This document specifies the minimum amount of information spectroscopy to be reported with the analytical results to describe the methods of charge control and charge correction in measurements of core-level binding energies for insulating specimens by X‑ray photoelectron. It also provides methods for charge control and for charge correction in the measurement of binding energies.

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This document specifies a method of determining relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) for secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) from ion-implanted reference materials. The method is applicable to specimens in which the matrix is of uniform chemical composition, and in which the peak concentration of the implanted species does not exceed one atomic percent.

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This document gives guidance on methods of handling, mounting and surface treatment for a biomaterial specimen prior to surface chemical analysis. It is intended for the analyst as an aid in understanding the specialized specimen-handling conditions required for analyses by the following techniques: —   X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA); —   secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); —   Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The protocols presented are also applicable to other analytical techniques that are sensitive to surface composition, such as: —   attenuated total reflectance -Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR); —   total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF); —   ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The influence of vacuum conditions applied and the issue of contamination before and after analysis and implantation, as well as issues related to contamination during analysis, are addressed. Biomaterials covered here are hard and soft specimens such as metals, ceramics, scaffolds and polymers. This document does not cover such viable biological materials as cells, tissues and living organisms. Other related topics not covered in this document include: preparation of specimens for electron or light microscopy.

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This document provides guidelines for measuring the sputtered depth in sputtered depth profiling. The methods of sputtered depth measurement described in this document are applicable to techniques of surface chemical analysis when used in combination with ion bombardment for the removal of a part of a solid sample to a typical sputtered depth of up to several micrometres. The depth typically determined by this approach is between 1 nm to 500 µm.

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This document is provided to assist in the surface analysis of thin films on materials which are not thought to contain carbon compounds as intended components but for which a C1s peak is observed in the survey spectrum. The films can be those generated on metals and alloys by aerobic or electrochemical oxidation or be those deposited on inert substrates. The procedure described is not suitable for discontinuous deposits of particles on a substrate. With this exception, a simple procedure is provided for identifying the C1s signal from carbon-containing surface contamination. When the C1s peak is identified as arising from an adventitious over-layer the composition derived from the survey spectrum can be corrected for its influence. Recommended procedures are provided in the form of simple Rules structured in the 'If - Then` format with the intention that the information they embody might be utilised by automated procedures in data-systems. The rules provided utilize only information retrieved from the XPS survey scan.

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This document provides guidelines that are applicable to bulk and depth profiling GD-OES analyses. The guidelines discussed herein are limited to the analysis of rigid solids, and do not cover the analysis of powders, gases or solutions. Combined with specific standard methods which are available now and, in the future, these guidelines are intended to enable the regulation of instruments and the control of measuring conditions. Although several types of glow discharge optical emission sources have been developed over the years, the Grimm type with a hollow anode accounts for a very large majority of glow discharge optical emission devices currently in use both for dc and rf sources. However, the cathode contact is often located at the back of the sample, in e.g. the Marcus type source, rather than at the front as in the original Grimm design. The guidelines contained herein are equally applicable to both and other source designs and the Grimm type source is used only as an example.

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This document specifies a method, using acetone, to determine the mass percentage of acetate, after
removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of
— acetate
with
— wool, animal hair, silk, protein, cotton (scoured, kiered, or bleached), flax (or linen), hemp, jute, abaca,
alfa, coir, broom, ramie, sisal, cupro, viscose, modal, polyamide, polyester, polypropylene, acrylic,
elastolefin, elastomultiester, melamine, polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent, polyacrylate and
glass fibres.
It is not applicable to mixtures containing modacrylic fibres, certain chlorofibres, nor to mixtures
containing acetate fibres that have been deacetylated on the surface.

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This document specifies the general provisions and gives the basic definitions of terms relating to sampling for gas analysis, including sampling devices, sampling methods, sampling technical considerations, and sampling safety. This document applies to both direct and indirect sampling of gas in pressure receptacles and pipelines, including pure gases and gas mixtures. Compressed and liquefied gases are both considered. This document applies to the sampling of processed gases and does not involve gas treatment processes. The sampling procedures specified are not intended for the sampling of special products which are the subject of other International Standards, such as liquefied petroleum gases (see ISO 4257) and gaseous natural gases (see ISO 10715).

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This document specifies a method, using sulfuric acid, to determine the mass percentage of silk, after
removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of
— silk
with
— wool or other animal hair.

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This document specifies a method using hot formic acid to determine the mass percentage of melamine
fibres after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of:
— melamine fibres
with
— cotton, polypropylene or aramid fibres.

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This document specifies a method, using dimethylformamide, to determine the mass percentage of
acrylic, modacrylic, chlorofibre or elastane, after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of
mixtures of
— acrylic, certain modacrylics, certain chlorofibres, certain elastane fibres
with
— wool, animal hair, silk, cotton, viscose, cupro, modal, lyocell, polyamide, polyester, polypropylene,
elastomultiester, elastolefin, melamine, polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent, polyacrylate or
glass fibres.
It is not applicable to animal hair, wool and silk dyed with chromium based mordant dyes.
NOTE Dyestuff identification is described in ISO 16373-1.

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This document specifies a method for determining the use of certain azo colourants which can release
certain aromatic amines.

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This document specifies methods for the alignment of the ion beam to ensure good depth resolution in sputter depth profiling and optimal cleaning of surfaces when using inert gas ions in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These methods are of two types: one involves a Faraday cup to measure the ion current; the other involves imaging methods. The Faraday cup method also specifies the measurements of current density and current distributions in ion beams. The methods are applicable for ion guns with beams with a spot size less than or equal to 1 mm in diameter. The methods do not include depth resolution optimization.

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This document specifies a method for the evaluation of thickness, density and interface width of single layer and multi-layered thin films which have thicknesses between approximately 1 nm and 1 μm, on flat substrates, by means of X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR). This method uses a monochromatic, collimated beam, scanning either an angle or a scattering vector. Similar considerations apply to the case of a convergent beam with parallel data collection using a distributed detector or to scanning wavelength, but these methods are not described here. While mention is made of diffuse XRR, and the requirements for experiments are similar, this is not covered in the present document. Measurements may be made on equipment of various configurations, from laboratory instruments to reflectometers at synchrotron radiation beamlines or automated systems used in industry. Attention should be paid to an eventual instability of the layers over the duration of the data collection, which would cause a reduction in the accuracy of the measurement results. Since XRR, performed at a single wavelength, does not provide chemical information about the layers, attention should be paid to possible contamination or reactions at the specimen surface. The accuracy of results for the outmost layer is strongly influenced by any changes at the surface. NOTE 1 Proprietary techniques are not described in this document.

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This document specifies a method using trichloroacetic acid and chloroform to determine the mass
percentage of polyester fibres after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of
— polyester fibres
with
— aramid fibres (except polyamide imide), flame retardant (FR) viscose and polyacrylate.

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This document specifies a common method for the quantitative chemical analysis of various mixtures
of fibres. This method and the methods described in the other parts of ISO 1833 are applicable, in
general, to fibres in any textile form. Where certain textile forms are excepted, these are listed in the
scope of the appropriate part.

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This document specifies methods of quantitative analysis of various ternary mixtures of fibres.
The field of application of each method for analysing mixtures, specified in the parts of ISO 1833,
indicates the fibres to which the method is applicable.
This document is applicable to mixtures of fibres with more than three components provided that
the combination of test methods leads back to simple cases of fibre mixtures. Table B.1 illustrates the
typical ternary mixtures and their applied corresponding parts of the ISO 1833 series.

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This document specifies a method, using sulfuric acid, to determine the mass percentage of polyamide,
after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of binary mixtures of
— polyamide
with
— polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent.

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This document provides an introduction to (and some examples of) the types of information that can be obtained about nanostructured materials using surface-analysis tools (Clause 5). Of equal importance, both general issues or challenges associated with characterizing nanostructured materials and the specific opportunities or challenges associated with individual methods are identified (Clause 6). As the size of objects or components of materials approaches a few nanometres, the distinctions among "bulk", "surface" and "particle" analysis blur. Although some general issues relevant to characterization of nanostructured materials are identified, this document focuses on issues specifically relevant to surface chemical analysis of nanostructured materials. A variety of analytical and characterization methods will be mentioned, but this report focuses on methods that are in the domain of ISO/TC 201 including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X‑ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and scanning probe microscopy. Some types of measurements of nanoparticle surface properties such as surface potential that are often made in a solution are not discussed in this Report. Although they have many similar aspects, characterization of nanometre-thick films or a uniform collection of nanometre-sized particles present different characterization challenges. Examples of methods applicable to both thin films and to particles or nano-sized objects are presented. Properties that can be determined include: the presence of contamination, the thickness of coatings, and the chemical nature of the surface before and after processing. In addition to identifying the types of information that can be obtained, the document summarizes general and technique-specific Issues that must be considered before or during analysis. These include: identification of needed information, stability and probe effects, environmental effects, specimen-handling issues, and data interpretation. Surface characterization is an important subset of several analysis needs for nanostructured materials. The broader characterization needs for nanomaterials are within the scope of ISO/TC 229 and this document has been coordinated with experts of TC 229 Joint Working Group (JWG) 3. This introduction to information available about nanomaterials using a specific set of surface-analysis methods cannot by its very nature be fully complete. However, important opportunities, concepts and issues have been identified and many references provided to allow the topics to be examined in greater depth as required.

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This document specifies a method, using diluted acetic acid, to determine the mass percentage of
chitosan fibres, after elimination of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of:
— chitosan fibre
with
— certain other fibres.
This method is applicable to fibre mixtures of chitosan fibre with cellulose fibres (cotton, linen, ramie,
viscose, modal, lyocell), protein fibres (wool, cashmere, silk), or synthetic fibres (polyester, polyamide,
acrylic).

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EN-ISO 14080 specifies a test method for the determination of tanning agents through filtration of all vegetable and synthetic tanning products

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EN-ISO 1833-17 specifies a method, using concentrated sulfuric acid, to determinethe mass percentage of chlorofibres and certain other fibres, after removal ofnon-fibrous material, in textiles made of mixtures of - cotton, viscose, cupro,modal, lyocell, acetate, triacetate, polyamide, polyester, elastomultiester,certain acrylic and certain modacrylic fibres with - chlorofibres (based onhomopolymers of vinyl chloride), polypropylene, elastolefin, melamine andpolypropylene/polyamide bicomponent. The modacrylics concerned are those whichgive a clear solution when immersed in concentrated sulfuric acid. This methodcan be used, particularly in place of the methods described in ISO 1833-12 andISO 1833-13, in all cases where a preliminary test shows that the chlorofibresdo not dissolve completely either in dimethylformamide or in the azeotropicmixture of carbon disulfide and acetone.

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This document gives procedures for the operation and use of glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS). There are several GD-MS systems from different manufacturers in use and this document describes the differences in their operating procedures when appropriate. NOTE This document is intended to be read in conjunction with the instrument manufacturers' manuals and recommendations.

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This document describes a procedure for the determination of elastic modulus for compliant materials using atomic force microscope (AFM). Force-distance curves on the surface of compliant materials are measured and the analysis uses a two-point method based on Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory. This document is applicable to compliant materials with elastic moduli ranging from 100 kPa to 1 GPa. The spatial resolution is dependent on the contact radius between the AFM probe and the surface and is typically approximately10-20 nm.

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This standard specifies a method, by determining the nitrogen content, to calculate the proportion of each component, after the removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of - jute with - animal fibres. The animal-fibre component can consist solely of hair or wool, or of any mixtures of the two. This document is not applicable to products in which dyestuffs or finishes contain nitrogen.

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This document specifies a method, using carbon disulfide/acetone, to determine the mass percentage of chlorofibre, after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of - certain chlorofibres, with - wool, animal hair, silk, cotton, viscose, cupro, modal, lyocell, polyamide, polyester, elastomultiester, acrylic, melamine, polypropylene, polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent, polyacrylate and glass fibres. It is also possible to analyse mixtures containing chlorofibres by using the test methods described in ISO 1833-17 or ISO 1833-21.

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This document specifies a method, using benzyl alcohol, to determine the mass percentage of acetate, after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of - acetate with - triacetate, polypropylene, elastolefin, melamine, polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent and polyacrylate fibres.

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This document specifies performance requirements and test methods for remote alcohol monitoring devices that use breath alcohol testing technology. It covers remote alcohol monitoring devices having a mouthpiece and which are intended to be used by participants in programmes designed to monitor alcohol consumption. This document is directed at test laboratories and manufacturers of remote alcohol monitoring devices. It defines requirements and test procedures for type testing. Several parameter settings (such as alcohol concentration, breath volume or units of measurement) are specified in this document for the purpose of type testing according to this standard only. However, it may be necessary due to national regulations or depending on user requests to set the values of the prescribed parameter settings differently when the remote alcohol monitoring devices are in use.

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This document specifies a method, using glacial acetic acid, to determine the mass percentage of acetate, after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of - acetate with - certain chlorofibres or after-chlorinated chlorofibres. It is also possible to analyse mixtures containing acetate by using the test methods described in ISO 1833-3 or ISO 1833-9.

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This document gives a brief overview of each of the dynamic techniques which are described in detail in the subsequent parts of ISO 6145. This document provides basic information to support an informed choice for one or another method for the preparation of calibration gas mixtures. It also describes how these methods can be linked to national measurement standards to establish metrological traceability for the composition of the prepared gas mixtures. Since all techniques are dynamic and rely on flow rates, this document describes the calibration process by measurement of each individual flow rate generated by the device. Methods are also provided for assessing the composition of the generated gas mixtures by comparison with an already validated calibration gas mixture. This document provides general requirements for the use and operation of dynamic methods for gas mixture preparation. It also includes the necessary expressions for calculating the calibration gas composition and its associated uncertainty. Gas mixtures obtained by these dynamic methods can be used to calibrate or control gas analysers. The storage of dynamically prepared gas mixtures into bags or cylinders is beyond the scope of this document.

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This document gives a brief overview of each of the dynamic techniques which are described in detail in the subsequent parts of ISO 6145. This document provides basic information to support an informed choice for one or another method for the preparation of calibration gas mixtures. It also describes how these methods can be linked to national measurement standards to establish metrological traceability for the composition of the prepared gas mixtures.
Since all techniques are dynamic and rely on flow rates, this document describes the calibration process by measurement of each individual flow rate generated by the device.
Methods are also provided for assessing the composition of the generated gas mixtures by comparison with an already validated calibration gas mixture.
This document provides general requirements for the use and operation of dynamic methods for gas mixture preparation. It also includes the necessary expressions for calculating the calibration gas composition and its associated uncertainty.
Gas mixtures obtained by these dynamic methods can be used to calibrate or control gas analysers.
The storage of dynamically prepared gas mixtures into bags or cylinders is beyond the scope of this document.

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This document applies to the three main methods for measuring oxygen by its paramagnetic property, which are outlined in the introduction. It considers essential ancillary units and applies to analyzers installed indoors and outdoors. Safety-critical applications can require additional requirements from system and analyzer specifications not covered in this document. This document is intended - to specify terminology and definitions related to the functional performance of paramagnetic gas analyzers for the measurement of oxygen in a source gas; - to unify methods used in making and verifying statements on the functional performance of such analyzers; - to specify what tests are performed to determine the functional performance and how such tests are carried out; - to provide basic documents to support the application of internationally recognized quality management standards.

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This document describes a method for the determination of individual ergot alkaloids and tropane alkaloids in unprocessed cereals and cereal-based compound feeds by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
This method has been successfully validated by collaborative trial in the following matrices: rye, barley, wheat, complete feed for bovine, porcine and poultry. Validation in buckwheat produced acceptable results, but the relative standard reproducibility was higher for most analytes in comparison with the other matrices. This may be related to the matrix. The validated range of the method is approximately 10 to 250 µg/kg for individual alkaloids. Determination of concentrations above 250 µg/kg is possible by applying a higher spiking level and dilution of the sample extract, but this has not been validated in the collaborative trial.
The method is applicable for the determination, by means of one-point standard addition to the sample, of ergocornine in the tested range of 12 µg/kg to 221 µg/kg, ergocorninine in the tested range of 9 µg/kg to 196 µg/kg, ergocristine in the tested range of 14 µg/kg to 312 µg/kg, ergocristinine in the tested range of 12 µg/kg to 258 µg/kg, α-ergocryptine in the tested range of 10 µg/kg to 184 µg/kg, α-ergocryptinine in the tested range of 8 µg/kg to 171 µg/kg, ergometrine in the tested range of 12 µg/kg to 174 µg/kg, ergometrinine in the tested range of 3 µg/kg to 172 µg/kg, ergosine in the tested range of 12 µg/kg to 226 µg/kg, ergosinine in the tested range of 9 µg/kg to 273 µg/kg, ergotamine in the tested range of 11 µg/kg to 443 µg/kg, ergotaminine in the tested range of 10 µg/kg to 273 µg/kg, atropine in the tested range of 16 µg/kg to 252 µg/kg and scopolamine in the tested range of 15 µg/kg to 246 µg/kg.

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Applies to gas analyzers using high temperature electrochemical sensors for measurement of oxygen in gas. Applies to both 'in situ' and extractive analyzers installed indoors or outdoors.

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This document gives guidance to those involved in designing, executing and evaluating interlaboratory comparison studies for multi-analyte methods of analysis, developed by CEN/TC 327 “Animal feeding stuffs: Methods of sampling and analysis” and its working groups.
For the validation of multi-analyte methods their particularities must be considered which might necessitate deviations from the prescribed validation protocols. This study provides information whether the method is fit for its purpose and which performance can be expected in practical work while at the same time keeping the necessary effort for the study organizer and the participating laboratories minimal.
Next to the abovementioned aspects regarding interlaboratory comparison studies, this document also gives guidance on the preceding steps, viz. in-house validation and preparation of the method protocol. Guidance is also given on the transferability of the method protocol and the familiarization with the method protocol through a training study, elements that – depending on the specific method – could be included in the design of the study.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in animal feeding stuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV).
The method is intended to be used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as active substances in feed additives, premixtures and compound feed and for benzoic acid in water. This method determines the total extractable concentration of these organic acids and their salts.
The working range of the method must be determined for each organic acid by the user of this standard. The lower limit of the working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. A working range between 5 mg/l and 100 mg/l should be accessible.
The method was successfully tested in an inter-laboratory study in concentrations between 0,02 % up to 9,0 %.
On the basis of the referred working range, sample weigh and extraction volume, limits of quantification (LOQ), as calculated (Table 1) on the basis of a wavelength of 230 nm, should be achievable.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of organic acids in animal feeding stuffs by Ion Chromatography with conductivity detection (IC-CD).
The method is intended to be used for the determination of formic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid as active substances in feed additives, premixtures, compound feed and water and for screening of acetic acid in the same matrices. This method determines the total extractable concentration of the above mentioned organic acids and their salts.
The working range of the method must be determined for each organic acid by the user of this standard. The lower limit of the working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. A working range between 10 [mg/l] and 100 [mg/l] should be achievable.
The method was successfully tested in an inter-laboratory study in concentrations between 0,02 % up to 27 % of the above mentioned organic acids.
NOTE   Limitation occurs during simultaneous determination of high concentration of lactic acid and low concentration of acetic acid. If the ratio of concentration of lactic acid to acetic acid exceeds factor 20, the determination of acetic acid is not guaranteed.
On the basis of the referred working range, sample weight and extraction volume,  limits of quantification (LOQ), as calculated (Table 1) should be achievable.

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This document gives a brief overview of each of the dynamic techniques which are described in detail in the subsequent parts of ISO 6145. This document provides basic information to support an informed choice for one or another method for the preparation of calibration gas mixtures. It also describes how these methods can be linked to national measurement standards to establish metrological traceability for the composition of the prepared gas mixtures. Since all techniques are dynamic and rely on flow rates, this document describes the calibration process by measurement of each individual flow rate generated by the device. Methods are also provided for assessing the composition of the generated gas mixtures by comparison with an already validated calibration gas mixture. This document provides general requirements for the use and operation of dynamic methods for gas mixture preparation. It also includes the necessary expressions for calculating the calibration gas composition and its associated uncertainty. Gas mixtures obtained by these dynamic methods can be used to calibrate or control gas analysers. The storage of dynamically prepared gas mixtures into bags or cylinders is beyond the scope of this document.

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Applies to gas analyzers using high temperature electrochemical sensors for measurement of oxygen in gas. Applies to both 'in situ' and extractive analyzers installed indoors or outdoors.

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IEC 61207-3:2019 is available as IEC 61207-3:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 61207-3:2019 applies to the three main methods for measuring oxygen by its paramagnetic property, which are outlined in the introduction. It considers essential ancillary units and applies to analyzers installed indoors and outdoors. Safety-critical applications can require additional requirements from system and analyzer specifications not covered in this document. This document is intended: - to specify terminology and definitions related to the functional performance of paramagnetic gas analyzers for the measurement of oxygen in a source gas; - to unify methods used in making and verifying statements on the functional performance of such analyzers; - to specify what tests are performed to determine the functional performance and how such tests are carried out; - to provide basic documents to support the application of internationally recognized quality management standards. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2002. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) all references (normative and informative) have been updated, deleted or added to as appropriate; b) all the terms, descriptions and definitions relating to the document have been updated where appropriate; c) all references to “errors” have been replaced by “uncertainties” and appropriate updated definitions applied.

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This document is intended to aid the operators of X-ray photoelectron spectrometers in their analysis of typical samples. It takes the operator through the analysis from the handling of the sample and the calibration and setting-up of the spectrometer to the acquisition of wide and narrow scans and also gives advice on quantification and on preparation of the final report.

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This document specifies a method, using xylene, to determine the mass percentage of polypropylene,
after removal of non-fibrous matter, in textiles made of mixtures of
— polypropylene fibres
with
— wool, animal hair, silk, cotton, viscose, cupro, modal, lyocell, acetate, triacetate, polyamide, polyester,
acrylic, glass fibres, elastomultiester, melamine and polyacrylate.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in animal feeding stuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV).
The method is intended to be used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as active substances in feed additives, premixtures, feed materials and compound feed and for benzoic acid in water. This method determines the total extractable concentration of these organic acids and their salts.
It is advisable that the working range of the method is determined for each organic acid by the user of this standard. The lower limit of the working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. It is advisable that a working range between 5 mg/l and 100 mg/l is accessible.
The method was successfully tested in an inter-laboratory study in concentrations between 0,02 % up to 9,0 %.
On the basis of the referred working range, sample weight and extraction volume, limits of quantification (LOQ), as calculated (Table 1) on the basis of a wavelength of 230 nm, can be achievable.

  • Standard
    18 pages
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This document specifies a method for the determination of organic acids in animal feeding stuffs by Ion Chromatography with conductivity detection (IC-CD).
The method is intended to be used for the determination of formic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid as active substances in feed additives, premixtures, feed materials, compound feed and water and for acetic acid in a limited manner in the same matrices. This method determines the total extractable concentration of the above mentioned organic acids and their salts.
It is advisable that the user of this standard determines the working range of the method for each organic acid. The lower limit of the working range depends on the matrix and the interferences encountered. It is advisable that a working range between 10 mg/l and 100 mg/l is achievable.
The method was successfully tested in an inter-laboratory study in concentrations between 0,02 % up to 27 % of the above mentioned organic acids.
NOTE   Limitation occurs during simultaneous determination of high concentration of lactic acid and low concentration of acetic acid. If the ratio of concentration of lactic acid to acetic acid exceeds factor 20, the determination of acetic acid is not guaranteed.
On the basis of the referred working range, sample weight and extraction volume, limits of quantification (LOQ), as calculated (Table 1) can be achievable.

  • Standard
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This document describes a glow-discharge optical-emission spectrometric method for the determination of the thickness, mass per unit area and chemical composition of metal oxide films. This method is applicable to oxide films 1 nm to 10 000 nm thick on metals. The metallic elements of the oxide can include one or more from Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ti, Si, Mo, Zn, Mg, Mn, Zr and Al. Other elements that can be determined by the method are O, C, N, H, P and S.

  • Technical specification
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