This document defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for cast alloyed magnesium materials.
This document specifies 2 groups of magnesium alloy grades by a classification based on the chemical composition. The first group deals with grades for magnesium alloy ingots. The second group deals with grades for magnesium alloy castings.
This document also specifies mechanical properties measured on test pieces machined from cast samples.
This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for magnesium alloy castings (see EN 1559-1 [7] and EN 1559-5 [8]).

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This document specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by comparative visual analysis.
The purpose of this document is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular application.
The particular material grades are specified mainly by mechanical properties and, in the case of austenitic and abrasion resistant cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the requirements specified in the relevant material standard.

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This document defines grades and the corresponding requirements for malleable cast irons.
This document specifies five grades of whiteheart malleable cast iron and nine grades of blackheart malleable cast iron, based on mechanical properties measured on cast samples (which are test pieces).
This document specifies Brinell hardness values determined only when these values are requested by the purchaser.
This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for malleable cast iron castings. Reference should be made to EN 1559 1 [3] and EN 1559 3 [4].
This document does not cover chemical composition, except phosphorus (see Clause 6).

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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard specifies 2 groups of spheroidal graphite cast iron grades by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples. The first group deals mainly with ferritic to pearlitic grades. The second group deals with solid-solution strengthened ferritic grades.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559 1 [3] and EN 1559 3 [4]).
This European Standard does not cover:
-   ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 1564 [7];
-   low alloyed ferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 16124 [8];
-   continuous cast iron bars which are specified in EN 16482 [7];
-   austenitic cast irons which are specified in EN 13835 [8];
-   spheroidal graphite cast irons used for pipes, fittings and their joints which are the subject of EN 545 [11], EN 598 [12] and EN 969 [13];
-   the grades of spheroidal graphite cast irons as specified in EN 545 which are used for products such as industrial valves, non-industrial manually operated shut-off valves and flanges and their joints, which are the subject of the applicable European product standards.

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This document specifies the requirements for fusion welding of unalloyed and low-alloy cast iron castings produced in accordance with:
-   EN 1561, Founding - Grey cast irons;
-   EN 1562, Founding - Malleable cast irons;
-   EN 1563, Founding - Spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This document does not apply to the joint welding of cast iron castings to other materials.

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This document specifies main requirements, limits, inspection conditions and acceptance requirements as well as related inspection documents of welders for welded cast iron test pieces and workpieces.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of a welder‘s skills, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner or examining body.
This document specifies the testing of a welder’s skill unless a higher level skill test is required.
The acceptance of a welder’s skill according to this document implies a practical experience and knowledge regarding the welding process, materials and safety requirements (see Annex C).
This document is to be used when requirements on part of a customer, testing or monitoring body or other organization are postulated.
This document defines the qualification test of welders for the fusion welding of cast irons. The welding processes referred to in this standard include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes (see EN ISO 14732). Cast iron materials which are covered by this document are mentioned in 5.4.
The inspection document and certification are made out under the responsibility of the testing body.

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X-ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) film techniques. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for film radiographic testing of castings.
Films after exposure and processing become radiographs with different area of optical density. Radiographs are viewed and evaluated using industrial radiographic illuminators.
This part of EN 12681 specifies the recommended procedure for the choice of operating conditions and radiographic practice.
These procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
NOTE   This European Standard considers EN ISO 5579.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
-   radiographic testing of castings for aerospace applications (see prEN 2002-21);
-   radiographic testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-1);
-   radiography with digital detectors (see EN 12681-2);
-   radioscopic testing (see EN 13068, all parts).

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This European Standard gives specific procedures for industrial X-ray and gamma radiography for discontinuity detection purposes, using NDT (Non-destructive testing) digital X-ray image detectors. This part of EN 12681 specifies the requirements for digital radiographic testing by either computed radiography (CR) or radiography with digital detector arrays (DDA) of castings.
Digital detectors provide a digital grey value image which can be viewed and evaluated using a computer.
NOTE   This part of EN 12681 complies with EN 14784-2 for CR. Some clauses and annexes are taken from EN ISO 17636-2.
This part of EN 12681 describes the recommended procedure for detector selection and radiographic practice. Selection of computer, software, monitor, printer and viewing conditions are important but are not the main focus of this standard. The procedure specified in this standard provides the minimum requirements for radiographic practice which permit exposure and acquisition of digital radiographs with equivalent sensitivity for detection of imperfections as film radiography, as specified in Part 1 of this standard.
The requirements on image quality in class A and B testing of Annex A consider the good workmanship quality for general casting applications as also required in Part 1 of this standard for film radiography.
The classes AA and BA reflect the quality requirements of current automated and semi-automated radiographic inspection systems with DDAs (computer based flaw recognition or visual inspection) and mini or micro focus tubes (spot size ≤ 1 mm) with reduced requirements to the unsharpness.
The described procedures are applicable to castings produced by any casting process, especially for steel, cast iron, aluminium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, nickel, titanium, zinc and any alloys of them.
This part of this European Standard does not apply to:
- the testing of welded joints (see EN ISO 17636-2);
-   film radiography;
- real time testing with radioscopy.

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This European Standard specifies the grades and the corresponding requirements for magnesium alloys for cast anodes.
This European Standard specifies 2 groups of cast magnesium alloy grades by a classification based on chemical composition. The first group deals with magnesium alloy ingots for anodes. The second group deals with magnesium alloy anode castings.
This European Standard specifies chemical composition, designation, testing and inspection documentation.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for magnesium alloy anode castings (see EN 1559-1 [3] and EN 1559-5 [4]).

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This European Standard specifies the grades and corresponding requirements for cast unalloyed magnesium.
This European Standard specifies the chemical composition, designation, testing, marking and inspection documentation.

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This part of EN 1559 specifies the additional technical delivery conditions for castings, see EN 1753 and cast anodes, see EN 12438 made from magnesium alloys.
This part of EN 1559 applies to magnesium alloy castings produced in sand or permanent moulds or by pressure die casting, centrifugal casting, continuous casting or investment casting.
This part of EN 1559 does not apply to ingots, bars, billets (or other shapes) for further reprocessing, such as re-melting or extrusion.

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This European Standard specifies a material designation system for magnesium and magnesium alloys either by numbers or by symbols for castings including anodes and ingots intended for remelting.
The designation system by numbers is only applicable to standardized magnesium and magnesium alloys (see 2.1).
The designation system by symbols is applicable to
a)   standardized magnesium and magnesium alloys (see 2.1);
b)   non-standardized magnesium and magnesium alloys (see 2.2).
NOTE 1   The standardized designation by symbols does not necessarily imply that the material is standardized.
NOTE 2   Magnesium and magnesium alloys for aerospace applications referred to in European standards prepared by AECMA (fr: Association Européenne des Constructeurs de Matériel Aérospatial) have different designations.

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This European Standard specifies a liquid penetrant testing method for castings produced by investment casting for general purposes.
NOTE   Investment casting is sometimes referred to as lost-wax casting.
This European Standard applies to all cast metals, except copper-tin and/or copper-tin-lead alloy castings, where copper is the major constituent (see EN 1982 [3]).

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This European Standard defines the grades of grey cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron bars, which have been produced by the continuous casting process.
This European Standard specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast iron bars by either:
a)   the tensile strength measured on machined test pieces prepared from samples cut from the bars, or
b)   the hardness measured on the bars.
If agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the combination of both tensile strength from option a) and hardness from option b) may be specified.
This European Standard specifies the characterizing properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron bars by the tensile strength measured on machined test pieces prepared from samples cut from the bars.
This European Standard specifies 4 grades of grey cast iron and 14 grades of spheroidal graphite cast iron by a classification based on tensile strength and 4 grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on Brinell hardness.
This European Standard specifies also the straightness of the bars.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559 1 [1] and EN 1559 3 [2]).

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  • Draft
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ISO/TS 8062-2:2013 gives the rules for geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing of final moulded parts and parts machined out of moulded parts. It also gives rules and conventions for the indications of these requirements in technical product documentation and specifies the proportions and dimensions of the graphical symbols to be used.
ISO/TS 8062-2:2013 provides symbols which may be used to identify the relative completeness of the moulded features and parts. These graphical symbols should not be confused with the graphical symbols for surface texture according to ISO 1302, which are notably larger.

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This European Standard specifies a magnetic particle testing method for ferro-magnetic iron and steel castings.
NOTE   An iron or steel casting is considered to be ferro-magnetic if the magnetic induction is greater than 1 T (Tesla) for a magnetic field strength of 2,4 kA/m.

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This European Standard specifies the grades and corresponding requirements for austenitic cast irons. These requirements are specified in terms of:
graphite form and metal structure: either flake or spheroidal graphite in an austenitic matrix;
chemical composition: as given for each of the grades;
mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples.
This standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings, see EN 1559-1 [1] and
EN 1559-3 [2].

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This European Standard specifies methods for the examination of surface condition (roughness and surface discontinuities) of castings.
This European Standard is applicable to all cast metals and all casting processes except die casting.

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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for low-alloyed ferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons for elevated temperature applications.
These requirements are specified in terms of
   chemical composition: as given for each of the grades,
   graphite form and metal structure: spheroidal graphite in a predominantly ferritic matrix,
   mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings, see EN 1559 1 [1] and EN 1559 3 [2].

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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for compacted (vermicular) graphite cast irons.
This European Standard specifies 5 grades of compacted (vermicular) graphite cast iron by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559-1 [1] and EN 1559-3 [2]).

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic testing of spheroidal graphite cast iron castings and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse-echo technique.
This European Standard does not apply to ultrasonic testing of the nodularity of spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard does not apply to transmission technique.
NOTE   The transmission technique has insufficient sensitivity to detect the discontinuities found in spheroidal graphite cast iron castings and is used in exceptional cases only.

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This European Standard specifies a liquid penetrant testing method for castings produced in conventional sand moulds, by gravity and low-pressure die casting, except for investment castings and high-pressure die castings.
This European Standard applies to all cast metals, except copper-tin and/or copper-tin-lead alloy castings, where copper is the major constituent.

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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard specifies five grades of ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast iron by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples.
This European Standard also specifies two grades by a classification as a function of hardness.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings, see EN 1559-1 [4] and EN 1559-3 [5].
NOTE   Grades given in Annex A are not intended for pressure equipment applications.

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This European Standard specifies the properties of unalloyed and low-alloyed grey cast irons used for castings, which have been manufactured in sand moulds or in moulds with comparable thermal behaviour.
This European Standard specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast irons by either
a)   the tensile strength of cast samples, or
b)   the hardness measured on the castings or on a cast-on knob.
If agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the combination of both tensile strength from option a) and hardness from option b) may be specified.
This European Standard specifies six grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on tensile strength measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples (see Table 1) and six grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on Brinell hardness (see Table 2).
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings; see EN 1559-1 [3] and
EN 1559-3 [4].
This European Standard does not apply to grey cast irons used for pipes and fittings according to EN 877 [5].

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This European Standard specifies the additional technical delivery conditions for castings made from all cast iron materials.
This European Standard applies to iron castings produced in sand or permanent moulds or by centrifugal casting, continuous casting or investment casting.

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This part of EN 1559 specifies the general technical delivery conditions for castings made from cast metallic materials except copper alloy castings.
This part of EN 1559 is not applicable to metallic castings for further reprocessing such as forging ingots and continuously cast billets and blooms.
NOTE 1   Technical delivery conditions for copper alloy castings are specified in EN 1982.
NOTE 2   Additional technical delivery condition requirements which are specific to particular materials are specified in the following parts of this standard series: EN 1559-2 for cast steel; EN 1559-3 for cast iron; EN 1559-4 for cast aluminium; EN 1559-5 for cast magnesium; EN 1559-6 for cast zinc.

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This European Standard establishes a material designation system either by symbols or by numbers for cast iron.
The designation system by symbols is applicable to:
a)   standardized cast iron materials (see 2.1);
b)   non-standardized cast iron materials (see 2.2).
The designation system by numbers is only applicable to standardized cast iron materials (see 2.1).
NOTE   The use of a designation system by symbols does not necessarily imply that the material is standardized.

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This European Standard defines the grades of abrasion resistant white cast irons. It specifies the grades in terms of:
-   chemical composition;
-   hardness.
The types of abrasion resistant white cast irons covered by this standard are:
a)   unalloyed or low alloy cast irons;
b)   nickel-chromium cast irons covering two general types:
-   4 % Ni 2 % Cr cast irons;
-   9 % Cr 5 % Ni cast irons;
c)   high chromium cast irons covering four ranges of chromium content:
-   11 % < Cr -   14 % < Cr -   18 % < Cr -   23 % < Cr This European Standard does not define the abrasion resistant grades of ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are subject of EN 1564.

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ISO 10135:2007 specifies rules and conventions for the indications of requirements for moulded parts on technical product documentation. It also specifies the proportions and dimensions of the graphical symbols used for this representation.

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ISO 8062-3:2007 specifies general dimensional and geometrical tolerances, as well as machining allowance grades, for castings as delivered to the purchaser in accordance with ISO 8062-2. It is applicable for the tolerancing of dimensions and geometry, and required machining allowance of castings in all cast metals and their alloys produced by various casting manufacturing processes.
ISO 8062-3:2007 applies to both general dimensional and general geometrical tolerances, unless otherwise specified.
The dimensional tolerances covered by ISO 8062-3:2007 are tolerances for linear dimensions.
The geometrical tolerances covered by ISO 8062-3:2007 are:
       tolerances for straightness,
       flatness,
       roundness,
       parallelism,
       perpendicularity,
       symmetry, and
       coaxiality.
ISO 8062-3:2007 can be used for the selection of tolerance values for individual indications.

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ISO 8062-1:2007 establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions used to describe the features, form and tolerance types when assigning dimensional and geometrical tolerances to moulded parts in geometrical product specifications (GPS).

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This part of this standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic testing of steel castings (with limited content of austenite) and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This part of this standard applies to the ultrasonic testing of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment, and with wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique.
This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm.
For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels.
This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.

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This standard specifies the requirements for tooling for the production of lost patterns for the lost wax process including soluble wax cores, and the production of ceramic cores. This standard does not specify equipment used to produce castings by the Shaw process. This standard does not specify the processes which directly generate the lost pattern(s) by means of numerical data such as stereolithography or sintered wax process or laminated object manufacturing (LOM).

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This Standard specifies the requirements for tooling for the production of lost patterns by the lost foam process.

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This Standard specifies the requirements for patterns, pattern equipment and coreboxes for the production of sand moulds and/or sand cores. This Standard does not specify equipment for the production of lost patterns, permanent moulds and die casting dies. This Standard does not specify the requirements for ancillary items used in the manufacture of pattern equipment (such as screws, dowels, etc.).

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This document defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for compacted (vermicular) graphite cast irons.
This document specifies 4 grades of compacted (vermicular) graphite cast iron by a classification based on the minimum mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples or samples cut from a casting.
This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559-1 [1] and EN 1559-3 [2]).

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This document specifies the properties of unalloyed and low-alloyed grey cast irons used for castings, which have been manufactured in sand moulds or in moulds with comparable thermal behaviour.
NOTE   This document can also be applicable to grey cast irons cast in permanent moulds, provided the related cast samples are casted under the same conditions as the castings.
This document specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast irons by either
a)   the tensile strength of cast samples,
b)   if agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the tensile strength of samples cut from a casting,
c)   the hardness determined on the castings or on a cast-on knob.
If agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the combination of both tensile strength from option a) and hardness from option c) may be specified.
This document specifies six grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on tensile strength determined on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples (see Table 1) and six grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on Brinell hardness (see Table 2).
This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings; see EN 1559-1 [3] and EN 1559-3 [4].
This document does not apply to grey cast irons used for pipes and fittings according to EN 877 [5].

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This European Standard defines the grades of grey cast iron and spheroidal graphite cast iron bars, which have been produced by the continuous casting process.
This European Standard specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast iron bars by either:
a)   the tensile strength measured on machined test pieces prepared from samples cut from the bars, or
b)   the hardness measured on the bars.
If agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the combination of both tensile strength from option a) and hardness from option b) may be specified.
This European Standard specifies the characterizing properties of spheroidal graphite cast iron bars by the tensile strength measured on machined test pieces prepared from samples cut from the bars.
This European Standard specifies 4 grades of grey cast iron and 14 grades of spheroidal graphite cast iron by a classification based on tensile strength and 4 grades of grey cast iron by a classification based on Brinell hardness.
This European Standard specifies also the straightness of the bars.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559 1 [1] and EN 1559 3 [2]).

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  • Corrigendum
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This European Standard specifies the chemical composition of magnesium alloys for ingots. It also specifies the chemical composition of magnesium alloy castings. It also specifies the mechanical properties of separately cast samples of these alloys (see clause 6). By agreement, it also specifies the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys castings determined from samples cut from a casting.

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ISO 945-1:2017 specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by comparative visual analysis.
The purpose of this document is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular application.
The particular material grades are specified mainly by mechanical properties and, in the case of austenitic and abrasion resistant cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the requirements specified in the relevant material standard.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard defines grades and the corresponding requirements for malleable cast irons.
This European standard specifies five grades of whiteheart malleable cast iron and nine grades of blackheart malleable cast iron, based on mechanical properties measured on cast samples (which are test pieces).
This European Standard specifies Brinell hardness values determined only when these values are requested by the purchaser.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for malleable cast iron castings. Reference should be made to EN 1559-1 [3] and EN 1559-3 [4].
This European Standard does not cover chemical composition, except phosphorous (see Clause 6).

  • Standard
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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard specifies 2 groups of spheroidal graphite cast iron grades by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples. The first group deals with ferritic to pearlitic grades. The second group deals with solid-solution strengthened ferritic grades.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559-1 [3] and EN 1559-3 [4]).
This European Standard does not cover all aspects of:
-   ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 1564 [5];
-   low alloyed ferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in prEN 16124 [6];
-   austenitic cast irons which are specified in EN 13835 [7];
-   spheroidal graphite cast irons used for pipes, fittings and their joints which are the subject of EN 545 [8], EN 598 [9] and EN 969 [10];
-   the grades of spheroidal graphite cast iron as specified in EN 545 which are used for products such as industrial valves, non industrial manually operated shut-off valves and flanges and their joints, which are the subject of the applicable European product standards.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for fusion welding of unalloyed and low-alloy cast iron castings produced in accordance with:
-   EN 1561, Founding - Grey cast irons;
-   EN 1562, Founding - Malleable cast irons;
-   EN 1563, Founding - Spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard does not apply to the joint welding of cast iron castings to other materials.

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This European Standard specifies main requirements, limits, inspection conditions and acceptance require-ments as well as related inspection documents of welders for welded cast iron test pieces and workpieces.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of a welder‘s skills, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner/examining body.
This European Standard specifies the testing of a welder’s skill unless a higher level skill test is applicable.
The acceptance of a welder’s skill according to this standard implies a practical experience and knowledge regarding the welding process, materials and safety requirements (see Annex C).
This European Standard has to be used when requirements on part of a customer, testing or monitoring body or other organisation are postulated.
This European Standard defines the qualification test of welders for the fusion welding of cast iron. The weld-ing processes referred to in this standard include those fusion welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes (see EN 1418). Cast iron materials which are covered by this European Standard are mentioned in 5.4.
The inspection document and certification is made out in the name of the testing body’s liability.

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ISO 945-1:2008 specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by comparative visual analysis.
The purpose of this part of ISO 945 is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular application.
The particular material grade is specified by results from tensile tests or hardness testing and, in the case of austenitic cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the requirements specified in the relevant material standard. The structure of the metallic matrix (e.g. ferrite, pearlite) has a significant effect on the material properties. Such an interpretation is not the purpose of this part of ISO 945.

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