This document specifies a method for the determination, using an oscillating U-tube density meter, of the density of crude petroleum and related products within the range 600 kg/m3 to 1 100 kg/m3, which can be handled as single-phase liquids at the test temperature and pressure.
This document is applicable to liquids of any vapour pressure as long as suitable precautions are taken to ensure that they remain in single phase. Loss of light components leads to changes in density during both the sample handling and the density determination.
This method is not intended for use with in-line density meters.

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This document specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive LPG (commonly known as low pressure gas or liquefied petroleum gas).
This document is applicable to automotive LPG for use in LPG engine vehicles designed to run on automotive LPG.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - Attention is drawn to the risk of fire and explosion when handling LPG and to the hazard to health arising through inhalation of excessive amounts of LPG.
LPG is a highly volatile hydrocarbon liquid which is normally stored under pressure. If the pressure is released large volumes of gas will be produced which form flammable mixtures with air over the range of approximately 2 % (V/V) to 10 % (V/V). This European Standard involves the sampling, handling and testing of LPG. Naked flames, unprotected electrical equipment electrostatic hazards etc. are sources of ignition for LPG.
LPG in liquid form can cause cold burns to the skin. National health and safety regulations can apply.
LPG is heavier than air and accumulates in cavities. There is a danger of suffocation when inhaling high concentrations of LPG.
CAUTION - One of the tests described in this document involves the operator inhaling a mixture of air and LPG vapour. Particular attention is drawn to the cautionary statement provided in A.1, where this method is referred to.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document specifies two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so. The measurement ranges that apply to this method are given in Table 2 and Table 3.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a procedure for determining dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ, for the calculation of kinematic viscosity, ν, of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester fuels (FAME) and mixtures thereof, up to 60 % with middle distillate fuels, and lubricating oils (e.g. base oils, formulated oils), and synthetics, using a constant pressure viscometer. The range of kinematic viscosities covered in this test method is from 0,5 mm2/s to 2 000 mm2/s, with precision at 40 °C from 1,0 mm2/s to 1 286 mm2/s, and precision at 100 °C from 3,0 mm2/s to 157 mm2/s.
The result obtained using the procedure described in this document depends on the rheological behaviour of the sample. This document is predominantly applicable to liquids whose shear stress and shear rate are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). However, if the viscosity changes significantly with the shear rate, comparison with other measuring methods is only permissible at similar shear rates.

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This document specifies statistical methodology for assessing the expected agreement between two test methods that purport to measure the same property of a material, and for deciding if a simple linear bias correction can further improve the expected agreement.
This document is applicable for analytical methods which measure quantitative properties of petroleum or petroleum products resulting from a multi-sample-multi-lab study (MSMLS). These types of studies include but are not limited to interlaboratory studies (ILS) meeting the requirements of ISO 4259-1 or equivalent, and proficiency testing programmes (PTP) meeting the requirements of ISO 4259-3 or equivalent.
The methodology specified in this document establishes the limiting value for the difference between two results where each result is obtained by a different operator using different apparatus and two methods X and Y, respectively, on identical material. One of the methods (X or Y) has been appropriately bias-corrected to agree with the other in accordance with this practice. This limit is designated as the between-methods reproducibility. This value is expected to be exceeded with a probability of 5 % under the correct and normal operation of both test methods due to random variation.
NOTE      Further conditions for application of this methodology are given in 5.1 and 5.2.

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This document explains the requirements and test methods for paraffinic diesel fuel from synthesis or hydrotreatment. Synthesis refers to XTL processes where X refers to various feedstocks for example Gas (G), Biomass (B) or Coal (C) and TL stands for To-Liquid. Hydrotreatment of vegetable oils and animal fats yield Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Paraffinic diesel fuel can be blended with up to 7,0 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). This document provides background information to the final text of EN 15940 [1] and gives guidance and explanations to the producers, blenders, marketers and users of paraffinic automotive diesel fuel.
Paraffinic diesel fuel is a high quality, clean burning fuel with virtually no sulfur and aromatics. Paraffinic diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines, also to reduce regulated emissions. In order to have the greatest possible emissions reduction, a specific calibration is needed. Some types of paraffinic diesel fuel, at present notably HVO, can also offer a meaningful contribution to the target of increased non-crude derived and/or renewable content in the transportation fuel pool.
For general diesel engine operation, durability and warranty, paraffinic automotive diesel fuel needs a validation step to confirm the compatibility of the fuel with the vehicle, which for some existing engines still needs to be done. The vehicle manufacturer needs to be consulted before use.
NOTE 1   This document is directly related to EN 15940 and will be updated once further publications take place.
NOTE 2   Paraffinic diesel fuel is also used as a blending component in automotive diesel fuel. In that case, composition and properties of the final blends are defined by relevant fuel specification standards.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document specifies Procedure A, using manual glass viscometers, and Procedure B, using glass capillary viscometers in an automated assembly, for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of both transparent and opaque products. The scope includes liquid petroleum products, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), paraffinic diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), gas to liquid (GTL) and biofuel diesel mixtures up to 50 % FAME. The kinematic viscosity is determined by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, is obtained by multiplying the measured kinematic viscosity by the density, ρ, of the liquid. The range of kinematic viscosities covered in this test method is from 0,2 mm2/s to 300 000 mm2/s over the temperature range –20 °C to +150 °C.
NOTE       The result obtained from this document is dependent upon the behaviour of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results can be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour, have been included.

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 20 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, at atmospheric pressure utilizing an automatic micro distillation apparatus.
This test method is applicable to such products as light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels containing up to 20 % (V/V) ethanol, aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, (paraffinic) diesel fuels, FAME (B100), diesel blends up to 30 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), special petroleum spirits, naphtha’s, white spirits, kerosene’s, burner fuels, and marine fuels.
The test method is also applicable to hydrocarbons with a narrow boiling range, like organic solvents or oxygenated compounds.
The test method is designed for the analysis of distillate products; it is not applicable to products containing appreciable quantities of residual material.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of user of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the document, and to fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.
NOTE   For the purpose of this document, the expression "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of cetane numbers ("CN") of diesel fuels, using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, indirect injection engine. The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The cetane number is determined at constant speed in a compression ignition test engine equipped with a swirl chamber.
The cetane number scale covers the range from 0 to 100, but typical testing is performed in the CN range from about 40 to about 75. The precision of this test method covers the CN range from 44 to about 66.
This document is applicable to distillate as well as paraffinic diesel fuels intended for use in diesel engines, including those containing up to a volume fraction of 10 % fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME), ignition-improvers or other diesel fuel additives.
When this engine test procedure is used for other fuels such as synthetics and vegetable oils, samples with fuel properties that interfere with the gravity-based pre-supply pressure to the fuel pump e.g. due to high viscosity can only be used to a limited extent. Precision data for such fuels are not available at this stage.
NOTE   The test method is also suitable for determining cetane numbers outside the range of the scope; however, the precision statement only applies for fuels in the specified range.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the document, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a test method using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) with a digital camera, for assessing the lubricating property of petroleum-based middle distillate fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels, and biodiesel blends, with or without lubricity enhancing additives, and with HFRR wear scar diameters (WSDs) of 350 μm to 700 μm.
This test method applies to fuels used in diesel engines.
NOTE       It is not known if this test method can predict the performance of all additive/fuel combinations.

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This document specifies requirements on petrol fuel for use as fuel in small engines, together with the methods to be applied for testing these properties.
This document specifies requirements for two types of petrol fuel having low aromatics and sulfur content:
- one type for use in four-stroke engines with separate lubrication; and
- one mixed petrol fuel type for use in mixture-lubricated engines.
Testing the properties of the added engine oil is out of the scope of this document.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document specifies a procedure for the determination of dry residue in ethanol by gravimetric (desiccation) method in the range (10 to 25) mg/100 ml.
NOTE In an interlaboratory study [2] the method described has been tested at levels down to 3,5 mg/100 ml, but the precision appeared to be insufficient at such low levels.
WARNING - Use of this document can involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the document, and to fulfil statutory and regulatory restrictions for this purpose.

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This document describes requirements and test methods for paraffinic diesel fuel marketed and delivered as such, containing a level of up to 7,0 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). It is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and vehicles compatible with paraffinic diesel fuel. It specifies two classes of paraffinic diesel fuel: high cetane and normal cetane.
Paraffinic diesel fuel originates from synthesis or hydrotreatment processes.
NOTE 1   For general diesel engine warranty, the vehicle manufacturer needs to be consulted before use. Paraffinic automotive diesel fuel may need a validation step to confirm the compatibility of the fuel with the vehicle, which for some existing engines may still need to be done (see also the Introduction to this document). However, it is noted that paraffinic diesel fuel is extensively available and has been increasingly approved by vehicle manufacturers for usage in vehicles since the first publication of this document.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document provides guidance on taking and handling samples related to oil spill identification in legal proceedings. Guidance is given on obtaining samples from both the spill and its potential source.
Preservation of evidence is an essential part of legal procedures and this document presents appropriate oil sampling procedures.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and to determine the applicability of any other restrictions for this purpose.
IMPORTANT - Most countries have teams with specialists trained in sampling on board of ships. Do not take unnecessary risks, seek assistance from such teams where available.
NOTE   For the sake of clarity, the word ‘oil’ is used throughout this document. It can equally refer to crude oil, a petroleum product or mixtures of such.

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This document specifies a method to identify and compare the compositional characteristics of oil samples. Specifically, it describes the detailed analytical and data processing methods for identifying the characteristics of spill samples and establishing their correlation to suspected source oils. Even when samples or data from suspected sources are not available for comparison, establishing the specific nature (e.g. refined petroleum, crude oil, waste oil, etc.) of the spilled oil still helps to constrain the possible source(s).
This methodology is restricted to petroleum related products containing a significant proportion of hydrocarbon-components with a boiling point above 150 °C. Examples are: crude oils, higher boiling condensates, diesel oils, residual bunker or heavy fuel oils, lubricants, and mixtures of bilge and sludge samples, as well as distillate fuels and blends. While the specific analytical methods are perhaps not appropriate for lower boiling oils (e.g. kerosene, jet fuel, or gasoline), the general concepts described in this methodology, i.e. statistical comparison of weathering-resistant diagnostic ratios, are applicable in spills involving these kinds of oils.
Paraffin based products (e.g. waxes, etc.) are outside the scope of this method because too many compounds are removed during the production process [37]. However, the method can be used to identify the type of product involved.
Although not directly intended for identifying oil recovered from groundwater, vegetation, wildlife/tissues, soil, or sediment matrices, they are not precluded. However, caution is needed as extractable compounds can be present in these matrices that alter and/or contribute additional compounds compared to the source sample. If unrecognized, the contribution from the matrix can lead to false “non-matches”. It is therefore advisable to analyse background sample(s) of the matrix that appear unoiled.
When analysing “non-oil” matrices additional sample preparation (e.g. clean-up) is often required prior to analysis and the extent to which the matrix affects the correlation achieved is to be considered. Whether the method is applicable for a specific matrix depends upon the oil concentration compared to the “matrix concentration”. In matrices containing high concentrations of oil, a positive match can still be concluded. In matrices containing lower concentrations of oil, a false “non-match” or an “inconclusive match” can result from matrix effects. Evaluation of possible matrix effects is beyond the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the oxidation stability at 120 °C of fuels for diesel engines, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 20 h. The method is applicable to blends of FAME with petroleum-based diesel having a FAME content in the range between 2 % (V/V) and 50 % (V/V).
NOTE 1   An almost identical test method for oxidation stability at 110 °C is described in EN 15751 [1], which applies to pure FAME and diesel/FAME blends containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum. Other alternative test methods for the determination of the oxidation stability of distillate fuels are described in CEN/TR 17225 [3].
NOTE 2   The precision of this method was determined using samples with a maximum induction period of approximately 20 h. Higher induction periods are not covered by the precision statement; however, experience from EN 15751 indicates sufficient precision up to 48 h.
NOTE 3   The presence of cetane improver can reduce the oxidation stability determined by this test method. Limited studies with 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (EHN) indicated that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the reproducibility of the test method.
NOTE 4   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This document specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of ignition delay of middle distillate fuels intended for use in compression ignition engines. The method utilizes a constant volume combustion chamber designed for operation by compression ignition, and employing direct injection of fuel into compressed air that is controlled to a specified pressure and temperature. An equation is given to calculate the derived cetane number (DCN) from the ignition delay measurement.
This document covers the ignition delay range from 2,58 ms to 6,34 ms (76,8 DCN to 33,9 DCN). The combustion analyser can measure shorter or longer ignition delays, but precision is not known.
This document is applicable to diesel fuels, including those containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V). The method is also applicable to middle distillate fuels of non-petroleum origin, oil-sands based fuels, blends of fuel containing biodiesel material, diesel fuel oils containing cetane number improver additives and low-sulfur diesel fuel oils. Furthermore, the method is applicable to paraffinic diesel from synthesis or hydrotreatment, containing up to a volume fraction of 7 % FAME [1]. However, users applying this document especially to unconventional distillate fuels are warned that the relationship between derived cetane number and combustion behaviour in real engines is not yet fully understood.
The test method is also applicable to the quantitative determination of the ignition characteristics of FAME, especially the ignition delay. However, analysis of the data available, regarding correlation with EN ISO 5165, is inconclusive. So the determination of derived cetane number for FAME fuel, also known as B100, has not been included in the precision determination as in Clause 12.
NOTE    For the purpose of this document, the expression “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction and “% (m/m)” the mass fraction.
WARNING — The use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies the process and methodology for the construction, operation, and maintenance of statistical control charts to assess if a laboratory's execution of a standard test method is in-statistical-control and how to establish and validate the 'in-statistical-control' status.
It specifies control charts that are most appropriate for ISO/TC 28 test methods where the dominant common cause variation is associated with the long term, multiple operator conditions. The control charts specified for determination of in-statistical-control are: individual (I), moving range of 2 (MR2), and either the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) or zone-based run rules [similar to Western Electric (WE) run rules[3]] as sensitivity enhancement strategy to support the I-chart.
The procedures in this document have been primarily designed for numerical results obtained from testing of control samples prepared from a homogenous source of petroleum and related products in a manner that preserves the homogeneity of properties of interest between control samples. If the test method permits, a certified reference material (CRM) sample is used as a control sample provided the sample composition is representative of the material being tested and is not a pure compound; if this is done then the laboratory best establishes its own mean for the CRM sample.
This document is applicable to properties of interest that are (known to be) stable over time, and for data sets with sufficient resolution to support validation of the assumption that the data distribution can be approximately represented by the normal (Gaussian) model. Mitigating strategies are suggested for situations where the assumption cannot be validated.

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This document provides descriptions of the different types of pipe provers, otherwise known as displacement provers, currently in use. These include sphere (ball) provers and piston provers operating in unidirectional and bidirectional forms. It applies to provers operated in conventional, reduced volume, and small volume modes.
This document gives guidelines for:
—    the design of pipe provers of each type;
—    the calibration methods;
—    the installation and use of pipe provers of each type;
—    the interaction between pipe provers and different types of flowmeters;
—    the calculations used to derive the volumes of liquid measured (see Annex A);
—    the expected acceptance criteria for fiscal and custody transfer applications, given as guidance for both the calibration of pipe provers and when proving flowmeters (see Annex C).
This document is applicable to the use of pipe provers for crude oils and light hydrocarbon products which are liquid at ambient conditions. The principles apply across applications for a wider range of liquids, including water. The principles also apply for low vapour pressure, chilled and cryogenic products, however use with these products can require additional guidance.

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This document describes three procedures (A, B and C) covering determinations of flash no-flash and flash point.
Rapid equilibrium procedures A and B are applicable to flash no-flash and flash point tests of paints, including water-borne paints, varnishes, binders for paints and varnishes, adhesives, solvents, petroleum products including aviation turbine, diesel and kerosene fuels, fatty acid methyl esters and related products over the temperature range –30 °C to 300 °C. The rapid equilibrium procedures are used to determine whether a product will or will not flash at a specified temperature (flash no-flash procedure A) or the flash point of a sample (procedure B). When used in conjunction with the flash detector (A.1.6), this document is also suitable to determine the flash point of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The validity of the precision is given in Table 2.
Non-equilibrium procedure C is applicable to petroleum products including aviation turbine, diesel and kerosine fuels, and related petroleum products, over the temperature range –20 °C to 300 °C. The non-equilibrium procedure is automated to determine the flash point. Precision has been determined over the range 40 °C to 135 °C.
For specifications and regulations, procedures A or B are routinely used (see 10.1.1).

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This document specifies a column switching gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of benzene content in the range 0,05 % (V/V) to 6 % (V/V) in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 °C.
The method described in this document is suitable for determining benzene in petrol, including petrol containing oxygenates up to E10 (up to 3,7 % (m/m) oxygen content), in line with the relevant EC Directives [1].
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (V/V)" and "% (m/m)" are used to represent respectively the volume fraction and the mass fraction.
WARNING - Use of this document might involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies an automated method for the determination of the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of diesel and domestic heating fuels using linear cooling.
This document is applicable to fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) and to distillate fuels as well as paraffinic diesel fuels, including those containing FAME, flow-improvers or other additives, intended for use in diesel engines and domestic heating installations.
The results obtained from the method specified in this document are suitable for estimating the lowest temperature at which a fuel will give trouble-free flow in the fuel system.
NOTE   In the case of diesel fuels, the results are usually close to the temperature of failure in service except when the fuel system contains, for example, a paper filter installed in a location exposed to the weather or if the filter plugging temperature is more than 12 °C below the cloud point of the fuel. Domestic heating installations are usually less critical and often operate at a satisfactory level at temperatures somewhat lower than those indicated by the test results.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the oxidation stability of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuel and blends thereof, under accelerated conditions, by measuring the induction period to the specified breakpoint in a reaction vessel charged with the sample and oxygen at 140 °C.
NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
NOTE 2 The induction period is used as an indication for the resistance of middle distillates, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuels and blends thereof against oxidation. This correlation can vary markedly under different conditions with different FAMEs and diesel fuel blends.
NOTE 3 The presence of ignition improvers can lead to lower oxidation stability results determined by this method. It has for instance been observed that the addition of 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (2-EHN) can reduce the measured oxidation stability values. See [6] for details.
NOTE 4 For further information on the precision data at a test temperature of 120 °C see Annex C.

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This document specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive B10 diesel fuel, i.e. diesel fuel containing up to 10,0 %(V/V) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. It is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles compatible with automotive B10 diesel fuel.
NOTE 1 This product is allowed in Europe [4], but national legislation can set additional requirements or rules concerning, or even prohibiting, marketing or delivering of the product.
NOTE 2 In this document, A-deviations apply (see Annex A).
NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive diesel fuel. It is applicable to automotive diesel fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed to run on automotive diesel fuel containing up to 7,0 %(V/V) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This document defines a gas chromatographic analysis for the determination of the composition of fuel gases, as used in refinery heating gas. These results are used to calculate the carbon content and the lower calorific value.
With this gas chromatographic analysis, an overall of 23 refinery heating gas components are determined in concentrations as typically found in refineries (see Table 1 for further details).
Water is not analysed. The results represent dry gases.
NOTE 1   Depending on the equipment used, there is a possibility to determine higher hydrocarbons as well.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
IMPORTANT — This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.

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This document specifies a fluorescent indicator adsorption method for the determination of hydrocarbon types over the concentration ranges from 5 % (V/V) to 99 % (V/V) aromatic hydrocarbons, 0,3 % (V/V) to 55 % (V/V) olefins, and 1 % (V/V) to 95 % (V/V) saturated hydrocarbons in petroleum fractions that distil below 315 °C. This method can apply to concentrations outside these ranges, but the precision has not been determined.
When samples containing oxygenated blending components are analysed, the hydrocarbon type results can be reported on an oxygenate-free basis or, when the oxygenate content is known, the results can be corrected to a total-sample basis.
This test method is applicable to full boiling range products. Cooperative data have established that the precision statement does not apply to petroleum fractions with narrow boiling ranges near the 315 °C limit. Such samples are not eluted properly, and results are erratic.
It does not apply to samples containing dark-coloured components that interfere with reading the chromatographic bands that cannot be analysed.
NOTE 1   The oxygenated blending components methanol, ethanol, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME) and tert-butyl ethyl ether (ETBE) do not interfere with the determination of hydrocarbon types at concentrations normally found in commercial petroleum blends. These oxygenated compounds are not detected since they elute with the alcohol desorbent. The effects of other oxygenated compounds are individually verified.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for determining the total acidity, calculated as acetic acid, of ethanol to be used in petrol blends. It is applicable to ethanol having total acid contents of between 0,003 % (m/m) and 0,015 % (m/m).
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction and the volume fraction, respectively.
WARNING - Use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the document, and to fulfil statutory and regulatory restrictions for this purpose.

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This European Standard describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to stabilized crude oils and for the boiling range distribution and the recovery up to and including n-nonane. A stabilized crude oil is defined as having a Reid Vapour Pressure equivalent to or less than 82,7 kPa as determined by IP 481 [3].
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, ω, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING —The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel. Additionally, the benzene and toluene content, oxygenated compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the terms % (m/m) and % (V/V) are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with total aromatics of 19,32 % (V/V) up to 46,29 % (V/V); total olefins from 0,40 % (V/V) up to 26,85 % (V/V); oxygenates from 0,61 % (V/V) up to 9,85 % (V/V); oxygen content from 1,50 % (m/m) to 12,32 % (m/m); benzene content from 0,38 % (V/V) up to 1,98 % (V/V) and toluene content from 5,85 % (V/V) up to 31,65 % (V/V).
The method has also been tested for individual oxygenates. A precision has been determined for a total volume of methanol from 1,05 % (V/V) up to 16,96 % (V/V); a total volume of ethanol from 0,50 % (V/V) up to 17,86 % (V/V); a total volume of MTBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,70 % (V/V), a total volume of ETBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,49 % (V/V), a total volume of TAME from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 5,92 % (V/V), and a total volume of TAEE from 0,98 % (V/V) up to 15,59 % (V/V).
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from 0,40 % (V/V) to 26,85 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, this test method can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.
NOTE 2   For Procedure A, applicability of this document has also been verified for the determination of n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these compounds.
Procedure B describes the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 – C5 alcohols) in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V). The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V) before the analysis by GC.
The sample can be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample are only available for the oxygenated groups.
NOTE 3   For Procedure B, the precision can be used for an ethanol fraction from about 50 % up to 85 % (V/V). For the ether fraction, the precision as specified in Table 6 can be used for samples containing at least 11 % (V/V) of ethers. For the higher alcohol fraction, too few data were obtained to derive a full precision statement and the data presented in Table 6 are therefore only indicative.
NOTE 4   An overlap between C9 and C10 aromatics can occur. However, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

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This document specifies a method for the direct determination of water in ethanol to be used as a blending component for petrol, as well as in automotive ethanol (E85) fuel.
This method is applicable in the range 0,05 % (m/m) to 0,54 % (m/m).
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.
WARNING — Use of this document might involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the manual and automated closed cup flash point of combustible liquids having flash points between –30,0 °C to 75,0 °C. However, the precision given for this method is only valid for flash points in the range −8,5 °C to 75,0 °C.
This document is not applicable to water-borne paints.
NOTE 1   Water borne paints can be tested using ISO 3679[1].
NOTE 2   See 9.1 for the importance of this test in avoiding loss of volatile materials.
NOTE 3   Liquids containing halogenated compounds can give anomalous results.
NOTE 4   The thermometer specified for the manual apparatus limits the upper test temperature to 70,0 °C.
NOTE 5   See 13.1 for more specific information related to precision.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to distillates with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, for example, middle distillates and lubricating base stocks.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphtha’s, reformates, gasolines) or middle distillates like Diesel and Jet fuel.
Petroleum or petroleum products containing blending components which contain heteroatoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analysed by this test method.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to crude oils. The boiling range distribution and recovery to C100 or C120 can be determined.
Two procedures are described: single and dual analysis mode. The basis of each is the calculation procedure as described in Annex A.
Procedure A (or Single analysis mode) determines the boiling range through C100 or C120 in a single analysis.
Procedure B (or Dual analysis mode) combines procedure A with the boiling point distribution from C1 up to C9 using the Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis (DHA) according EN 15199-4. The results of both analyses are merged into one boiling point distribution.
NOTE 1 There is no specific precision statement for the combined results obtained by procedure B. For the precision of the boiling range distribution according to procedure B the precision statements of procedure A and EN 15199-4 apply. No precision has been determined for the results after merging.
NOTE 2 For the purpose of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, μ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
WARNING - Use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature, and which have a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) above 750 °C, for example, heavy distillate fuels and residuals. The method is not applicable to bituminous samples.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines) or middle distillates like Diesel and Jet fuel.
Petroleum or petroleum products containing blending components, which contain hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue, are not to be analysed by this test method.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document establishes the rating of diesel fuel oil in terms of an arbitrary scale of cetane numbers (CNs) using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable compression ratio, indirect injected diesel engine. The CN provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression ignition engines. The CN is determined at constant speed in a pre-combustion chamber-type compression ignition test engine. However, the relationship of test engine performance to full scale, variable speed and variable load engines is not completely understood.
This document is applicable for the entire scale range from 0 CN to 100 CN but typical testing is in the range of 30 CN to 65 CN. An interlaboratory study executed by CEN in 2013 (10 samples in the range 52,4 CN to 73,8 CN)[3] confirmed that paraffinic diesel from synthesis or hydrotreatment, containing up to a volume fraction of 7 % fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), can be tested by this test method and that the precision is comparable to conventional fuels.
This test can be used for unconventional fuels such as synthetics or vegetable oils. However, the precision for those fuels has not been established and the relationship to the performance of such materials in full-scale engines is not completely understood.
Samples with fluid properties that interfere with the gravity flow of fuel to the fuel pump or delivery through the injector nozzle are not suitable for rating by this method.
NOTE    This document specifies operating conditions in SI units but engine measurements are specified in inch-pound units or Fahrenheit because these are the historical units used in the manufacture of the equipment, and thus some references in this document include these and other non-SI units in parenthesis.

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This document describes the investigation into diesel vehicle common rail fuel injection system damage and excessive wear problems in a number of countries across Europe since 2014 carried out by CEN/TC 19/WG 24 Abrasive Particles Task Force.

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This document specifies a method for the assessment of the persistence of a flame applied to the edge of a wick of non-flammable material immersed in fire-resistant fluid.
This test does not determine the behaviour of a spray of fire-resistant fluid.
NOTE   Such test methods are specified in ISO 15029-1 and ISO 15029-2.
This document specifies one of four basic tests for determining flammability.
This document does not apply to certain liquids such as HFAE and HFAS liquids.

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This document describes the design, use and calibration of volumetric measures (capacity measures) which are intended for use in fixed locations in a laboratory or in the field. This document gives guidance on both standard and non-standard measures. It also covers portable and mobile measures. This document is applicable to the petroleum industry; however, it may be applied more widely to other applications.
This document excludes measures for cryogenic liquids and pressurized measures as used for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Volumetric measures are classified as test measures or prover tanks depending on capacity and design.
Measures described in this document are primarily designed, calibrated and used to measure volumes from a measure which is wetted and drained for a specified time before use and designated to deliver. Many of the provisions, however, apply equally to measures which are used to measure a volume using a clean and dry measure and designated to contain.
Guidance is given regarding commonly expected uncertainties and calibration specifications.
The document also provides, in Annex A, reference formulae describing the properties of water and other fluids and materials used in volumetric measurement more generally.

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This document describes the studies executed to develop a method to analyse the filter blocking tendency after a cold soak step of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a blend component for diesel and of diesel fuel containing up to 30 % (V/V) of FAME, respectively.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements of unused fire-resistant and less flammable hydraulic fluids for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic systems in general industrial applications. It is not intended for use in aerospace or power-generation applications, where different requirements apply. It provides guidance for suppliers and end users of these less hazardous fluids and to the manufacturers of hydraulic equipment in which they are used.
Of the categories covered by ISO 6743-4, which classifies the different types of fluids used in hydraulic applications, only the following are detailed in this document: HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC, HFDR and HFDU.
Types HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC and HFDR are "fire-resistant" fluids as defined by ISO 5598. Most HFDU fluids, while displaying an improvement in combustion behaviour over mineral oil, fall outside this definition and are more appropriately considered as "less flammable" fluids.

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This document specifies the methodology for the regular monitoring of the test method precision achieved versus the precision published in the standard test method using data from proficiency testing schemes (PTSs) supported by the regular users of standard test methods.
The procedures in this document are designed specifically for proficiency testing (PT) conducted on standard test methods, having a published reproducibility, for petroleum and petroleum-related products, which are presumed to be homogeneous, and where the data distribution is approximately normal. In addition, it is applicable to properties of interest that are (known to be) stable over time and transport.
This document specifies the methodology for the statistical comparison of standard deviation under reproducibility conditions achieved in PT programmes versus that published.
The purpose of this comparison is to find out if the published reproducibility precision is representative of that achievable by the regular participants in the PT programmes.
This document also provides guidance on how to use a PT z-score to monitor an individual participant's performance over time (see Annex B).

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