This Technical Report presents an overview and time plan for test methods and requirements that could be expected for future unleaded petrol and petrol blends in Europe. This means unleaded petrol with an ethanol/oxygenates level higher than allowed in the Fuels Quality Directive, Annex I [4], which is petrol containing up to 3,7 % (m/m) of oxygen, more familiarly known as E10.
Specific issues that may apply for certain levels or types of oxygenates are highlighted where appropriate in the appropriate sections of this report. This report does not take into account all issues related to vehicles that are specially designed to run on a much wider range of oxygenate contents above E10+, for example up to E85.
The report covers fuels and vehicle concepts for both E10+-capable (without engine efficiency gains) and E10+-optimised (with engine efficiency gains).
NOTE 1   Following the large possible combinations and levels of oxygenates, the work focuses on unleaded petrol with a nominal ethanol content between 10 % (V/V) and 25 % (V/V). Once the ethanol is higher than approximately 20 % to 25 % (depending on the vehicle) more engine and vehicle measures would likely be needed.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.
NOTE 3   Although EN 228 speaks about and defines "unleaded petrol", the wording "petrol" is used throughout this document for the sake of readability.

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