Electrical machinery standardisation
When introducing into production or organizing a new type of equipment, its technological features are always taken into account first. Since the calculation of costs comes into contact with the time of adaptation of innovative technologies and has a certain effect on the time frame for achieving the desired financial results as well as the quality of products, it is necessary to take into account that it is the correctness of the regulatory and technical base that will significantly affect the above processes. Today, the exchange of technologies takes place globally between cities and countries, which is why the issue of technological documentation has become more complex and is being considered within the framework of international interaction. In the modern world, one of the documents regulating various branches of human activity and at the same time creating a unified system to simplify the interaction of businesses and corporations are international standards. Today we will bring a list of some of the most relevant international standards governing activities related to the operation, implementation of electrical machinery.
Today, a large number of both equipment and individual parts for equipping it are produced from metal. Since there are different types of metals, therefore, recommendations for its processing, operation and the use of a certain type of equipment are quite different. It should also be noted that the sphere in which the activity is carried out, as well as the weather conditions and the temperature at which the activity takes place, significantly affects. For the regulation of steel ropes used by different types of equipment, such a standard has been created as EN 13411-7: 2021.
This document specifies the minimum requirements for symmetrical wedge socket terminations for stranded steel wire ropes conforming to EN 12385-5 for lifts. This document covers those symmetric wedge sockets intended for use at temperatures between −20 °C and 100 °C.
This document only covers those symmetric wedge sockets that have welded socket bodies. An example of the construction and sizes of a symmetric wedge socket is given in informative Annex A. The informative Annex B gives the recommendations for the safe use and inspection of symmetric wedge socket according to Annex A.
This document deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to symmetric wedge sockets for terminations for steel wire ropes, when used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. The hazards covered by this document are identified in Clause 4. This document applies to symmetric wedge sockets, which are manufactured after the date of its publication.
This international document has certain technological features that we recommend paying attention to. It is this thesis description that will give you the opportunity to understand whether this international standard is suitable for your field of activity, the equipment used, or you should pay attention to other documents.
Safety of escalators and moving walks - Part 2: Rules for the improvement of safety of existing escalators and moving walks
Mechanical processes are increasingly being replaced by electronic innovations. Nevertheless, certain technologies remain relevant to this day. International standardization is a rather diverse concept and regulates a large category of equipment and branches of human activity. One of the next significant standards in machinery today is EN 115-2: 2021.
This document gives rules for improving the safety of existing escalators and moving walks with the aim of reaching an equivalent level of safety to that of a newly installed escalator and moving walk by the application of today’s state of the art for safety. NOTE Due to situations such as the existing machine or building designs, it might not be possible in all cases to reach today’s state of the art for safety. Nevertheless, the objective is to improve the level of safety wherever possible.
This document includes the improvement of safety of existing escalators and moving walks for:
b) maintenance and inspection personnel;
c) persons outside the escalator or moving walk (but in its immediate vicinity);
d) authorized persons.
This document is not applicable to:
1) safety during transport, installation, repairs and dismantling of escalators and moving walks;
2) spiral escalators;
3) accelerating moving walks.
However, this document can usefully be taken as a reference basis.
This international document allows you to see the areas in which the aforementioned equipment is used and in which this International Standard can help to improve the performance indicators of the activities carried out. That is why we strongly recommend checking all the above-mentioned parameters with the specifics of your organization's activities.
Cranes - General design - Part 3-6: Limit states and proof of competence of machinery - Hydraulic cylinders
Hydraulic processes are present in the life of mankind both at the household level and at the level of large-scale production. It should also be noted that these mechanisms very actively interact with electrical implementations in existing production processes and thus implies the need to create new comprehensive international standards for their regulation. One of the striking examples of such a document is EN 13001-3-6: 2018 + A1: 2021.
This document is to be used together with the other generic parts of EN 13001 series of standards, see Annex E, as well as pertinent crane type product EN standards, and as such they specify general conditions, requirements and methods to, by design and theoretical verification, prevent mechanical hazards of hydraulic cylinders that are part of the load carrying structures of cranes. Hydraulic piping, hoses and connectors used with the cylinders are not within the scope of this document, as well as cylinders made from other material than carbon steel.
NOTE 1 Specific requirements for particular crane types are given in the appropriate European product standards, see Annex E.
The significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during intended use are identified in Annex F. Clauses 4 to 7 of this document provide requirements and methods to reduce or eliminate these risks:
a) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) elastic instability (column buckling).
NOTE 2 EN 13001-3-6 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.
Like any other document, international standards have a certain number of amendments. You can familiarize yourself with them and track for which specific subcategories and categories associated with the aforementioned equipment, this international standard can be useful, and in which it cannot be applied and also may cause certain damage in the construction of the system.
Despite the fact that machine manufacturing is primarily associated with electrical equipment and also mechanical processes, the design of global equipment such as construction cranes is a fairly large industry and category of human activity. For each international standard, certain additions are created, which neutralize the need to change the complete document, thereby facilitating the process of introducing the standardization base in production. One example of such documents is EN 13001-3-5: 2016 + A1: 2021.
This European Standard is to be used together with EN 13001-1 and EN 13001-2 and, as such, they specify general conditions, requirements and methods to prevent by design and theoretical verification, mechanical hazards in crane hooks.
This European Standard covers the following parts of hooks and types of hooks:
- bodies of any type of hooks made of steel forgings;
- machined shanks of hooks with a thread/nut suspension.
Principles of this European Standard can be applied to machined shanks of hooks in general. However, stress concentration factors relevant to designs not given in this standard would have to be determined and applied.
NOTE 1 Cast hooks and plate hooks, which are those, assembled of one or several parallel parts of rolled steel plates, are not covered in this European Standard.
The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this document are necessary to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with the following hazards:
a) exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);
b) exceeding temperature limits of material.
The requirements of this European Standard are stated in the main body of the document and are applicable to forged hook designs in general.
The commonly used hook body and shank designs listed in Annexes A, B and F are only examples and should not be referred to as requirements of this European Standard. Annex I gives guidance for the selection of a hook size, where a hook body is in accordance with Annex A or B. The selection of hook form is not limited to those shown in Annexes A and B. This European Standard is applicable to cranes, which are manufactured after the date of approval of this European Standard by CEN, and serves as a reference base for product standards of particular crane types.
NOTE 2 This part of EN 13001 deals only with the limit state method in accordance with EN 13001-1.
Add after 1st paragraph the following sentence: " It has to be used together with the other generic parts of EN 13001 series of standards, see Annex L. ". Replace in 2nd paragraph the 1st list item with: " bodies of any type of hooks made of steel forgings or steel castings, including stainless steel;". Replace NOTE 1 with: " NOTE 1 Plate hooks, which are those, assembled of one or several parallel parts of rolled steel plates, are not covered in this document.". In the 4th paragraph, replace the 1st list item with: " a) exceeding the limits of yield strength, ultimate strength, fatigue strength, brittle fracture;". Replace the 5th paragraph with: "The requirements of this document are stated in the main body of the document and are applicable to hook designs in general."
If the description of this document made it possible for you to understand that its application is not quite suitable specifically for your field of activity, we recommend that you follow the link to our website and familiarize yourself with the list of all available documents of a related category.
Separate standards can be created for the same technology as for the same equipment. Since the same category of human activity may imply different uses for the same equipment, one should delve into the description of the standards to avoid the mistake of misapplication. One of the most relevant standards for steel ropes is EN 13411-9: 2021.
This document specifies the minimum requirements for solid thimbles made of steel or cast iron for terminations of stranded steel wire ropes.
This document is applicable to ferrule-secured terminations with solid thimbles in combination with ferrules (see EN 13411-3), that have an efficiency factor KT of at least 0,9, and to spliced terminations with solid thimbles (see EN 13411-2), that have an efficiency factor KT of at least 0,8, which are used as accessories for steel wire ropes, such as slings or wire rope assemblies, having a lifting, lowering or load-bearing effect in hoisting equipment.
Examples of designs of solid thimbles which meet the requirements of this standard are given in informative Annexes B and C. Round thimbles (thimble with rotational symmetry around the bore) are not subject to this document. This document is applicable to ferrule-secured terminations that are manufactured after the date of publication of this document.
Hazards that are dealt with in this document are listed in Clause 4.
This international document is complex and refers to other international standards, if your area of activity comes into contact with the technologies mentioned above, you need to understand that the involvement of one document will not significantly increase the qualitative and quantitative results of your organization, which is why you should think about creating a strong regulatory - legal complex and focus on its formation in order to achieve high results.
Molecular in vitro diagnostic examinations - Specifications for preexamination processes for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue - Part 4: In situ detection techniques (ISO 20166-4:2021)
EN ISO 20166-4:2021
In previous reviews of updated documents, we have repeatedly talked about the importance of molecular research, as well as the stage of examination and testing of one or another equipment or product. The next step after this action is to analyze the results. It is in order for empirical research to be of the highest quality that international standards are created for the next stage, one of which is EN ISO 20166-4: 2021.
This document gives requirements for the collection, handling, documentation, transport, storage and processing during the pre-examination phase of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens intended for examinations of morphology and biomolecules, such as metabolites, proteins, DNA and/or RNA in situ on FFPE tissue sections by using different in situ detection techniques. This document is applicable to routine and molecular diagnostic examinations using in situ detection techniques including laboratory developed tests performed by routine pathology laboratories (histology laboratories) as well as molecular pathology laboratories and other medical laboratories. It is also intended to be used by laboratory customers, in vitro diagnostics developers and manufacturers, as well as institutions and commercial organizations performing biomedical research, biobanks, and regulatory authorities.
This document is not applicable for the examination of isolated biomolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA that cannot be mapped with a defined region of a FFPE section. NOTE International, national or regional regulations or requirements can also apply to specific topics covered in this document.
If your organization or company carries out research activities, examination reports as a result of testing a particular product, especially those related to research activities, we recommend that you pay attention to this international document. If its specific technical characteristics are not suitable for your activity, you can follow the link to our website and familiarize yourself with the entire list of available documents. This is where you can find the right document for you.
The importance of implementing international regulatory documents
As you can see in the annotation to the above international standards, each document has a clear specification and focus on the regulation of a particular type of electrical equipment. Since innovations are developing at an accelerated pace, any business is more and more diversified and requires more detailed standardization and regulation of existing processes. It is for this that the implementation of international standards is carried out. Underestimating the importance of these documents can not only slow down the speed of development and scaling of your organization, but also have a negative impact on the compliance of product or service quality with the norms and requirements of the modern market. That is why we recommend that you always be aware of the latest updates of international standards in that industry and the type of equipment with which your field of activity comes into contact and also constantly update them and have them in the technological base of the organization to achieve the most productive and high-quality results and, as a result, a permanent increase in the level competitiveness.
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