This document specifies a method based on density, for the selection of pieces of wood used in determining the strength and stiffness properties of joints between members of structural timber made with mechanical fasteners. It is intended to be used in conjunction with a test standard specifying a test method.
It is assumed that the wood pieces are conditioned to the relevant conditions, that the wood density is normally distributed and that any deviations are reported.
This document is applicable only to specimens of structural timber.
NOTE    It is emphasized that the wood density is only one of the properties that can influence the strength of a joint. Other relevant properties are, for example, growth-ring size and orientation, toughness and hardness.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

  • Standard
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This document specifies test methods for the determination of natural frequencies, damping, unit point load deflection and acceleration of floors composed of sawn timber, engineered wood products, and mass timber beams or slabs (e.g. cross laminated timber CLT, glued laminated timber GL, nail laminated timber), with or without concrete screeds, as well as for timber-concrete composite floors.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the long duration withdrawal strength of coated and uncoated dowel-type fasteners in structural timber and timber products and wood based products for structural application.
The method applies to all types of nails, screws and staples.

  • Standard
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This standard gives statistical methods for the determination of characteristic values from test results on a sample drawn from a clearly defined reference population of e.g. solid wood, fasteners, connectors and wood-based products. The characteristic value is an estimate of the property of the reference population and can be based on a 5-percentile value of strength, resistance or density as well as on a mean value for stiffness.
Parametric methods are given for the determination of lower and upper 5-percentiles. The upper 5-percentile is the 95-percentile.
This standard is suitable for use with any structural product in the frame of type testing as well as factory production control.
Sampling is not covered by this document, but reference is made to the relevant product standards.
This standard also provides the acceptance procedure for verification of a lot.
Depending on the product, characteristic values determined in accordance with this standard may be used directly or may need additional adjustments specified in the relevant product standards.
Note:   For example, in the case of solid timber, specific adjustment factors for calculation of characteristic values are given in EN 384.

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This European Standard specifies a method of strength grading tropical hardwood visually for structural use.
The permissible limits of characteristics for a single visual strength grade of timber are specified, designated “Structural Tropical Hardwood” (STH) grade.
The method is only suitable for pieces of timber with a rectangular cross-section that is constant along their lengths.
Characteristics related to durability are not covered in this standard. For some end uses, additional requirements may be specified at the time of grading, e.g. sapwood exclusion.

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This European Standard establishes a system of strength classes for general use in design codes.
It gives characteristic strength and stiffness properties and density values for each class to which EN 14081-1 refers.
This standard is applicable to all softwood and hardwood timber for structural use.

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This European Standard specifies the test method for determining the withdrawal capacity of fasteners which have been inserted into timber (solid timber, LVL, CLT and glued laminated timber).
The test method applies to all types of nails, screws and staples.

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This European Standard specifies the test method for determining the resistance of timber to the head pull through of timber fasteners.
In this standard 'timber' includes solid timber, glued laminated timber and wood-based products.
The test method applies to all types of nails, screws and staples excluding screws with fully threaded shank.

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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the strength and deformation characteristics of stapled joints in load-bearing timber structures.
The methods assess joints with members of timber (solid timber and glued laminated timber) or wood-based products in the combination proposed for use in service and using all types of staples up to 3 mm diameter for circular cross-section staples or 4 mm x 2 mm for rectangular or oval cross-section staples.
The methods determine load-slip characteristics and maximum load of joints with laterally loaded staples where various angles between the applied force and the timber grain direction or the main direction of the wood-based products, respectively, are possible.

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This European Standard specifies the test methods for determining the strength capacity and stiffness of joints made with punched metal plate fasteners in load bearing timber structures, being used to join two or more pieces of timber of the same thickness in the same plane. The properties measured are:
-   load-slip characteristics and maximum load resulting from the lateral resistance of the embedded projections, at various angles between the direction of the applied force and;
-   the axis of the fastener (load-fastener angle );
-   the direction of the grain of the timber (load-grain angle β);
-   the tension capacity of the fastener at various angles ;
-   the compression capacity of the fastener at various angles ;
-   the shear capacity of the fastener at various angles ..
A nail root test method is shown in Annex A.

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This European Standard sets out provisions regarding the performance characteristics for structural finger jointed timber with rectangular cross section for use in buildings and bridges.
The use of structural finger jointed timber may be limited to certain service classes in some member states.
It also lays down minimum production provisions and procedures for Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance for structural finger jointed timber.
This European Standard is applicable to structural finger jointed timber made of coniferous timber species listed in this standard or poplar.
Although it may be possible to produce structural finger jointed timber made from specific broadleaf species based on some provisions of this European Standard, this standard is not applicable to these products.
This European Standard is only applicable to finger joints between timber sections of the same species.
This European Standard does not cover impressed (die-formed) finger joints.
This European Standard covers structural finger jointed timber untreated or treated against biological attack. Structural finger jointed timber treated with fire retardants is not covered.

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This European Standard specifies two classes of permitted deviations from target sizes for structural timber of softwood and hardwood species.
It also specifies the moisture content to be used as a reference point for the measurement of sizes, and gives average values for changes in size due to changes in moisture content.
It is applicable to sawn and prepared square-edged structural timber with parallel edges having sawn thicknesses or widths greater than 6 mm.

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This European Standard lists the visual grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes to which they are assigned, as documented in EN 338.
NOTE   For the grades, species and sources included, there is a long history of use and/or satisfactory test data. The sources listed therefore are largely determined by existing commercial practices.

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This European Standard sets the performance requirements of the following glued laminated products:
-   Glued laminated timber (glulam);
-   Glued solid timber;
-   Glulam with large finger joints;
-   Block glued glulam
for use in buildings and bridges.
It also lays down minimum production requirements, provisions for evaluation and attestation of conformity and marking of glued laminated products.
This European Standard is applicable for glued laminated timber made of coniferous species listed in this standard or poplar consisting of two or more laminations having a thickness from 6 mm up to 45 mm (inclusive).
It may be possible to produce glulam made from specific hardwood species based on some provisions of this European Standard. In this case, Annex ZA does not apply.
This European Standard is applicable for glued solid timber made of coniferous species listed in this standard or poplar consisting of two to five laminations having a thickness greater than 45 mm and less than or equal to 85 mm.
This European Standard is applicable for large finger joints in glued laminated timber with a finger length of at least 45 mm.
This European Standard is applicable for block glued glulam having solid rectangular cross sections.
This European Standard also gives the requirements for glued laminated products treated against biological attack. Glued laminated products treated with fire retardants are not covered.

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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the following properties of structural timber and glued laminated timber: modulus of elasticity in bending; shear modulus; bending strength; modulus of elasticity in tension parallel to the grain; tension strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain; compression strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in tension perpendicular to the grain; tension strength perpendicular to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression perpendicular to the grain; compression strength perpendicular to the grain and shear strength.
In addition, the determination of dimensions, moisture content, and density of test pieces are specified.
The methods apply to rectangular and circular shapes (of substantially constant cross section) of solid unjointed timber or finger-jointed timber and glued laminated timber unless stated otherwise.

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This European Standard lists the visual grades, species and sources of timber, and specifies the strength classes to which they are assigned, as documented in EN 338.
NOTE   For the grades, species and sources included, there is a long history of use and/or satisfactory test data. The sources listed therefore are largely determined by existing commercial practices.

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This European Standard specifies the dimensions and the materials of certain well-established connectors for use in joints between members in load-bearing timber structures.
For data on strength and deformation properties of joints made with the connectors, reference is given to EN 13271.

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This European Standard specifies the test method to be used in determining the racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels.
The test method is intended primarily for panels as described, to provide:
- comparative performance values for the materials used in the manufacture of the panels, and
- data information for use in structural design.
The principle of the test method is suited to other sizes and shapes of panels and to other methods of hold down as well as panels which are partially sheathed and to combinations of panels.
NOTE   The method is detailed for a general situation where the client for the test knows the materials to be used in the construction, which may cover a range of different panels and walls and therefore wishes to test a standard configuration of panel. Where specific details are fixed they may be incorporated into the test but any additions or changes to the standard configuration are indicated in the test report and, later, can lead to limitations on the use of the test data.

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This European Standard covers requirements for single untreated or preservative treated wood poles for overhead lines under cantilever or compression loading (it does not cover poles used as beams). It covers test methods, determination of characteristic values and methods of specifying durability and sizes. It also establishes principles for visual grading.
This European Standard applies to both softwood and hardwood poles.
This European Standard specifies the evaluation of conformity requirements and the marking of wood poles.
This European Standard does not specify wood poles treated against fire to improve their fire performance.
This European Standard does not quantify the service life that may be expected from a wood pole.
NOTE   The service life of a wood pole depends on its geographical location, the associated climate of its service environment and either the natural durability of the heartwood of the species selected, or the combination between selection of species, preservative type, and requirements of retention and any incised zones.

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  • Standard – translation
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This European Standard specifies material, product and documentation requirements for prefabricated structural members (e.g. trusses for roofs, walls and floors, frames, composite beams and girders) for use in buildings made from solid structural timber according to EN 14081-1 with or without finger joints assembled with punched metal plate fasteners.
The standard also covers tests and/or calculation methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and requirements for the marking of these members.
As regards resistance to biological organisms, this standard covers prefabricated structural members manufactured from either untreated timber or timber treated to improve its natural durability.
This standard does not cover prefabricated timber structural members intended to be used in constructions under predominantly dynamic loads (e.g. bridges) or for use in unprotected external conditions (i.e. use class 3 in accordance with EN 335-1).
Furthermore, it does not cover members treated to improve their fire performance.

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This standard specifies a test method to determine the torsional resistance to driving of screws in solid timber or glued laminated timber or other wood based materials.

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This European Standard specifies a test method to determine the withdrawal behaviour of punched metal plate fasteners.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the yield moment of dowel type fasteners.

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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the strength and deformation characteristics of laterally loaded connections with nail, screws, dowels and bolts in load-bearing timber structures.
The methods assess connections with members of timber (solid timber or glued laminated timber) or wood-based products or metal plates (but not punched metal plate fasteners) in the combination proposed for use in service.
The methods are used to determine load-slip characteristics and maximum load of connections where various angles between the applied force and the timber grain direction, or the main direction of the wood-based products, respectively, are possible.

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This European Standard specifies general requirements for structural timber that has been treated with preservatives against biological attack.
This European Standard also specifies requirements for the evaluation of conformity and marking of preservative treated timber products when they are placed on the market.
Treatments, which include a biocide, are covered by this standard.
It does not provide details of which preservative treatments are necessary for a particular type of structural timber product to achieve a required service life, as regional climatic differences and prevalent biological agents would need to be taken into account for that purpose.
This European Standard does not cover any subsequent treatment which may be required for structural timber products which have been machined, bored or planed after the CE marking has been applied.
This standard does not cover the qualification of preservation products used to treat structural timber.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test metods for materials, geometry, strength, stiffness and durability aspects (i.e. corrosion protection) of connectors  for use in load bearing timber structures.
Only connectors manufactured from steel are covered by this European Standard, like shear plates, split ring connectors, tooth plate connectors, punched metal plate fasteners and nailing plates. Definitions of these items are given in Clause 3.
This European Standard specifies also the evaluation of conformity procedures and includes requirements for marking of these products.
This European Standard does not cover connectors treated with fire retardants to improve their fire performance.

  • Standard
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This document sets out provisions regarding the performance of characteristics of the following Types of cross laminated timber for use in buildings and bridges:
- Type 1: Straight or curved cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers but no large finger joints;
- Type 2: Straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and large finger joints;
- Type 3: Straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints.
This document covers cross laminated timber of all three Types of cross laminated timber:
- manufactured according to this document, which sets up provisions for:
- boundary conditions during manufacture of cross laminated timber;
- moisture content and temperature of timber to be bonded;
- production of finger joints and bonds between layers;
- to be used in service class 1 or 2 according to EN 1995-1-1;
- made of coniferous species and poplar listed in this document;
- which may be made of layers made of different species;
- bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane or emulsion polymer isocyanate adhesives of adhesive Type I according to the respective standard;
- made of timber laminations having a nominal width between 40 mm (including) and 300 mm (including);
- built up of at least three orthogonally bonded layers (at least two of them timber layers);
- which may have, depending on the number of layers, adjacent layers bonded parallel to the grain;
- made of timber layers which are made of strength graded timber according to EN 14081-1;
-made of timber layers having nominal thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 47 mm (including);
- made of timber layers which may comprise edge bonds;
- having nominal overall thicknesses up to 500 mm.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and comprising large finger joints (Type 2):
- made from cross laminated timber pieces having the same cross-section and layup;
- made from cross laminated timber pieces having nominal cross-sectional thicknesses from 51 mm (including) up to 345 mm (including) and nominal minimum thicknesses of the outer layers not less than 17 mm (including);
- made from cross laminated timber pieces solely comprising timber layers;
- made from plane cross laminated timber pieces;
- with parallel x-axes of the jointed components;
- with large finger joints having a finger length of at least 45 mm and fingers which are visible at the two narrow sides of the components;
- having large finger joints bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane adhesives of adhesive Type I according to the respective standard.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints (Type 3):
- made of structural wood-based panels specified in this document;
- made of one panel per layer and;
- having thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 45 mm (including).
This document applies to cross laminated timber untreated or treated against biological attack.
This document does not cover:
- cross laminated timber treated with fire retardants;
- cross laminated timber which is produced from re-used timber or wood-based panels comprising re-used timber.
It also lays down procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVPC) of cross laminated timber.

  • Standard
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This document specifies requirements additional to those given in EN 14081 1 for factory production control of machine graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planing or other methods, and having deviations from the target sizes corresponding to EN 336.

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  • Draft
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This document specifies the characteristics of the following types of dowel-type fasteners:
-   nails;
-   staples;
-   screws;
-   dowels;
-   bolts with nuts.
This document covers dowel-type fasteners for structural use in load bearing timber structures only. This document covers also the following additional intended uses of the screws:
-   to fix roof or cladding elements to the timber structure, with or without insulation layers; and
-   as reinforcement inserted in timber or in a glue laminated timber element to improve its resistance to compression perpendicular to the grain.
This document covers types of dowel-type fasteners, which are manufactured of either carbon steel or stainless steel and which may be coated for the following purposes:
-   corrosion protection (as Type 1 coating);
-   lubrication, to facilitate insertion (as Type 2 coating);
-   withdrawal enhancement and/or collation for nails and staples (adhesive and/or resin coatings) (as Type 3 coating).
This document covers types of dowel-type fasteners, which are manufactured from materials and within the specifications for their geometry related properties, only as they are specified for:
-   nails (see G.1);
-   staples (see G.2);
-   screws (see G.3);
-   dowels (see G.4); and
-   bolts with nuts (see G.5).
This document specifies also the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) procedures of these characteristics and includes provisions for marking of dowel-type fasteners.
This document does not cover dowel-type fasteners treated with fire retardants to improve their fire performance, nor does it cover glued-in rods.

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This standard specifies laboratory methods to determine the embedding strength and foundation values of solid timber, glued laminated timber and wood based sheet products with dowel type fasteners.

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UAP of 3 months applies.
2020-01-20: Originator of XML version: NEN (on behalf of NEN, ASI, DS, SFS, SIS, SN)

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This document specifies the requirements for laminated veneer lumber for structural applications. The tests to be used, methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and content of the marking of the product are given.
This document does not cover laminated veneer lumber treated against biological attack or fire.

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This standard specifies test methods for determining some mechanical properties of commercial wood-based panel products for use in load-bearing timber structures. These properties are intended for the calculation of characteristic values for use in obtaining material design values. For each type and grade of panel product, as defined for example in an EN wood based panel standard, it is necessary to determine characteristic values of mechanical properties to enable it to be used for structural purposes.

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This standard applies for structural round wood timber other than specified in EN 12509.
This test standard specifies test methods for determining the following properties of structural round timber; the bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending; the compressive strength parallel to the grain and modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain.
In addition, the determination of dimensions, moisture content and density is specified. The methods apply to debarked round timber.
This standard is not intended for quality-control test purposes.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for determining the ductility, impairment of strength and energy dissipation properties of joints made with mechanical fasteners under cyclic loading.
NOTE   This standard is written, for uniformity, in terms of direct axial loads and their effects only. The standard is, however, also appropriate to the determination of the moment resisting properties of joints.

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This standard specifies test methods for determining the performance of structural floor decking subjected to: - specified concentrated static load (due e.g. to imposed action from persons, furniture and equipment) and - specified impact load (produced e.g. by human motion). The decking considered is constructed of boards, laminated boards or wood based panel products supported on timber joists.

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This standard specifies the test procedures for determining the strength and deformation behaviour of trusses. Note: The tests are based on EN 380.

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This standard specifies a test method for determining the resistance of a timberframe wall panel to impact from a soft body allowed to strike the sheathing of the panel.

  • Standard
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This standard specifies the general principles to be adopted for static load testing of timber structures or components. It is intended for use where it is necessary to verify by test that a structure or components complies with stated criteria. Relevant parts may be used for proof loading or for the testing of structures in service. This standard is not intended to be used for testing of individual pieces of timber, individual joints or structural scaled models

  • Standard
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Applies to joints made with mechanical fasteners used in statically loaded timber structures. Covers the conditioning of test specimens and explains the apparatus to be used for measuring the geometry of the test specimens, their moisture content and other characteristics. Details the loading procedure and specifies the details to be included in the test report.

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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the following properties of structural timber and glued laminated timber: modulus of elasticity in bending; shear modulus; bending strength, modulus of elasticity in tension and tension strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression and compression strength parallel to the grain; modulus of elasticity in tension and tension strength perpendicular to the grain; modulus of elasticity in compression and compression strength perpendicular to the grain; and shear strength.

  • Amendment
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This European Standard gives a method for determining characteristic values of mechanical properties and density, for defined populations of visual grades and/or strength classes of machine graded structural timber. Additionally it covers the stages of sampling, testing, analysis and presentation of the data.
The standard provides methods to derive strength, stiffness and density properties for structural timber from tests with defect-free specimen.
The values determined in accordance with this standard for mechanical properties and density are suitable for assigning grades and species to the strength classes of EN 338.
NOTE 1   For assigning grades and species to the strength classes in EN 338 only three properties, i.e. bending or tension strength, modulus of elasticity parallel to grain in bending or tension and density need to be determined from test data, other properties can be calculated according to Table 2.
NOTE 2   EN 1912 gives examples of established visual grades assigned to strength classes.

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This European standard specifies performance and production requirements for finger jointed structural timber with rectangular cross-section. This standard covers also test and/or calculation methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and requirements for marking of these finger joints.
This standard is only applicable to finger joints between timber members of the same species or species combination.
The standard covers not only coniferous species but also broad-leaved species where it has been shown that the type of adhesive used and the assembly conditions for finger-jointing timber are suitable for that type of species.
This standard covers finger-jointed structural timber untreated or treated against biological attack after finger-jointing.
This standard does not cover impressed (die formed) finger joints.
Individual finger jointed laminations and large finger joints for glued laminated timber are not covered by the present standard.
Structural timber treated against fire is not covered by this standard.

  • Draft
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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for materials, geometry, strength, stiffness and durability aspects ( i.e corrosion protection ) of dowel-type fasteners for use in load bearing timber structures. Only dowel-type fasteners manufactured from steel are covered by this European Standard. The aim of this amendment is to correct references for the declared raw materials and to cover resin coated dowel-type fasteners.

  • Amendment
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This European Standard lays down the requirements for visual graded structural timber with round cross-sections, barked of unbarked and cut on length but otherwise not machined.
This standard specifies tolerances on sizes and identifies the characteristics for which, as a minimum, limits shall be given in visual grading rules. It also proposes two grades recommended where no national grades exist.
Structural timber treated against fire or biological attack is not covered in this standard.

  • Draft
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This European Standard specifies performance requirements at delivery for prefabricated structural (load-bearing) wall, floor and roof elements (diaphragm assemblies) consisting of framing members of timber and/or wood-based panels or boards on one or both sides, for use in service class 1 or 2 in accordance with EN 1995-1-1:2004. The panels and/or boards are connected to the joists by suitable adhesive bonding or by mechanical fixing. The cavities of the elements may be filled entirely or partially with insulating materials. The exterior faces of the elements may also be covered with insulation material.
This European Standard applies to elements with lengths and cross-sectional depths of up to 10 m and 0,30 m, respectively.
This European Standard specifies requirements for structural (3.3) and non-structural (3.4) components and lays down minimum requirements for the production of prefabricated elements.
The European Standard also covers methods to carry out the evaluation of conformity and marking of these elements.
This European Standard applies to elements that may have openings, e. g. for windows, doors etc. It does not apply to the properties of incorporated doors or windows.
Furthermore, it does not cover elements treated to enhance their fire performance.

  • Draft
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This document sets out requirements regarding the performance of characteristics of the following Types of laminated veneer lumber (LVL):
-   Type 1: LVL for structural applications in buildings and bridges in dry, humid and exterior conditions;
-   Type 2: Multiple glued LVL for structural applications in buildings and bridges in dry, humid and exterior conditions;
-   Type 3: LVL for non-structural internal and external applications in construction.
This document covers laminated veneer lumber of all Types:
-   made of at least five veneers having a maximum veneer thickness of 6 mm;
-   which may comprise veneers made from different species;
-   solely made of parallel veneers or symmetrically build up with at least two crossband veneers.
This document also covers multiple glued LVL (Type 2) which is produced by face gluing several panels according to this standard.
This document covers laminated veneer lumber of any Type being either preservative treated or untreated against biological attack or treated to improve the reaction to fire performance.
This document also lays down procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) and specifies marking and labelling of laminated veneer lumber.
This document does not cover laminated veneer lumber which is produced from re-used timber.

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