. The corners of the lumen. The corners of the
pentagonal shape are generally a bit pentagonal shape are generally a bit
sharper than hemp. more rounded than flax
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SIST EN ISO 20706-1:2020
ISO 20706-1:2019(E)
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
Table 1 (continued)
FLAX HEMP RAMIE
POINTS OF
CHARACTERISTICS VIEW
INTEREST

(see photomicrographs in Annex A) (see photomicrographs in Annex B) (see photomicrographs in Annex C)

Lumen Longitudinal (only LM) Lumen is visible. (only LM) Lumen is visible if (only LM) In relation to the fibre

ultimate fibre. orientation, some lumens are
visible and wider.

Cross Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly Lumen of a mature fibre is mostly

very small and circular while lumen very small and circular while lumen wider than flax or hemp lumen and

of a non mature fibre is wider and of a non mature fibre is wider and follows the flattened shape of the

follows the flattened shape of the follows the flattened shape of the fibre. From the outer wall of the

fibre fibre fibre to the wall of the lumen some
cracks may occur

Cracks Crack presence Cross Not many cracks are visible in the Not many cracks are visible in the From the outer fibre wall to the

cross section. cross section. inner lumen wall a ramie fibre
can have some cracks which are
probably linked to the longitudinal
striates.

Ultimate Longitudinal Technical fibres (as groups of As hemp has long fibres, there are Technical fibres (as groups of

fibre versus ultimate fibres which are sticked mostly technical fibres in yarn ultimate fibres which are sticked to

Cross

technical to each other by pectins and other which are not treated (i.e caustifie

...

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