Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements - Part 1: Passenger stairs

This European Standard specifies the technical requirements to minimise the hazards listed in Clause 4 which can arise during the commissioning, the operation and the maintenance of passenger stairs when used as intended, including misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer or his authorised representative. It also takes into account some requirements recognised as essential by authorities, aircraft and ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as airlines and handling agencies. This European Standard applies to: a) self-propelled stairs with seated driver; b) pedestrian controlled stairs; c) towable stairs equipped with powered means, e.g. for height adjustment, stabilisers; d) automatic levelling systems of stairs for embarking/disembarking of passengers. "Powered" should also be understood as manual effort stored in springs or hydraulic accumulators, etc., the dangerous action of which can be produced or can continue after the manual effort has ceased or directly applied manual effort for lifting or lowering loads. Those clauses of this standard that can apply may also be used as a guideline for the design of towable stairs without powered means. This European Standard does not establish additional requirements for the following: 1) persons falling out of an aircraft with the passenger stairs not in position; 2) hazards resulting from a moving stairway (escalator); 3) upper deck door access. This part of EN 12312 is not applicable to passenger stairs which are manufactured before the date of publication of this standard by CEN. This part of EN 12312 when used in conjunction with EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 provides the requirements for passenger stairs.

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen - Teil 1: Fluggasttreppen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die technischen Anforderungen an Fluggasttreppen zur Verminderung der in Abschnitt 4 aufgelisteten Gefährdungen fest, die bei Inbetriebnahme, Betrieb und Wartung auftreten können, wenn diese in Übereinstimmung mit den Anweisungen des Herstellers oder dessen Beauftragten, ausgeführt werden, einschließlich vom Hersteller vernünftigerweise vorhersehbarer Missbrauch. Sie berücksichtigt auch einige Funktions- und Gestaltungsanforderungen, die von offiziellen Stellen, den Herstellern von Luftfahrzeugen und Bodengeräten (GSE) sowie Luftverkehrs- und Abfertigungsgesellschaften als wesentlich erachtet wurden.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für:
a)   selbstfahrende Treppen mit Fahrerplatz;
b)   mitgängergeführte Treppen;
c)   schleppbare Treppen mit kraftbetriebenen Einrichtungen, z. B. zur Höhenanpassung, Abstützungen;
d)   automatische Nachführeinrichtungen für Treppen;
die für das Ein- und Aussteigen von Fluggästen bestimmt sind.
„Kraftbetrieben“ sollte auch verstanden werden als in Federn oder hydraulischen Akkumulatoren o. ä. gespeicherte menschliche Arbeitskraft, deren gefährliche Wirkung nicht zwangsläufig mit Einstellung der menschlichen Tätigkeit beendet ist, oder als unmittelbar angewandte menschliche Arbeitskraft zum Heben oder Senken von Lasten weiter bestehen kann.
Zutreffende Abschnitte dieser Norm können auch als Grundlage für die Gestaltung von schleppbaren Treppen ohne kraftbetätigte Einrichtungen dienen.
Diese Europäische Norm legt keine zusätzlichen Anforderungen an Folgendes fest:
1)   Absturzgefahren für Personen, die das Luftfahrzeug verlassen, wenn sich die Fluggasttreppe nicht an ihrem Platz befindet;
2)   Gefahren, die durch eine sich bewegende Treppe (Rolltreppe) entstehen;
3)   Zugang zu Oberdecktüren.
Dieser Teil der EN 12312 gilt nicht für Fluggasttreppen, die vor der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm durch CEN hergestellt wurden.
Wenn dieser Teil der EN 12312 in Verbindung mit EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 und EN 1915-4 angewendet wird, sieht er die Anforderungen an Fluggasttreppen vor.

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences particulières - Partie 1 : Escaliers passagers

La présente Norme Européenne spécifie les exigences techniques pour réduire les phénomènes dangereux énumérés à l’Article 4 qui peuvent survenir lors des opérations de mise en œuvre, d’exploitation et de maintenance des escaliers passagers en utilisation normale, y compris en cas de mauvaise utilisation raisonnablement prévisible par le fabricant, lorsqu’elles sont satisfaites conformément aux spécifications données par le fabricant ou son représentant légal. Elle tient également compte de certaines exigences reconnues comme essentielles par les autorités, les constructeurs d'aéronefs et de matériels au sol (GSE) ainsi que par les compagnies aériennes et les agences de manutention.
La présente Norme européenne s'applique :
a)   aux escaliers passagers autotractés à conducteur assis ;
b)   aux escaliers passagers à conducteur accompagnant ;
c)   aux escaliers passagers tractés avec équipements motorisés tels que par exemple réglage de la hauteur, stabilisateurs ;
d)   aux systèmes de mise à niveau automatique des escaliers ;
pour l'embarquement/le débarquement des passagers.
Le terme "motorisé" s'applique également, d’une part à la force manuelle emmagasinée dans les suspensions ou accumulateurs hydrauliques, etc. susceptibles de provoquer un risque ou de le faire durer même après l'arrêt de l'application de la force manuelle ou, d’autre part à la force manuelle directement appliquée lors des opérations de levage ou de descente de charges.
Les articles de la présente norme applicables peuvent également être utilisés comme lignes directrices pour la conception d'escaliers passagers tractés sans équipements motorisés.
La présente Norme Européenne ne fixe pas d’exigences supplémentaires en ce qui concerne :
1)   les chutes de personnes d'un aéronef dues au fait que les escaliers passagers ne sont pas en position ;
2)   les phénomènes dangereux dus au déplacement d’escaliers roulants (escalators) ;
3)   les portes d'accès au pont supérieur.
La présente partie de l’EN 12312 ne s’applique pas aux escaliers passagers fabriqués avant la date de publication de la présente norme par le CEN.
La présente partie de l’EN 12312 lorsqu’elle est utilisée conjointement avec les EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 et EN 1915-4 fournit les exigences pour les escaliers passagers.

Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Posebne zahteve - 1. del: Stopnice za potnike

Ta evropski standard določa tehnične zahteve za zmanjšanje nevarnosti, navedenih v točki 4, do katerih lahko pride pri začetku uporabe, delovanju in vzdrževanju stopnic za potnike pri namenski uporabi, vključno s pričakovano nepravilno uporabo, ki jo določi proizvajalec, ko jih v skladu s specifikacijami izvaja proizvajalec ali njegov zakoniti zastopnik. Upošteva tudi nekatere zahteve, ki jih organi, proizvajalci letal in podporne opreme na tleh, letalske družbe in agencije za oskrbo letal priznavajo za bistvene. Ta evropski standard se uporablja za: a) samohodne stopnice s sedečim voznikom; b) stopnice, ki jih upravitelj upravlja stoje; c) vlečene stopnice s pogonsko enoto, na primer za nastavitev višine, stabilizatorje; d) sisteme za samodejno izravnavanje stopnic za vkrcavanje/izkrcavanje potnikov. Pod »pogonsko« se razume tudi ročna sila, shranjena v vzmeteh ali hidravličnih akumulatorjih itd., katerih nevarno proizvajanje ali nadaljevanje delovanja je mogoče še po prenehanju ročnega proizvajanja sile ali neposredno uveljavljena ročna sila za dvigovanje ali spuščanje bremen. Primerne točke tega standarda je mogoče uporabiti tudi kot smernice za projektiranje vlečenih stopnic brez pogonske enote. Ta evropski standard ne določa dodatnih zahtev za naslednje: 1) padec oseb iz letala, ko stopnice za potnike niso nameščene; 2) nevarnosti, ki lahko nastanejo ob premikajočih se stopnicah (tekoče stopnice); 3) dostop do vrat zgornje etaže. Ta del standarda EN 12312 se ne uporablja za stopnice za potnike, izdelane, preden je CEN objavil ta standard. Ta del standarda EN 12312 skupaj z deli EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 in EN 1915-4 določa zahteve za stopnice za potnike.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
06-Jun-2010
Publication Date
24-Jul-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Jul-2013
Due Date
28-Sep-2013
Completion Date
25-Jul-2013

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Posebne zahteve - 1. del: Stopnice za potnikeLuftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen - Teil 1: FluggasttreppenAircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements - Part 1: Passenger stairs49.100Oprema za servis in vzdrževanje na tlehGround service and maintenance equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 12312-1:2013SIST EN 12312-1:2013en,fr,de01-september-2013SIST EN 12312-1:2013SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 12312-1:2002+A1:20091DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 12312-1:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 12312-1
January 2013 ICS 49.100 Supersedes EN 12312-1:2001+A1:2009English Version

Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements - Part 1: Passenger stairs

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences particulières - Partie 1 : Escaliers passagers

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Besondere Anforderungen - Teil 1: Fluggasttreppen This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2012.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 12312-1:2013: ESIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 5 1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................ 6 2 Normative references ....................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................... 7 4 List of hazards .................................................................................................................................. 8 5 Safety requirements and/or measures ............................................................................................ 8 5.1 General requirements ...................................................................................................................... 8 5.2 Safeguards against falling ............................................................................................................... 9 5.3 Stair flight ....................................................................................................................................... 10 5.4 Platforms ........................................................................................................................................ 11 5.5 Guard rails ...................................................................................................................................... 12 5.6 Raising devices and stability ......................................................................................................... 13 5.7 Controls, monitoring devices and displays for self-propelled passenger stairs ........................ 13 5.8 Auxiliary means for powered passenger stairs ............................................................................ 13 5.9 Canopy ........................................................................................................................................... 14 5.10 Automatic levelling system ........................................................................................................... 14 6 Information for use ......................................................................................................................... 14 6.1 Marking ........................................................................................................................................... 14 6.2 Warnings ........................................................................................................................................ 15 6.3 Instructions .................................................................................................................................... 15 7 Verification of requirements .......................................................................................................... 15 7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................... 15 7.2 Guard rails ...................................................................................................................................... 16 7.3 Barrier ............................................................................................................................................. 16 7.4 Platforms and steps ....................................................................................................................... 16 Annex A (normative)

List of hazards .......................................................................................................... 17 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC .................................................................................... 20 Bibliography................................................................................................................................................ 21

SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 12312-1:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 274 “Aircraft ground support equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2013. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 12312-1:2004+A1:2009. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. EN 12312, , consists of the following parts:  Part 1: Passenger stairs (the present document);  Part 2: Catering vehicles;  Part 3: Conveyor belt vehicles;  Part 4: Passenger boarding bridges;  Part 5: Aircraft fuelling equipment;  Part 6: Deicers and deicing/anti-icing equipment;  Part 7: Air-craft movement equipment;  Part 8: Maintenance stairs and platforms;  Part 9: Container/Pallet loaders;  Part 10: Container/Pallet transfer transporters;  Part 11: Container/Pallet dollies and loose load trailers;  Part 12: Potable water service equipment;  Part 13: Lavatory service equipment;  Part 14: Disabled/incapacitated passenger boarding vehicles;  Part 15: Baggage and equipment tractors;  Part 16: Air start equipment;

 Part 17: Air conditioning equipment;
SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 4  Part 18: Nitrogen or Oxygen units;  Part 19: Aircraft jacks, axle jacks and hydraulic tail stanchions;

 Part 20: Electrical ground power units. The main changes compared to the previous edition are: a) Amendment A1:2009 was incorporated; b) the Introduction was updated; c) the Scope was updated; d) Clause 2, Normative references, was updated; e) another term and definition was added; f) List of hazards was moved to Annex A; g) 5.1 was changed; h) 5.2, Safeguards against falling, was inserted, thus making it necessary to re-number the following sub-clauses; i) 5.3 to 5.10 were changed; j) 6.2 and 6.3 were changed; k) 7.1 was changed; l) 7.2, Guard rails, 7.3, Barrier and 7.4, Platforms and steps, were inserted; m) Annex A, Examples of passenger stairs, was deleted; n) Annex ZA referring to the Machinery directive 98/37/EC was replaced by Annex ZA referring to the new Machinery directive 2006/42/EC; o) the Bibliography was updated. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 5 Introduction This European Standard defines health and safety requirements, for stairs including a built-in source of power (see Clause 1, Scope) intended for passengers embarking/disembarking aircraft. The minimum essential criteria are considered to be of primary importance in providing safe, serviceable, economical, and practical passenger stairs. Deviations should occur only after careful consideration, extensive testing, risk assessment and service evaluation have shown alternative methods or conditions to be satisfactory. Such deviations are outside the scope of this standard and a manufacturer should be able to demonstrate an equivalent level of protection.

This European standard is a Type C standard as defined in EN ISO 12100. The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and hazardous events are covered are indicated in the scope of this document. When provisions of this Type C standard are different from those which are stated in Type A or B standards, the provisions of this Type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that have been designed and built according to the provisions of this Type C standard. Deviations from requirements do not fall within the presumption of conformity given by the standard. SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the technical requirements to minimise the hazards listed in Clause 4 which can arise during the commissioning, the operation and the maintenance of passenger stairs when used as intended, including misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer, when carried out in accordance with the specifications given by the manufacturer or his authorised representative. It also takes into account some requirements recognised as essential by authorities, aircraft and ground support equipment (GSE) manufacturers as well as airlines and handling agencies. This European Standard applies to: a) self-propelled stairs with seated driver; b) pedestrian controlled stairs; c) towable stairs equipped with powered means, e.g. for height adjustment, stabilisers; d) automatic levelling systems of stairs for embarking/disembarking of passengers. "Powered" should also be understood as manual effort stored in springs or hydraulic accumulators, etc., the dangerous action of which can be produced or can continue after the manual effort has ceased or directly applied manual effort for lifting or lowering loads. Those clauses of this standard that can apply may also be used as a guideline for the design of towable stairs without powered means. This European Standard does not establish additional requirements for the following: 1) persons falling out of an aircraft with the passenger stairs not in position; 2) hazards resulting from a moving stairway (escalator); 3) upper deck door access. This part of EN 12312 is not applicable to passenger stairs which are manufactured before the date of publication of this standard by CEN. This part of EN 12312 when used in conjunction with EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 provides the requirements for passenger stairs. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1175-1, pafety of industrial trucks — Electrical requirements — Part 1: General requirements for battery powered trucks EN 1837, pafety of machinery — Integral lighting of machines EN 1915-1:2013, Aircraft ground support equipment — General requirements — Part 1: Basic safety requirements EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009, Aircraft ground support equipment — General requirements — Part 2: ptability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 7 EN 1915-3, Aircraft ground support equipment — General requirements — Part 3: Vibration measurement methods and reduction EN 1915-4, Aircraft ground support equipment — General requirements — Part 4: Noise measurement methods and reduction EN ISO 12100:2010, pafety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction (fpl 1l100:l010) EN ISO 13849-1:2008, pafety of machinery — pafety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles for design (fpl 1m849-1:l00p) EN ISO 13850:2008, pafety of machinery — Emergency stop — Principles for design (fpl 1m850:l00p) EN ISO 14122-3:2001, pafety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — mart m: ptairsf stepladders and guard rails (fpl 141ll-m:l001) ISO 7718-1:2009, Aircraft — Passenger doors interface requirements for connection of passenger boarding bridge — Part 1: Main deck doors ISO 16004, Aircraft ground equipment — Passenger boarding bridge or transfer vehicle — Requirements for interface with aircraft doors DIN 51130:2004, Testing of floor coverings — Determination of the anti-slip property — Workrooms and fields of activities with slip danger, walking method — Ramp test 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1915-1:2013, EN ISO 12100:2010 and ISO 7718-1:2009 and the following apply. 3.1 passenger stair stair designed for the embarking and disembarking of passengers between the aircraft and the ground 3.2 stair flight series of steps between ground level and platform or between two platforms 3.3 riser height

R distance between the surface of the tread of one step and the surface of a step above or below when measured perpendicularly between the tread surfaces 3.4 tread depth

T distance from one step nosing to the adjacent step nosing when measured parallel to the tread surface 3.5 step width maximum usable width measured along the nose of the step 3.6 handrail height distance to the top surface of the handrail as measured at the nose of the step or platform and perpendicular to the tread surface SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 8 3.7 upper (main) platform platform at the upper end of a stair flight with access to the aircraft 3.8 intermediate platform platform between two stair flights 3.9 incline angle of stair flight to a horizontal plane, measured across the noses of the steps 3.10 inclination angle of the platforms and steps surfaces to a horizontal plane, measured at a right angle to the noses of the steps 3.11 bottom hinged step foldable step at the bottom end of the stair to provide sufficient ground clearance during movement 3.12 leading edge front end of the upper (main) platform at the aircraft door interface 3.13 auxiliary system independent system for the operation of the passenger stair in case of power loss 3.14 barrier movable element to prevent access into the area 4 List of hazards The list of risks and hazards (given at Annex A) is based on EN ISO 12100:2010 and contains the hazards and hazardous situations, as far as they are dealt with in this European Standard, identified by risk assessment as significant for passenger stairs and which require action to eliminate or reduce risks. Not covered are hazards due to a standard automotive chassis, the traffic and repair. 5 Safety requirements and/or measures 5.1 General requirements 5.1.1 Passenger stairs shall conform to the requirements of this standard and relevant requirements of EN 1915-1, EN 1915-2, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 unless otherwise specified in this standard. The specific requirements of this standard take precedence over those of the EN 1915 series.

5.1.2 Stability and strength calculations shall be carried out in accordance with EN 1915-2. 5.1.3 For stairs to be moved on public roadways, the dimensions, laden mass and other characteristics shall meet all applicable government regulations when in fully retracted position. NOTE Applicable government regulations depend on the airport of use. 5.1.4 Passenger stairs shall have an upper (main) platform and, where the number of risers exceeds 18, an intermediate platform shall be provided at least after every 18 risers. The number of risers shall not normally exceed 40. SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 9 5.1.5 Step and platform inclination in all intended operating positions shall not exceed ± 3° (5 %) when the passenger stair rests on a horizontal plane. 5.1.6 The step and platform cover material shall provide the possibility of easy elimination of water and snow, and be selected to minimise wear. The flooring materials shall also provide a durable slip-resistant sur-face, with a minimum R11 slip-resistance classification. Slip resistance classification shall be measured in accordance with DIN 51130:2004, Table 3. 5.1.7 With the passenger stair fully stowed for movement, the lowest point of any part of the passenger stair shall not be less than 150 mm above a horizontal ground surface. In addition, the clearance shall allow without interference the traversing of two surfaces intersecting at an angle of 3° (5 %) either in bridging or in cresting. 5.1.8 The driver's accommodation shall not project forward of the leading edge of the upper (main) platform when in its fully retracted position. The passenger stair shall be constructed so that the driver is able to see the leading edge throughout its operating range. 5.1.9 Where an operator's workplace is provided on the upper (main) platform, the following requirements shall apply: a) the workplace shall be entirely protected against the risk of falling in accordance with 5.2; b) standing operation shall be limited to a travelling speed of 15 km/h. The minimum free space for standing operation shall be 600 mm wide by 500 mm deep. A rest pad shall be provided for a standing driver; c) the operator's position shall provide an unobstructed view of the platform's leading edge and the full flight of stairs. 5.1.10 Stair flights and platforms shall have illumination of a non-glare quality for floor and step treads. A minimum illumination of 50 lx shall be provided, as measured at the centre line of the stair flight and platforms, parallel to and on the tread surface. 5.1.11 The electrical system of battery powered passenger stairs shall conform to EN 1175-1. 5.1.12 The driver accommodation of self-propelled passenger stairs shall be equipped with a restraint sys-tem for the driver.

5.1.13 Pedestrian controlled or towable stairs shall be fitted with a service and parking brake function that can be engaged and released at the operator's workplace or at the towbar head. 5.1.14 The minimum field of view from the driver's position shall include the ground area immediately aft of the unit up to the first steps. This can be achieved either by using see-through risers on the stair flight, or indi-rect means such as e.g. mirrors or closed circuit TV. It is further recommended to consider providing indirect means for seeing the stairs upper platform from the driver's position. 5.2 Safeguards against falling 5.2.1 Provisions shall be made for eliminating or reducing the risk of falling of persons from the front edge of the stairs' upper platform when the stair is not completely connected to the aircraft or is being removed. Such provisions shall consist of: a) for passenger stairs with a maximum height of the upper (main) platform from 1 000 mm up to 2 000 mm: one barrier at the upper (main) platform of the passenger stairs; b) for passenger stairs with a maximum height of the upper (main) platform in excess of 2 000 mm: two barriers, one at the bottom end of the passenger stairs, one at the upper (main) platform. 5.2.2 Upper (main) platform barriers shall: SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 10 a) consist of an upper element with a height of at least 1 100 mm and at least one intermediate element 500 mm below the upper element; b) use additional elements as necessary to prevent the free vertical height between adjacent elements exceeding 500 mm; c) be designed so that when in the position giving protection they have a maximum deflection not exceeding at any point 5% of the unsupported span when subjected to an horizontal load F of 1 000 N at the most unfavourable location, without causing any permanent deformation. See 7.3 for verification; d) be clearly visible from either side, including at night and in fog; e) be padded to avoid any damage where it may interfere with open aircraft doors or doors being opened; NOTE Recommended practices for aircraft protective padding are contained in SAE AIR 1558; see Bibliography. f) be sufficiently movable for safe person transfer when the platform is in position against the aircraft. Movable sections shall be easy to handle by one person with a force not exceeding 62 N, and able to be stowed safely, i.e. retained in the stowed position by a positive fit device requiring deliberate action for release. 5.2.3 Bottom end barriers shall at least consist of a strap, e.g. a strap with an inertia reel, and a device for securing the strap in the "stair-closed" position. 5.2.4 On self-propelled stairs, stabilisers retraction or backward movement of the stairs shall be prevented unless the barriers are in their protective position. The related interlocking systems shall achieve performance level "c" according to EN ISO 13849-1:2008. 5.2.5 To warn of impending stairs removal, the stair shall be equipped with both an audible warning (intermittent single-frequency tone in accordance with EN 1915-1:2013, 5.12 and a flashing red light highly unmistakable from the aircraft doorway under all circumstances. These signals shall be activated automatically at least 5 s before the stair can be removed, or by the start of the stabilisers retraction, and shall remain active during the complete backward movement. Where possible, the design of the stair may prevent its removal before the aircraft door is closed. 5.3 Stair flight 5.3.1 All steps of a stair flight shall be designed with the same riser height and the same tread depth. 5.3.2 Riser height and tread depth dimensions shall meet the following geometry criteria: Riser height (R) + Tread depth (T) = 460 mm ± 10 mm The riser height (R) shall be between 140 mm and 210 mm, the tread depth (T) shall be between 250 mm and 320 mm. 5.3.3 The incline for the stair flight when set for embarking/disembarking shall be between 24° and 40°. NOTE The optimum angle for the stair flight incline is between 30° and 38°. 5.3.4 The minimum usable clear width of a stair flight shall be 1 000 mm; see 5.9.2 for minimum headroom required where a canopy is installed. 5.3.5 Any hinged step that may be fitted at the bottom of the stair shall meet the criteria in 5.1.7 and 5.3.1. This step shall be easy to handle and be able to be stowed safely. 5.3.6 The distance from the ground to the tread surface of the bottom step shall not exceed 260 mm, when the stair is positioned on a horizontal supporting surface and set for embarking/disembarking. SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 11 5.3.7 Each step shall withstand the following unfactored loads: a) if the steps width is less than 1 200 mm, then 1 500 N shall be distributed over a 100 mm × 100 mm area at the leading edge of the step and in the middle of the stair's width, b) if the steps width is equal to or greater than 1 200 mm, then 1 500 N shall be distributed over each of two 100 mm × 100 mm areas at the leading edge of the step, applied at the most unfavourable points and spaced 800 mm. In either case, the total measured elastic deflection shall not exceed 1/200th of the step's span. There shall be no permanent deformation. 5.4 Platforms 5.4.1 The upper (main) platform shall have a minimum usable length of 1 200 mm. Where allowed by the local airport regulations regarding vehicles overall width (see EN 1915-1:2013, Introduction, f) - negotiation), the minimum clear width dimension between the inner faces of guard rails/side panels should be equal to the cumulative widths of the aircraft door in the open and closed positions plus a 200 mm minimum clearance, in order to allow full door opening and closing while remaining within the boundaries of guard rails/side panels. NOTE See 6.3, Instructions for use, for listing by the manufacturer of the aircraft types and doors the stairs are intended to serve. 5.4.2 The leading edge of the upper (main) platform shall be designed in a manner that provides a good fit to the aircraft fuselage, i.e. a maximum gap of 100 mm along the length of the interface. Bumpers made of flexible material shall allow direct contact between leading edge and aircraft fuselage. The leading edge of the platform shall be fitted along its whole length with a full width bumper designed to protect the aircraft that: a) is of a non-marking semi-soft material; b) ensures a minimum 60 mm crushing capability; c) is designed to minimise any force exerted onto the aircraft doorframe. It is recommended the static force equivalent does not exceed 1 500 N distributed over the length, or 1 500 N on any 100 mm x 100 mm contact area. The aircraft interface device may include a contact detection feature able to provide an electrical signal when contact with the aircraft is achieved at any point that can be used to stop movement. In this case, the related interlocking systems shall achieve performance level "b" according to EN ISO 13849-1:2008. 5.4.3 Both sides of the upper (main) platform shall be fitted with full panels supporting the handrails as per 5.5. The forward end of each side panel shall be covered by protective padding and be of such design to leave a maximum gap of 120 mm to the aircraft fuselage. Both side panel edges shall be fitted along their whole height with an aircraft protection device that: a) is of a non-marking semi-soft material; b) ensures a minimum 60 mm crushing capability; c) is designed to minimise any force exerted onto the aircraft doorframe. It is recommended the static force equivalent does not exceed 1 500 N distributed over the length, or 1 500 N on any 100 mm x 100 mm contact area. SIST EN 12312-1:2013

EN 12312-1:2013 (E) 12 The aircraft interface device may include a contact detection feature able to provide an electrical signal when contact with the aircraft is achieved at any point that can be used to stop movement. In this case, the related interlocking systems shall achieve performance level "b" according to EN ISO 13849-1:2008. 5.4.4 Where the platform internal usable width is less than defined in 5.4.1, one or both guard rails/side panels together with their handrails shall be adjustable in order to allow safe opening and closing of the air-craft doors without obstruction. NOTE See 6.3, Instructions, for listing by the manufacturer of the aircraft types/sub-types and doors the stairs are intended to serve. It shall be possible to actuate the movable panel(s) and open/close the aircraft door from a protected position, i.e. one that provides continuous flooring and full enclosure by guard rails. The force required for the actuation of movable parts shall not exceed 62 N. 5.4.5 The leading edge of the upper (main) platform and side panels, as well as any appurtenances located in or close to the critical interference area shall conform with the interface requirements given in ISO 7718-1 and ISO 16004. 5.4.6 The length of any intermediate platform shall be three treads minimum. Any longer platform shall have a depth equal to that of the tread multiplied by an integer. 5.4.7 The strength of the upper (main) platform and any intermediate platform (landing) shall be determined in accordance with EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009, 5.2.2.3. There shall be no permanent deformation of the platform(s) under the specified

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