This document is intended to inform about the potential technical consequences on engine parts and fuel systems when some types of chemical compounds are used as blending components in unleaded petrol. This document is not meant to intentionally limit market fuel development.
The chemical compounds addressed, specifically, in this document are:
-   sec-butyl acetate (SBA) (CAS 105-46-4),
-   aniline (CAS 62-53-3),
-   N-methyl aniline (NMA) (CAS 100-61-8),
-   N-ethyl aniline (NEA) (CAS 103-69-5), and
-   N,N di-methyl aniline (DMA) (CAS 121-69-7).
Other chemical compounds are not addressed in this document, however, attention is drawn to EN 228, which requires that unleaded petrol be free from any adulterant or contaminant that can render the fuel unacceptable for use.
NOTE 1   This document does not address environmental and/or health related issues. These aspects are beyond the scope of CEN/TC 19 activities.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction, φ.

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This document describes the design, use and calibration of volumetric measures (capacity measures) which are intended for use in fixed locations in a laboratory or in the field. This document gives guidance on both standard and non-standard measures. It also covers portable and mobile measures. This document is applicable to the petroleum industry; however, it may be applied more widely to other applications.
This document excludes measures for cryogenic liquids and pressurized measures as used for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Volumetric measures are classified as test measures or prover tanks depending on capacity and design.
Measures described in this document are primarily designed, calibrated and used to measure volumes from a measure which is wetted and drained for a specified time before use and designated to deliver. Many of the provisions, however, apply equally to measures which are used to measure a volume using a clean and dry measure and designated to contain.
Guidance is given regarding commonly expected uncertainties and calibration specifications.
The document also provides, in Annex A, reference formulae describing the properties of water and other fluids and materials used in volumetric measurement more generally.

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This document provides general guidance on diesel fuel housekeeping. It does not pre-empt national or local regulations but addresses the issues of contamination by water, sediment, inorganic contaminants, or microbial growth that may occur in the supply chain during manufacture, blending, storage and transportation. It does not address contamination by other fuel products nor does it address possible contamination by water or sediment that may occur on-board vehicles. An informative note on vehicle factors is presented in Annex A, however

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This document specifies the minimum requirements of unused fire-resistant and less flammable hydraulic fluids for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic systems in general industrial applications. It is not intended for use in aerospace or power-generation applications, where different requirements apply. It provides guidance for suppliers and end users of these less hazardous fluids and to the manufacturers of hydraulic equipment in which they are used.
Of the categories covered by ISO 6743-4, which classifies the different types of fluids used in hydraulic applications, only the following are detailed in this document: HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC, HFDR and HFDU.
Types HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC and HFDR are "fire-resistant" fluids as defined by ISO 5598. Most HFDU fluids, while displaying an improvement in combustion behaviour over mineral oil, fall outside this definition and are more appropriately considered as "less flammable" fluids.

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This document specifies the methodology for the regular monitoring of the test method precision achieved versus the precision published in the standard test method using data from proficiency testing schemes (PTSs) supported by the regular users of standard test methods.
The procedures in this document are designed specifically for proficiency testing (PT) conducted on standard test methods, having a published reproducibility, for petroleum and petroleum-related products, which are presumed to be homogeneous, and where the data distribution is approximately normal. In addition, it is applicable to properties of interest that are (known to be) stable over time and transport.
This document specifies the methodology for the statistical comparison of standard deviation under reproducibility conditions achieved in PT programmes versus that published.
The purpose of this comparison is to find out if the published reproducibility precision is representative of that achievable by the regular participants in the PT programmes.
This document also provides guidance on how to use a PT z-score to monitor an individual participant's performance over time (see Annex B).

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This document specifies the methodology for the application of precision estimates of a test method
derived from ISO 4259-1. In particular, it defines the procedures for setting the property specification
limits based upon test method precision where the property is determined using a specific test method,
and in determining the specification conformance status when there are conflicting results between
supplier and receiver. Other applications of this test method precision are briefly described in principle
without the associated procedures.
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum-related
products, which are normally homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this document can
also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are necessary before
applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be questioned.

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This document specifies the methodology for the design of an Interlaboratory Study (ILS) and
calculation of precision estimates of a test method specified by the study. In particular, it defines the
relevant statistical terms (Clause 3), the procedures to be adopted in the planning of ILS to determine
the precision of a test method (Clause 4), and the method of calculating the precision from the results of
such a study (Clauses 5 and 6).
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum related
products, which are normally considered as homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this
document can also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are
necessary before applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be
questioned.

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This document specifies a method for determining the existent gum content of aviation fuels and the
gum content of motor gasoline or other volatile distillates. It includes the determination of products
containing ethanol (up to a volume fraction of 85 %) and ether-type oxygenates and deposit control
additives.
For determination of gum content in automotive ethanol (E85) fuel, no precision data is available
(see 14.1).
For non-aviation fuels, a procedure for the determination of the heptane-insoluble portion of the residue
is also described.
CAUTION — This method is not intended for the testing of gasoline components, particularly
those with a high percentage of low-boiling unsaturated compounds, as they can cause
explosions during evaporation.

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This document specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content of liquid, homogeneous automotive fuels from 5 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg, which have a maximum oxygen content of 3,7 % (m/m). This product range covers:
— diesel fuels containing up to about 30 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl esters (FAME),
— motor gasolines containing up to about 10 % (V/V) ethanol,
— synthetic fuels such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and gas to liquid (GTL) having sulfur contents in the range of 5 mg/kg to 45 mg/kg.
Products with higher oxygen content show significant matrix effects, e.g. pure FAME used as biodiesel, nevertheless, pure FAME can be analysed when the corresponding procedures are followed (see 5.3 and 8.1).
Other products can be analysed with this test method, though precision data for products other than those mentioned have not been established for this document.
NOTE 1 Sulfur contents higher than 500 mg/kg can be determined after sample dilution, however, the precision was not established for diluted samples.
NOTE 2 For the purposes of this document, "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.

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This document specifies an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence test method for the determination of the sulfur content of the following products:
— having sulfur contents in the range 3 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg,
— motor gasolines containing up to 3,7 % (m/m) oxygen [including those blended with ethanol up to about 10 % (V/V)],
— diesel fuels, including those containing up to about 30 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl ester (FAME),
— having sulfur contents in the range of 3 mg/kg to 45 mg/kg,
— synthetic fuels, such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and gas to liquid (GTL).
Other products can be analysed and other sulfur contents can be determined according to this test method, however, no precision data for products other than automotive fuels and for results outside the specified range have been established for this document. Halogens interfere with this detection technique at concentrations above approximately 3 500 mg/kg.
NOTE 1 Some process catalysts used in petroleum and chemical refining can be poisoned when trace amounts of sulfur-bearing materials are contained in the feedstocks.
NOTE 2 This test method can be used to determine sulfur in process feeds and can also be used to control sulfur in effluents.
NOTE 3 For the purposes of this document, "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 4 Sulfate species in ethanol do not have the same conversion factor of organic sulfur in ethanol. Nevertheless, sulfates have a conversion factor close to that of organic sulfur.
NOTE 5 Nitrogen interference can occur, see 6.5 for further guidance.

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 20 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, at atmospheric pressure utilizing an automatic micro distillation apparatus.
This test method is applicable to such products as; light and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels containing up to 20 % ethanol, aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, (paraffinic) diesel fuels, FAME (B100), diesel blends up to 30 % fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), special petroleum spirits, naphtha’s, white spirits, kerosene’s, burner fuels, and marine fuels.
The test method is also applicable to hydrocarbons with a narrow boiling range, like organic solvents or oxygenated compounds.
The test method is designed for the analysis of distillate products; it is not applicable to products containing appreciable quantities of residual material.

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This document specifies an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence test method for the determination of the sulfur content of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) containing up to 0,35 % (m/m) halogens, and having sulfur contents in the range of 2 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg.
This test method does not detect sulfur compounds that do not vaporize under the conditions of the test.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this document. This document does not apply to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature.
The document describes two procedures.
a) Procedure A allows a larger selection of columns and analysis conditions, such as packed and capillary columns as well as a thermal conductivity detector in addition to the flame ionization detector. Analysis times range from 14 min to 60 min.
b) Procedure B is restricted to only three capillary columns and requires no sample dilution. The analysis time is reduced to about 8 min.
Both procedures have been successfully applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 20 % (volume fraction).
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (mass fraction)" and "% (volume fraction)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ), the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This document specifies a method to determine cloud point using a step-wise cooling technique that is executed by means of automated equipment types with optical detection mode.
The method is applicable to distillate fuels, fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) and paraffinic diesel fuels, including blends thereof, as well as those containing flow-improvers or other additives, intended for use in diesel engines and domestic heating installations.
The method can be applied to other products such as vegetable oils or lubricants, but these kinds of products have not been evaluated during the interlaboratory study (ILS), no precision data are available.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pour point of petroleum products. A separate procedure suitable for the determination of the lower pour point of fuel oils, heavy lubricant base stock, and products containing residual fuel components is also described.
The procedure described in this document is not suitable for crude oils.
NOTE There is equipment available that uses an automated procedure similar to the one described in this document. However, the precision thereof has not been established[1].
[1] ISO develops an automated test method standard.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cloud point of petroleum products which are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness and have a cloud point below 49 °C, amongst which are diesel fuels with up to 30 % (V/V) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)[2], paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME[3], 100 % FAME[5] and lubricants.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically automotive engine petrol, automotive engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are typically aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction of a material.
The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents. Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as emissions (VOC).

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This European Standard describes requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered paraffinic diesel fuel containing a level of up to 7,0 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). It is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and vehicles compatible with paraffinic diesel fuel. It defines two classes of paraffinic diesel fuel: high cetane and normal cetane.
Paraffinic diesel fuel originates from synthesis or hydrotreatment processes.
NOTE 1   For general diesel engine warranty, paraffinic automotive diesel fuel may need a validation step, which for some existing engines may still need to be done (see also the Introduction to this document). The vehicle manufacturer needs to be consulted before use.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (hereafter known as FAME) to be used either as fuel for diesel engines and for heating applications at 100 % concentration, or as an extender for distillate fuel for diesel engines in accordance with the requirements of EN 590 and for heating fuel. At 100 % concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and in heating applications designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100 % FAME.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction.

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This document specifies a procedure for determining the degree of aerobic degradation of fully formulated lubricants. The organic material in a fully formulated lubricant is exposed in a synthetic aqueous medium under laboratory conditions to an inoculum from activated sludge.
Biodegradation resulting in mineralisation of the organic material can be determined by measuring released CO2 in a total organic carbon (TOC-) analyser. In contrast to existing test methods measuring released CO2 this method uses a precise preparation procedure for non-water soluble organic material.
The above mentioned method applies to fully formulated lubricants which
a)   are water-soluble, non-water soluble or emulsifiable, and
b)   are not toxic and not inhibitory to the test microorganisms at the test concentration.
The presence of inhibitory effects is determined as specified in this document.
This test method is focused on fresh water as test medium. Tests in sea water are currently not included in this method, but may be introduced later.

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This document specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), with LPG defined as low pressure liquefied gas composed of one or more light hydrocarbons which are assigned to UN 1011, 1075, 1965, 1969 or 1978 only and which consists mainly of propane, propene, butane, butane isomers, butenes with traces of other hydrocarbon gases.
This standard is applicable to automotive LPG for use in LPG engine vehicles designed to run on automotive LPG.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - Attention is drawn to the risk of fire and explosion when handling LPG and to the hazard to health arising through inhalation of excessive amounts of LPG.
LPG is a highly volatile hydrocarbon liquid which is normally stored under pressure. If the pressure is released large volumes of gas will be produced which form flammable mixtures with air over the range of approximately 2 % (V/V) to 10 % (V/V). This European Standard involves the sampling, handling and testing of LPG. Naked flames, unprotected electrical equipment electrostatic hazards etc. are sources of ignition for LPG.
LPG in liquid form can cause cold burns to the skin. The national health and safety regulations apply.
LPG is heavier than air and accumulates in cavities. There is a danger of suffocation when inhaling high concentrations of LPG.
CAUTION - One of the tests described in this European Standard involves the operator inhaling a mixture of air and LPG vapour. Particular attention is drawn to the cautionary statement provided in A.1, where this method is referred to.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive B10 diesel fuel, i.e. diesel fuel containing up to 10,0 %(V/V) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. It is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles compatible with automotive B10 diesel fuel.
NOTE 1   This product is allowed in Europe [4], but national legislation can set additional requirements or rules concerning, or even prohibiting, marketing or delivering of the product.
NOTE 2   In this European Standard, A-deviations apply (see Annex B).
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered high FAME (B20 and B30) diesel fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on high FAME (B20 and B30) fuel. High FAME (B20 and B30) diesel fuel is a mixture of up to 20 % (V/V) in total and up to 30 % (V/V) in total respectively fatty acid methyl esters (commonly known as FAME) complying to EN 14214 and automotive diesel fuel complying to EN 590.
For maintenance and control reasons high FAME (B20 and B30) diesel fuel is to be used in captive fleets that are intended to have an appropriate fuel management (see Clause 3).
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
NOTE 2   In this European Standard, A-deviations apply (see Annex A).

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This document specifies a test method using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR), for assessing the lubricating property of diesel fuels, including those fuels which could contain a lubricity-enhancing additive. It defines two methods for measurement of the wear scar; Method "A" — Digital camera, and Method "B" — Visual observation.
This test method applies to fuels used in diesel engines.
NOTE It is not known if this test method will predict the performance of all additive/fuel combinations, including paraffinic fuels for which no additional correlation testing has been performed. Nevertheless, no data has been presented to suggest that such fuels are not within scope.

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This document provides an overview of existing oxidation stability methods, with an emphasis on differences between the Rancimat (EN 14112/EN 15751) and PetroOxy (EN 16091) tests.

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Dieses Dokument legt Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für gehandelten und ausgelieferten Ethanolkraftstoff (E85) fest. Es ist anwendbar auf Ethanolkraftstoff (E85) zur Verwendung in Fahrzeugen mit Ottomotor, die für den Einsatz dieses Kraftstoffs (E85) ausgerüstet sind.
Ethanolkraftstoff (E85) ist ein Gemisch von nominell 85 % (V/V) Ethanol und unverbleitem Benzin, umfasst aber auch die Möglichkeit verschiedener „jahreszeitlicher Klassen“, die mehr als 50 % (V/V) Ethanol enthalten.
ANMERKUNG 1 Für die Zwecke dieses Dokuments wird zur Angabe des Massenanteils der Ausdruck „% (m/m)“ und für den Volumenanteil der Ausdruck „% (V/V)“ verwendet.
ANMERKUNG 2 Für diese Europäische Norm gelten A-Abweichungen (siehe Anhang C).

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the quantitative determination of the indicated cetane number (ICN) of middle distillate fuels and blending components, intended for use in compression ignition engines. The test method utilizes a constant volume combustion chamber with direct fuel injection into heated compressed air. Calibration of the apparatus using blends of primary reference materials over a scale of 0 to 100 enables fuel ignition delays, measured from the resulting pressure increase, to be used to determine and report ICN results.
This European Standard is applicable to middle distillate fuels of both petroleum and non-petroleum origin, hydrocarbon oils, oil-sands based fuels, blending components, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), blends of fuel containing biodiesel material, diesel fuel oils containing cetane number improver additives, low-sulfur diesel fuel oils, aviation turbine fuels and polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). However, users applying this standard especially to unconventional distillate fuels are warned that the relationship between cetane number and combustion behaviour in real engines is not yet fully understood.
This European Standard covers the calibrated range of 35 ICN to 85 ICN.
NOTE 1   The analyser can measure ICN outside the calibrated range, but precision has not been determined.
NOTE 2   For the purpose of this standard, the expression "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a procedure for the calculation of the cetane index of middle-distillate fuels from petroleum-derived sources. The calculated value is termed the "cetane index by four-variable equation". Throughout the remaining text of this document, the term "cetane index" implies cetane index by four-variable equation.
This document is applicable to fuels containing non-petroleum derivatives from tar sand and oil shale. It is not applicable to pure hydrocarbons, nor to distillate fuels derived from coal. Cetane index calculations do not take into account the effects from additives used to enhance the Cetane number.
NOTE 1 This document was originally developed using a matrix of fuels, some of which contain non-petroleum derivatives from tar sands and oil shale.
NOTE 2 The cetane index is not an alternative way to express the cetane number; it is a supplementary tool, to be used with due regard for its limitations.
NOTE 3 The cetane index is used to estimate the cetane number of diesel fuel when a test engine is not available to determine this property directly, or when insufficient sample is available for an engine rating.
The most suitable range of fuel properties for application of this document is as follows:
Fuel property
Range
Cetane number
32,5 to 56,5
Density at 15 °C, kg/m3
805,0 to 895,0
10 % (V/V) distillation recovery temperature, °C
171 to 259
50 % (V/V) distillation recovery temperature, °C
212 to 308
90 % (V/V) distillation recovery temperature, °C
251 to 363
Within the range of cetane number (32,5 to 56,5), the expected error of the prediction via the cetane index equation will be less than ±2 cetane numbers for 65 % of the distillate fuels examined. Errors can be greater for fuels whose properties fall outside this range of application.
As a consequence of sample-specific biases observed, the expected error can be greater even when the fuel's properties fall inside the recommended range of application. Therefore, users can assess the required degree of prediction agreement to determine the fitness-for-use of the prediction.
NOTE 4 Sample specific biases were observed for distillate fuels containing FAME (fatty acid methyl ester).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the air saturated vapour pressure (ASVP) (total vapour pressure), exerted in vacuo, by volatile, low viscosity petroleum products, components, ethanol blends up to 85 % (V/V), and feedstocks containing air. A dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE) can be calculated from the air containing vapour pressure (ASVP) measurement.
The conditions used in the test described in this standard are a vapour-to-liquid ratio of 4:1 and a test temperature of 37,8 °C.
The equipment is not wetted with water during the test, and the method described is therefore suitable for testing samples with or without oxygenates; no account is taken of dissolved water in the sample.
This method described is suitable for testing air saturated samples with a DVPE between 15,5 kPa and 106,0 kPa; vapour pressures outside this range can be measured but the precision has not been determined.
This document is applicable to fuels containing oxygenated compounds up to the limits stated in the relevant Council Directive 85/536/EEC [10], and for ethanol-fuel blends up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass and volume fractions respectively.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the vapour pressure, exerted in vacuo, by volatile, low viscosity petroleum products, components, ethanol blends up to 85 % (V/V), and feedstocks using a variable volume chamber. A dry vapour pressure equivalent (DVPE) is calculated from the vapour pressure.
The conditions used in the test described in this standard are a vapour-to-liquid ratio of 4:1 and a test temperature of 37,8 °C.
The equipment is not wetted with water during the test, and the method described is therefore suitable for testing samples with or without oxygenates; no account is taken of dissolved water in the sample.
This procedure calculates the partial pressure of the air dissolved in the test portion during the triple expansion process. It is suitable for samples with a DVPE between 13,7 kPa and 98,3 kPa; vapour pressures outside this range can be measured but the precision has not been determined.
This document is applicable to fuels containing oxygenated compounds up to the limits stated in the relevant Council Directive 85/536/EEC [6], and for ethanol-fuel blends up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass and volume fractions respectively.
WARNING - The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This Technical Report explains the requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered ethanol (E85) automotive fuel according to EN 15293. It provides background information on the final text of the draft European standard and gives guidance and explanations to the producers, blenders, marketers and users of ethanol (E85) automotive fuel.
It is applicable to ethanol (E85) for use in spark ignition engine vehicles designed to run on ethanol (E85). Ethanol (E85) is a mixture of nominally 85 % ethanol and 15 % petrol, but it also includes the possibility of having different 'seasonal grades' containing 50 % or more ethanol.
NOTE 1   This document is directly related to prEN 15293:2017 and will be updated if further revisions to the standard take place.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.

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This document specifies procedures for the measurement of the extreme pressure (EP) and antiwear
properties of liquid lubricants (categories C, D, F, G, H, M, P of ISO 6743-99), lubricating greases
(ISO 6743-9, category X) and other consistent lubricants. The test conditions are not intended to
simulate particular service conditions, but to provide information over a range of standard conditions
for the purpose of research, development, quality control and fluid ranking. The output is used in
lubricant specifications.

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This document specifies a method to determine the saturated monoglyceride content in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). This method only identifies and quantifies the following saturated monoglycerides: 1-C16:0, 2-C16:0 and 1-C18:0. The total saturated monoglyceride content is calculated by the summation of the contents of these three saturated monoglycerides. The precision has been established for FAMEs having saturated monoglycerides in the (200 to 1 500) mg/kg range.
This method is not suitable for FAME produced from or containing coconut and palm kernel oil derivatives because of overlapping of various peaks.
NOTE   This Standard determines only three saturated monoglycerides, i.e. 1-C16:0, 2-C16:0 and 1-C18:0. FAMEs can contain also other saturated monoglycerides such as 1-C17:0, but these are generally much lower than the three targeted saturated monoglycerides and are therefore not included in the Standard's scope.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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ISO 4259-2:2017 specifies the methodology for the application of precision estimates of a test method derived from ISO 4259‑1. In particular, it defines the procedures for setting the property specification limits based upon test method precision where the property is determined using a specific test method, and in determining the specification conformance status when there are conflicting results between supplier and receiver. Other applications of this test method precision are briefly described in principle without the associated procedures.
The procedures in ISO 4259-2:2017 have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum-related products, which are normally homogeneous. However, the procedures described in ISO 4259-2:2017 can also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are necessary before applying ISO 4259-2:2017 to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be questioned.

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ISO 4259-1:2017 specifies the methodology for the design of an Interlaboratory Study (ILS) and calculation of precision estimates of a test method specified by the study. In particular, it defines the relevant statistical terms (Clause 3), the procedures to be adopted in the planning of ILS to determine the precision of a test method (Clause 4), and the method of calculating the precision from the results of such a study (Clauses 5 and 6).
The procedures in ISO 4259-1:2017 have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum related products, which are normally considered as homogeneous. However, the procedures described in ISO 4259-1:2017 can also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are necessary before applying ISO 4259-1:2017 to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be questioned.

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ISO 2592:2017 specifies a procedure for the determination of flash and fire points of petroleum products using the Cleveland open cup apparatus. It is applicable to petroleum products having open cup flash points between 79 °C and 400 °C, except fuel oils which are most commonly tested by the closed cup procedure described in ISO 2719.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of cetane numbers ("CN") in diesel fuel in the range from CN 45 to CN 63, using a standard single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, indirect injection engine. The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The cetane number is determined at constant speed in a compression ignition test engine equipped with a swirl chamber.
This European Standard is applicable to distillate as well as paraffinic diesel fuels intended for use in diesel engines, including those containing and fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME), ignition-improvers or other additives. The cetane number scale comprises a range from zero to 100, but typical testing is currently performed in the range from about 40 CN to about 75 CN.
This engine test procedure may be used for other fuels such as synthetics and vegetable oils. However, samples with fuel properties that interfere with the gravity-based pre-supply pressure to the fuel pump e.g. due to high viscosity can only be used to a limited extent. Precision data for such fuels are not available at this stage. Precision data for paraffinic diesel fuels are currently under development.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard the expressions "%(m/m)" and "%(V/V)" are used to represent the mass faction and volume fraction respectively of a material.
NOTE 2   The test method is also suitable for determining cetane numbers outside the range of the scope, however, the precision statement only applies for fuels in the specified range.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This draft European Standard defines a gas chromatographic analysis for the determination of the composition of fuel gases, as used in refinery heating gas. These results are used to calculate the carbon content and the lower calorific value.
With this gas chromatographic analysis, an overall of 23 refinery heating gas components are determined in concentrations as typically found in refineries (see Table 1 for further details).
Water is not analyzed. The results represent dry gases.
NOTE 1   Depending on the equipment used, there is a possibility to determine higher hydrocarbons as well.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this draft European Standard, the terms "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
IMPORTANT - This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination, in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 °C, of individual organic oxygenate compounds in the range 0,17 % (m/m) to 15 % (m/m) in a direct analysis (without dilution), and total organically bound oxygen up to 3,9 % (m/m).
For samples for which one of the oxygenate compounds content is higher than 15 % (m/m), a procedure with a dilution of the sample before the analysis is given.
NOTE 1   The conversion from percent mass to percent volume is done using the calculation mentioned in 8.3 and 9.5.3.
NOTE 2   Precision data are not available for an oxygenate compound content higher than 15 % (m/m); see Introduction.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, respectively the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this European Standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of steryl glycosides (SG) contents in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in a range between 20 mg/kg and 38 mg/kg.
NOTE   Steryl glycosides (SG) are mainly present in vegetable oils.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel [3], containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V), from 5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg, using instruments with either monochromatic or polychromatic excitation.
NOTE 1   Sulfur contents higher than 20 mg/kg can be determined after sample dilution with an appropriate solvent. However, the precision was not established for diluted samples.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ) and the volume fraction (φ) of a material respectively.
WARNING - The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This Technical Report explains the requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered paraffinic diesel from synthesis (XTL) or hydrotreatment (HVO) and of blends thereof with up to 7%(V/V) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) according to European fuel specifications. It provides background information to judge the final text of the European Standard EN 15940 and gives guidance and explanations to the producers, blenders, marketers and users of paraffinic automotive diesel.
Paraffinic diesel is a high quality, clean burning fuel with virtually no sulfur and aromatics. Paraffinic diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines, also to reduce regulated emissions. In order to have the greatest possible emissions reduction, a specific calibration may be necessary. Paraffinic diesel fuel can also offer a meaningful contribution to the target of increased non-crude derived and/or renewable content in transportation fuel pool.
For general diesel engine warranty, paraffinic automotive diesel fuel may need a validation step to confirm the compatibility of the fuel with the vehicle, which for some existing engines may still need to be done. The vehicle manufacturer needs to be consulted before use.
NOTE 1   This document is directly related to the development of EN 15940 and will be updated once further publications take place.
NOTE 2   Paraffinic diesel is also used as a blending component in automotive diesel fuel. In that case, composition and properties of the final blends are defined by relevant fuel specification standards.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, respectively.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the dissolved residual matter in liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), which remains after evaporation at 105 °C using the jet evaporation equipment described in EN ISO 6246.
The measurement range is from 20 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Higher concentrations can be determined by adjusting the sample size.
The precision data of the method have been determined from 20 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, with samples amount from 100 g to 50 g.
NOTE   An alternative European Standard, EN 15470 [1], specifies a gas chromatography method.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the dissolved residual matter in liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), in the range of 40 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Higher concentrations can be determined by adjusting the sample size.
The dissolved residue is the amount of organic compounds that are detectable by gas chromatography after evaporation of the sample at ambient temperature and then in an oven at 105 °C.
This method is not suitable for detecting solid materials or for possibly high molar mass polymers (>1 000 g/mol).
From the analysis of a limited LPG sample size (50 g to 75 g) this method allows obtaining information on the potential origin of the residue (gasoil, lubricants, plasticizers, etc.).
The precision data of the method have been determined from 20 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. For a higher content of residue, the precision has not been tested.
NOTE   An alternative European Standard, EN 1547113[1], specifies a gravimetric method.
WARNING - The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive diesel fuel. It is applicable to automotive diesel fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed to run on automotive diesel fuel containing up to 7 %(V/V) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered unleaded petrol. It is applicable to unleaded petrol for use in petrol engine vehicles designed to run on unleaded petrol.
This European Standard specifies two types of unleaded petrol: one type with a maximum oxygen content of 3,7 % (m/m) and a maximum ethanol content of 10,0 % (V/V) in Table 1, and one type intended for older vehicles that are not warranted to use unleaded petrol with a high biofuel content, with a maximum oxygen content of 2,7 % (m/m) and a maximum ethanol content of 5,0 % (V/V) in Table 2.
NOTE 1   The two types are based on European Directive requirements [3], [4], ![11]".
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.

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This Technical Report describes the key properties of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their importance to the fuel quality for use in stationary internal combustion engines.
Internal combustion engine (ICE) in the scope of this document means a type of engine in which heat energy and mechanical energy is produced inside the engine. ICE include compression ignition engines (diesel engines) and gas turbines.
Attention is drawn to differences especially in those properties, which can have an effect on the required engine performance, such as ash, acidity, viscosity, combustion properties, and sulfur content.
In addition to the quality requirements and related test methods for FPBO, further instructions on storage (Annex A), sampling (Clause 4), and materials compatibility (Annex B) are given.
NOTE   For the purposes of this Technical Report, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ) and the volume fraction (φ) of a material, respectively.

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