Nuclear fuel technology - Sintered (U,Pu)O2 pellets - Guidance for ceramographic preparation for microstructure examination (ISO 22765:2016)

ISO 22765:2016 describes the ceramographic procedure used to prepare sintered (U,Pu)O2 pellets for qualitative and quantitative examination of the pellet microstructure.
The examinations are performed before and after thermal treatment or chemical etching.
They allow
-      observation of any cracks, intra- and intergranular pores or inclusions, and
-      measurement of the grain size, porosity and plutonium homogeneity distribution.
The mean grain diameter is measured by one of the classic methods: counting (intercept method), comparison with standard grids or typical images, etc.[2] The measurement of individual grain sizes requires uniform development of the microstructure over the entire specimen.
The plutonium cluster and pore distribution and localization are generally analysed by automatic image analysis systems. The plutonium distribution is usually revealed by chemical etching but alpha-autoradiography can also be used. The first technique avoids the tendency for autoradiography to exaggerate the size of plutonium-rich clusters due to the distance the alpha particles travel away from the source.

Kernbrennstofftechnologie - Gesinterte (U,Pu)O2-Pellets - Leitfaden für die keramographische Herstellung der Proben zur Untersuchung des Feingefüges (ISO 22765:2016)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt das keramographische Verfahren zur Vorbereitung von gesinterten (U,Pu)O2 Pellets für die qualitative und quantitative Untersuchung der Pellet Mikrostruktur.
Die Untersuchungen werden vor und nach der Wärmebehandlung oder dem chemischen Ätzen durch-geführt.
Sie ermöglichen
   die Beobachtung von jeglichen Rissen, von Poren im und zwischen dem Granulat oder von Einschlüssen und
   die Messung der Korngröße, Porosität und Homogenitätsverteilung des Plutoniums.
Der mittlere Korndurchmesser wird nach einem der klassischen Verfahren gemessen: Zählen (Intercept-Verfahren), Vergleich mit Standardrastern oder typischen Bildern usw. [2]. Die Messung einzelner Korn-größen erfordert die gleichmäßige Entwicklung der Mikrostruktur über die gesamte Probe.
Die Verteilung der Plutonium Cluster und -Poren und deren Lokalisierung werden in der Regel mit auto-matischen Bildanalysesystemen analysiert. Die Plutoniumverteilung wird in der Regel durch chemisches Ätzen festgestellt, es kann aber auch die Alpha Autoradiographie verwendet werden. Die erste Technik vermeidet die Tendenz der Autoradiographie, die Größe plutoniumreicher Cluster aufgrund des Abstandes, den die Alpha Partikel von der Quelle zurücklegen, als zu groß wiederzugeben.

Technologie du combustible nucléaire - Pastilles (U,Pu)O2 frittées - Préconisations relatives à la préparation céramographique pour examen de la microstructure (ISO 22765:2016)

ISO 18610:2016 décrit la procédure céramographique utilisée pour préparer des pastilles de (U,Pu)O2 frittées afin de réaliser des examens qualitatifs et quantitatifs de leur microstructure.
Ces examens sont réalisés avant et après un traitement thermique ou une attaque chimique.
Ils permettent:
-      l'observation d'éventuels fissures, pores inter- et intragranulaires ou inclusions; et
-      le mesurage des tailles de grains, de la porosité et de l'homogénéité de la distribution du plutonium.
Le diamètre de grain moyen est mesuré par l'une des méthodes classiques suivantes: comptage (méthode par interception), comparaison à des grilles normalisées ou des images types, etc[2]. Le mesurage des dimensions du grain requiert la révélation uniforme de la microstructure sur l'ensemble de l'échantillon.
La localisation et la distribution des pores et des agglomérats de plutonium sont en général analysées par des systèmes automatiques d'analyse des images. La distribution du plutonium est, en règle générale, mise en évidence par une attaque chimique mais il est également possible d'utiliser l'autoradiographie alpha. La première technique évite la tendance propre à l'autoradiographie, d'exagérer la taille des agglomérats riches en plutonium en raison de la distance parcourue par les particules alpha depuis la source.

Tehnologija jedrskih goriv - Sintrani peleti (U,Pu)O2 - Navodilo za pripravo keramografske preiskave mikrostrukture (ISO 22765:2016)

Keramografski postopek, ki se uporabi za pripravo sintranih peletov (U,Pu)O2 za kvalitativno in kvantitativno preiskavo mikrostrukture peletov.
Preiskave se izvedejo pred in po toplotni obdelavi ali kemičnem jedkanju.
Omogočajo:
– opažanje morebitnih razpok, intra- in intergranularnih por ali vključkov ter
– meritve velikosti zrna, poroznosti in homogenosti porazdelitve plutonija.
Povprečni premer zrna je izmerjen z eno od klasičnih metod: štetje (metoda preseka), primerjava s standardnimi mrežami ali značilnimi slikami itd.[2] Izmera velikosti posameznega zrna zahteva poenoten razvoj mikrostrukture v celotnem primerku.
Skupki plutonija in razporeditev ter lokalizacija por so običajno analizirani s samodejnimi sistemi slikovne analize. Razporeditev plutonija se običajno razkrije s kemičnim jedkanjem, lahko pa se uporabi tudi alfa avtoradiografija. S prvo tehniko se izognemo težnji avtoradiografije, da poda preveliko velikost skupkov, bogatih s plutonijem, zaradi razdalje, ki jo delci alfa prepotujejo od vira.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jun-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-Jun-2019
Completion Date
12-Jun-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
01-september-2019
Tehnologija jedrskih goriv - Sintrani peleti (U,Pu)O2 - Navodilo za pripravo
keramografske preiskave mikrostrukture (ISO 22765:2016)
Nuclear fuel technology - Sintered (U,Pu)O2 pellets - Guidance for ceramographic
preparation for microstructure examination (ISO 22765:2016)
Kernbrennstofftechnologie - Gesinterte (U,Pu)O2-Pellets - Leitfaden für die
keramographische Herstellung der Proben zur Untersuchung des Feingefüges (ISO
22765:2016)

Technologie du combustible nucléaire - Pastilles (U,Pu)O2 frittées - Préconisations

relatives à la préparation céramographique pour examen de la microstructure (ISO
22765:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22765:2019
ICS:
27.120.30 Cepljivi materiali in jedrska Fissile materials and nuclear
gorivna tehnologija fuel technology
SIST EN ISO 22765:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
EN ISO 22765
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 27.120.30
English Version
Nuclear fuel technology - Sintered (U,Pu)O2 pellets -
Guidance for ceramographic preparation for
microstructure examination (ISO 22765:2016)

Technologie du combustible nucléaire - Pastilles Kernbrennstofftechnologie - Gesinterte (U,Pu)O2-

(U,Pu)O2 frittées - Préconisations relatives à la Pellets - Leitfaden für die keramographische

préparation céramographique pour examen de la Herstellung der Proben zur Untersuchung des

microstructure (ISO 22765:2016) Feingefüges (ISO 22765:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22765:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
EN ISO 22765:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
EN ISO 22765:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 22765:2016 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 22765:2019 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2019, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22765:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22765:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22765
First edition
2016-12-15
Nuclear fuel technology — Sintered
(U,Pu)O pellets — Guidance for
ceramographic preparation for
microstructure examination
Technologie du combustible nucléaire — Pastilles (U,Pu)O frittées
— Préconisations relatives à la préparation céramographique pour
examen de la microstructure
Reference number
ISO 22765:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
ISO 22765:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
ISO 22765:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Description ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Reagents and resin ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

8 Operating procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

8.1 Specimen cutting ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Resin embedding ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.3 Rough polishing ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.4 Final polishing ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

9 Structure development .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.2 Development by thermal treatment ..................................................................................................................................... 4

9.3 Development by chemical etching ......................................................................................................................................... 4

9.4 Development by ion etching ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 22765:2019
ISO 22765:2016(E)
Foreword

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bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

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described in the IS
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