This document lists visual strength grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes to which they are assigned. The assignments listed are for strength classes documented in EN 338.
Structural timber that has previously been graded cannot be re-graded to the same or different grades unless the method of determining characteristic values has made allowances for changes to the timber population caused by the previous grading.
NOTE 1   Consequently, the assignments stated in this document apply to timber that has not been previously strength graded in a way that introduces a bias on the population of timber to be graded, as compared to ungraded material.
Species/grades or species combination/grades are assigned to strength classes in accordance with EN 14081-1 and supporting standards, such as EN 384.
This document contains a list of assignments but is not intended to be exhaustive.
NOTE 2   Timber graded by machine to EN 14081-1 is graded directly to the strength classes and marked accordingly. Machine grading is therefore not referenced in this document.

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This document specifies requirements, additional to those of EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planning or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

  • Standard
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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This document specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081 1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

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This standard gives statistical methods for the determination of characteristic values from test results on a sample drawn from a clearly defined reference population of e.g. solid wood, fasteners, connectors and wood-based products. The characteristic value is an estimate of the property of the reference population and can be based on a 5-percentile value of strength, resistance or density as well as on a mean value for stiffness.
Parametric methods are given for the determination of lower and upper 5-percentiles. The upper 5-percentile is the 95-percentile.
This standard is suitable for use with any structural product in the frame of type testing as well as factory production control.
Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.
This standard also provides the acceptance procedure for verification of a lot.
Depending on the product, characteristic values determined in accordance with this standard may be used directly or may need additional adjustments specified in the relevant product standards.
Note:   For example, in the case of solid timber, specific adjustment factors for calculation of characteristic values are given in EN 384.

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This European Standard specifies a method of strength grading tropical hardwood visually for structural use.
The permissible limits of characteristics for a single visual strength grade of timber are specified, designated “Structural Tropical Hardwood” (STH) grade.
The method is only suitable for pieces of timber with a rectangular cross-section that is constant along their lengths.
Characteristics related to durability are not covered in this standard. For some end uses, additional requirements may be specified at the time of grading, e.g. sapwood exclusion.

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This European Standard establishes a system of strength classes for general use in design codes.
It gives characteristic strength and stiffness properties and density values for each class to which EN 14081-1 refers.
This standard is applicable to all softwood and hardwood timber for structural use.

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This European Standard specifies two classes of permitted deviations from target sizes for structural timber of softwood and hardwood species.
It also specifies the moisture content to be used as a reference point for the measurement of sizes, and gives average values for changes in size due to changes in moisture content.
It is applicable to sawn and prepared square-edged structural timber with parallel edges having sawn thicknesses or widths greater than 6 mm.

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This European Standard specifies general requirements for structural timber that has been treated with preservatives against biological attack.
This European Standard also specifies requirements for the evaluation of conformity and marking of preservative treated timber products when they are placed on the market.
Treatments, which include a biocide, are covered by this standard.
It does not provide details of which preservative treatments are necessary for a particular type of structural timber product to achieve a required service life, as regional climatic differences and prevalent biological agents would need to be taken into account for that purpose.
This European Standard does not cover any subsequent treatment which may be required for structural timber products which have been machined, bored or planed after the CE marking has been applied.
This standard does not cover the qualification of preservation products used to treat structural timber.

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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This document specifies requirements, additional to those of EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planning or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

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This European standard specifies performance and production requirements for finger jointed structural timber with rectangular cross-section. This standard covers also test and/or calculation methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and requirements for marking of these finger joints.
This standard is only applicable to finger joints between timber members of the same species or species combination.
The standard covers not only coniferous species but also broad-leaved species where it has been shown that the type of adhesive used and the assembly conditions for finger-jointing timber are suitable for that type of species.
This standard covers finger-jointed structural timber untreated or treated against biological attack after finger-jointing.
This standard does not cover impressed (die formed) finger joints.
Individual finger jointed laminations and large finger joints for glued laminated timber are not covered by the present standard.
Structural timber treated against fire is not covered by this standard.

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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This European Standard lays down the requirements for visual graded structural timber with round cross-sections, barked of unbarked and cut on length but otherwise not machined.
This standard specifies tolerances on sizes and identifies the characteristics for which, as a minimum, limits shall be given in visual grading rules. It also proposes two grades recommended where no national grades exist.
Structural timber treated against fire or biological attack is not covered in this standard.

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To add new visual strength grades/species.

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To add new visual strength grades/species, second amendment

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This European Standard specifies requirements , additional to those in EN 14081-1, for initial type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sires corresponding to EN336.This includes requiremnts for strength grading machines and test equipment for proof loading graded material.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for visual and machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.
This European Standard consists of provisions for test methods, evaluation of conformity (ITT and FPC) and marking of both grading types of structural timber.
NOTE   For the machine graded timber additional provisions for ITT are given in EN 14081-2 and for FPC in EN 14081-3.
This European Standard identifies as a minimum the characteristics for which limits shall be given in visual grading rules.
This European Standard covers structural rectangular timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance.
Finger jointed timber made of rectangular cross-sections is not covered in this European Standard.

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This standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or mechanical strength classes of sawn timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
A method is also given for checking the strength of a timber population against its designated value.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three characteristic values, i.e. bending or tension strength, mean modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined, other properties can be calculated according to Tab. 6.2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This European Standard lists the visual grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes to which they are assigned, as documented in EN 338.
NOTE   For the grades, species and sources included, there is a long history of use and/or satisfactory test data. The sources listed therefore are largely determined by existing commercial practices.

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This European Standard lists the visual grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes to which they are assigned, as documented in EN 338.
NOTE   For the grades, species and sources included, there is a long history of use and/or satisfactory test data. The sources listed therefore are largely determined by existing commercial practices.

  • Standard
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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

  • Standard
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This document specifies requirements, additional to those of EN 14081-1, for type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planning or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

  • Standard
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This standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or mechanical strength classes of sawn timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
A method is also given for checking the strength of a timber population against its designated value.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three characteristic values, i.e. bending or tension strength, mean modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined, other properties can be calculated according to Tab. 6.2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements, additional to those in EN 14081-1, for initial type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines and test equipment for proof loading graded material.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081-1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

  • Standard
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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual and/or mechanical strength grades of sawn timber.
A method is also given for checking the strength of a timber sample against its designated value.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three characteristic values, i.e. bending strength, mean modulus of elasticity parallel to grain and density, need to be determined, other properties may be taken from the table in EN 338.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of assignment to strength classes of established national or regional visual grades.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of characteristic 5-percentile values from test results for fasteners and wood-based products.
This document also gives corresponding acceptance criteria for a sample.
Structural timber is not covered by this document but by EN 384.
Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.

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This European Standard establishes a system of strength classes for general use in structural codes.
It gives characteristic strength and stiffness properties and density values for each class and the rules for the allocation of timber populations (i.e. combinations of species, source and grade) to the classes.
This standard is applicable to all softwood and hardwood timber for structural use.

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This European Standard gives settings, derived according to the requirements given in EN 14081-2, for various combinations of strength classes or grades, grading machines and species from particular sources of growth. These settings are only applicable to timber from the sources indicated in the tables.

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This standard specifies a system of strength classes for horizontally laminated structural glued laminated timber with four or more laminations. A number of strength classes are defined and characteristic strength and stiffness properties and densities are given. This standard is currently limited to softwood glued laminated timber.

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This European Standard specifies requirements, additional to those in EN 14081-1, for initial type testing of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336. This includes requirements for strength grading machines and test equipment for proof loading graded material.

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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the following properties of structural timber and glued laminated timber: modulus of elasticity in bending; shear modulus; bending strength; modulus of elasticity in tension parallel to the grain; tension strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain; compression strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in tension perpendicular to the grain; tension strength perpendicular to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression perpendicular to the grain; compression strength perpendicular to the grain and shear strength.
In addition, the determination of dimensions, moisture content, and density of test pieces are specified.
The methods apply to rectangular and circular shapes (of substantially constant cross section) of solid unjointed timber or finger-jointed timber and glued laminated timber unless stated otherwise.

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This document lists visual strength grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes from EN 338, to which they are assigned.
NOTE   For the grades, species and sources included, there is long experience of use and/or satisfactory test data. The sources listed are therefore largely determined by existing commercial practice.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for the handling and storage and the characteristics for inclusion in regional/national/local/buyer standards of visual strength grading of softwood and hardwood poles. It also specifies the marking requirements.
This standard identifies the characteristics for which, as a minimum, limits shall be given in visual grading standards or specifications.
This standard applies to both softwood and hardwood poles.
This standard covers only single poles under cantilever and/or compression loading. For example, this standard does not cover poles used as beams.
The provision of poles for use in any overhead line or cable infrastructure shall take into account a range of factors not covered by this standard which will necessitate the specification by the end user of complementary and synonymous attributes to those defined in this standard. This refers to requirements for a number of factors including safety, overhead plant, handling, fittings, installation machinery and working practices including climbing.

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This European Standard specifies the methods for determining characteristic values for bending strength and modulus of elasticity, of any population of wood poles. It is not intended for routine quality control.
This standard covers only single poles under cantilever or compression loading. For example, this standard does not cover poles used as beams.
The provision of poles for use in any overhead line or cable infrastructure shall take into account a range of factors not covered by this standard which will necessitate the specification by the end user of complementary and synonymous attributes to those defined in this standard. This refers to requirements for a number of factors including safety, overhead plant, handling, fittings, installation machinery and working practices including climbing.

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This European Standard specifies methods of measuring the sizes of solid wood poles for overhead transmission and telecommunication lines and limit deviations that are taken into account for the acceptance of the poles. It is applicable to both hardwood and softwood poles.
This standard covers only single poles under cantilever and/or compression loading. For example, this standard does not cover poles used as beams.
The provision of poles for use in any overhead line or cable infrastructure shall take into account a range of factors not covered by this standard which will necessitate the specification by the end user of complementary and synonymous attributes to those defined in this standard. This refers to requirements for a number of factors including safety, overhead plant, handling, fittings, installation machinery and working practices including climbing.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for durability and preservative treatment of wood poles for overhead transmission and telecommunication lines.
This standard covers only single poles under cantilever or compression loading. For example, this standard does not cover poles used as beams.
The provision of poles for use in any overhead line or cable infrastructure shall take into account a range of factors not covered by this standard which will necessitate the specification by the end user of complementary and synonymous attributes to those defined in this standard. This refers to requirements for a number of factors including safety, overhead plant, handling, fittings, installation machinery and working practices including climbing.
No attempt has been made to quantify the service life that may be expected from a pole as this will depend on its geographical location, the associated climate of its service environment and either the natural durability of the heartwood of the species selected, or the combination between selection of species, preservative type, and requirements of penetration and retention and any incised zones, any of which may be specified by the purchaser.

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This European Standard specifies methods of test to determine modulus of elasticity, bending strength, density and moisture content of solid wood poles for overhead transmission and telecommunication lines. It is applicable to both hardwood and softwood poles.
This standard covers only single poles under cantilever and/or compression loading. For example, this standard does not cover poles used as beams.
The provision of poles for use in any overhead line or cable infrastructure shall take into account a range of factors not covered by this standard which will necessitate the specification by the end user of complementary and synonymous attributes to those defined in this standard. This refers to requirements for a number of factors including safety, overhead plant, handling, fittings, installation machinery and working practices including climbing.

  • Standard
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This document lists visual strength grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes
from EN 338, to which they are assigned.
NOTE For the grades, species and sources included, there is long experience of use and/or satisfactory test data.
The sources listed are therefore largely determined by existing commercial practice.

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This document specifies product requirements for prefabricated structural members (e.g. trusses, beams and girders) for use in buildings and bridges made from members of structural timber (with or without finger joints) assembled with punched metal plate fasteners.
The standard also covers methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and the marking.

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This European Standard specifies methods of calculation for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density for defined populations of wood-based panels for structural purposes.

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This document lists visual strength grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes
from EN 338, to which they are assigned.
NOTE For the grades, species and sources included, there is long experience of use and/or satisfactory test data.
The sources listed are therefore largely determined by existing commercial practice.

  • Standard
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This European Standard gives settings, derived according to the requirements given in EN 14081-2, for various combinations of strength classes or grades, grading machines and species from particular sources of growth. These settings are only applicable to timber from the sources indicated in the tables.

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