This document addresses the measurement methods, procedures and uncertainty estimation for the measurement, using a personal dosimeter, of the effective dose to the caregiver in the vicinity of the patient treated with radioiodine to ablate the thyroid. The general requirements for the patient and caregiver and a guidance (see Annex A) for designated expert on instructing caregivers of discharged patients is considered to effectively measure the effective dose to the caregiver in the vicinity of the patient.

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IEC 62209-3: 2019 specifies measurement protocols and test procedures for the reproducible measurement of peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) induced inside a simplified model of a human head or body by radio-frequency (RF) transmitting devices, with a specified measurement uncertainty. Requirements are provided for psSAR assessment using vector measurement-based systems. Such systems determine the psSAR by three-dimensional (3D) field reconstruction within the volume of interest in accordance with the requirements herein for the measurement system, calibration, uncertainty assessment and validation methods. The protocols and procedures apply for the psSAR assessments covering a significant majority of people including children during use of wireless communication devices operated in close proximity to the head or body.
This document is applicable to wireless communication devices intended to be used at a position near the human head or body at distances up to and including 200 mm. This document may be employed to evaluate SAR compliance of different types of wireless communication devices used next to the ear, in front of the face, mounted on the body, combined with other RF-transmitting or non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clip), or embedded in garments. The overall applicable frequency range is from 600 MHz to 6 GHz.
The system validation procedures provided within this document cover frequencies from 600 MHz to 6 GHz.
With a vector measurement-based system this document can be employed to evaluate SAR compliance of different types of wireless communication devices.
The wireless communication device categories covered include but are not limited to mobile telephones, cordless microphones, auxiliary broadcast devices and radio transmitters in personal computers, desktop and laptop devices, multi-band, multi-antenna, and push-to-talk devices.
Key Words: Human Exposure, Hand-Held and Body Mounted Wireless Communication Devices.

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Amendment of EN 60825-1 in relation to European regulation (LVD2)

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European standard establishes the procedures and methodology on measurement and calculation of quantities associated with the assessment of human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. It deals with quantities that can be measured or calculated in free space, notably electric and magnetic field strength and includes the measurement and calculation of quantities inside the body that forms the basis for protection guidelines.
In particular the standard provides information on
− definitions and terminology,
− characteristics of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields,
− measurement of exposure quantities,
− instrumentation requirements,
− methods of calibration,
− measurement techniques and procedures for evaluating exposure,
− calculation methods for exposure assessment.
The object of this standard is to establish a common reference for the assessment of electrical equipment in relation to human exposure from non-ionising electromagnetic fields.

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TThe scope of this European Standard is to provide a general procedure for the assessment of workers’ exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in a workplace in order to determine compliance with exposure limit values and/or action levels as stated in European Directive 2013/35/EU
The purpose of this European Standard is to
-   specify how to perform an initial assessment of the levels of workers' exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), if necessary including specific exposure assessment of such levels by measurements and/or calculations,
-   determine whether it is necessary to carry out a detailed risk assessment of EMF exposure.
This European Standard can be used by employers for the risk assessment and, where required, measurement and/or calculation of the exposure of workers. Based on specific workplace and other standards, it can be determined whether preventive measures/actions have to be taken to comply with the provisions of the Directive.
The frequencies covered are from 0 Hz to 300 GHz.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is written under Mandate M/351 and relates to the exposure limits as specified in the Directive 2013/35/EU. It is intended to protect workers from risks to their health and safety arising or likely to arise from exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) during their work. However, this and other Directives can include additional measures for the protection of specific groups of workers and/or specific work places for which the employer is required to investigate other protective measures as a part of the overall risk assessment. See Annex A.
NOTE 2    Directive 2013/35/EU has been transposed into national legislation in all the EU member countries. It is intended that users of this standard consult the national legislation related to this transposition in order to identify the national regulations and requirements. These national regulations and requirements can have additional requirements that are not covered by this standard.

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This document applies to instruments used to measure the activity and/or activity concentration of gamma-emitting radionuclides in food and/or foodstuffs. This document applies to instruments used both gross count type instruments and pulse height analysing type instruments used in field conditions and in measurement facilities. This document does not apply to high-resolution spectrometers that use germanium detectors.

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This document specifies the characteristics and production methods of X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating protection-level dosemeters and doserate meters with respect to the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[5]. The lowest air kerma rate for which this standard is applicable is 1 µGy h?1. Below this air kerma rate the (natural) background radiation needs special consideration and this is not included in this document.
For the radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6, sufficient published information is available to specify the requirements for all relevant parameters of the matched or characterized reference fields in order to achieve the targeted overall uncertainty (k = 2) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities. The X ray radiation fields described in the informative Annexes A to C are not designated as reference X-radiation fields.
NOTE The first edition of ISO 4037-1, issued in 1996, included some additional radiation qualities for which such published information is not available. These are fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, and the high energy photon radiations R-Ti and R-Ni, which have been removed from the main part of this document. The most widely used radiations, the fluorescent radiations and the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, are included nearly unchanged in the informative Annexes A and B. The informative Annex C gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index.
The methods for producing a group of reference radiations for a particular photon-energy range are described in Clauses 4 to 6, which define the characteristics of these radiations. The three groups of reference radiation are:
a) in the energy range from about 8 keV to 330 keV, continuous filtered X radiation;
b) in the energy range 600 keV to 1,3 MeV, gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides;
c) in the energy range 4 MeV to 9 MeV, photon radiation produced by accelerators.
The reference radiation field most suitable for the intended application can be selected from Table 1, which gives an overview of all reference radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6. It does not include the radiations specified in the Annexes A, B and C.
The requirements and methods given in Clauses 4 to 6 are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) value of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods are proposed:
The first one is to produce "matched reference fields", whose properties are sufficiently well-characterized so as to allow the use of the conversion coefficients recommended in ISO 4037-3. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in ISO 4037‑2. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037‑3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used. If both values are very similar, e.g., differ only by 2 % or less, then a linear interpolation may be used.
The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields

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This document describes rules for the procedures, applications, and systems of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for dose measurements according to the probe method. It is particularly applicable to solid "TL detectors", i.e. rods, chips, and microcubes, made from LiF:Mg,Ti or LiF:Mg,Cu,P in crystalline or polycrystalline form. It is not applicable to LiF powders because their use requires special procedures. The probe method encompasses the arrangement, particularly in a water phantom or in a tissue-equivalent phantom, of single TL detectors or of "TL probes", i.e. sets of TL detectors arranged in thin-walled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) casings.
The purpose of these rules is to guarantee the reliability and the accuracy indispensable in clinical dosimetry when applied on or in the patient or phantom. This document applies to dosimetry in teletherapy with both photon radiation from 20 keV to 50 MeV and electron radiation from 4 MeV to 25 MeV, as well as in brachytherapy with photon-emitting radionuclides. These applications are complementary to the use of ionization chambers.

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The quality of a supplier of a dosimetry service depends on both the characteristics of the approved (type‑tested) dosimetry system[1] and the training and experience of the staff, together with the calibration procedures and quality assurance programmes.
This document specifies the criteria and the test procedures to be used for the periodic verification of the performance of dosimetry services supplying personal and/or area dosemeters.
An area dosemeter can be a workplace dosemeter or an environmental dosemeter.
The performance evaluation can be carried out as a part of the approval procedure for a dosimetry system or as an independent check to verify that a dosimetry service fulfils specified national or international type test performance requirements under representative exposure conditions that are expected or mimic workplace fields from the radiological activities being monitored.
This document applies to personal and area dosemeters for the assessment of external photon radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 8 keV and 10 MeV, beta radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 60 keV and 1,2 MeV, and neutron radiation with a (fluence weighted) mean energy between 25,3 meV (i.e. thermal neutrons with a Maxwellian energy distribution with kT = 25,3 meV) and 200 MeV.
It covers all types of personal and area dosemeters needing laboratory processing (e.g. thermoluminescent, optically stimulated luminescence, radiophotoluminescent, track detectors or photographic-film dosemeters) and involving continuous measurements or measurements repeated regularly at fixed time intervals (e.g. several weeks, one month).
Active dosemeters (for dose measurement) may also be treated according to this document. Then, they should be treated as if they were passive (i.e. the dosimetry service reads their indicated values and reports them to the evaluation organization).
[1] If this document is applied to a dosimetry system for which no approval (pattern or type test) has been provided, then in the following text approval or type test should be read as the technical data sheet provided by the manufacturer or as the data sheet required by the regulatory authority.

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This document defines the performance requirements of installed monitors used for the detection of gamma and neutron radiation emitters. These monitors are commonly known as radiation portal monitors or RPMs. They are used to monitor vehicles, cargo containers, people, or packages and are typically located at national and international border crossings. They may be used at any location where there is a need for this type of monitoring.

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This document specifies gas leakage test criteria and test methods for demonstrating that packages used to transport radioactive materials comply with the package containment requirements defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material for:
— design verification;
— fabrication verification;
— preshipment verification;
— periodic verification;
— maintenance verification.
This document describes a method for relating permissible activity release of the radioactive contents carried within a containment system to equivalent gas leakage rates under specified test conditions. This approach is called gas leakage test methodology. However, in this document it is recognized that other methodologies might be acceptable, provided that they demonstrate that any release of the radioactive contents will not exceed the regulatory requirements, and subject to agreement with the competent authority.
This document provides both overall and detailed guidance on the complex relationships between an equivalent gas leakage test and a permissible activity release rate. Whereas the overall guidance is universally agreed upon, the use of the detailed guidance shall be agreed upon with the competent authority during the Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages certification process.
It should be noted that, for a given package, demonstration of compliance is not limited to a single methodology.
While this document does not require particular gas leakage test procedures, it does present minimum requirements for any test that is to be used. It is the responsibility of the package designer or consignor to estimate or determine the maximum permissible release rate of radioactivity to the environment and to select appropriate leakage test procedures that have adequate sensitivity.
This document pertains specifically to Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages for which the regulatory containment requirements are specified explicitly.

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This document specifies additional procedures and data for the calibration of dosemeters and doserate meters used for individual and area monitoring in radiation protection. The general procedure for the calibration and the determination of the response of radiation protection dose(rate)meters is described in ISO 29661 and is followed as far as possible. For this purpose, the photon reference radiation fields with mean energies between 8 keV and 9 MeV, as specified in ISO 4037-1, are used. In Annex D some additional information on reference conditions, required standard test conditions and effects associated with electron ranges are given. For individual monitoring, both whole body and extremity dosemeters are covered and for area monitoring, both portable and installed dose(rate)meters are covered.
Charged particle equilibrium is needed for the reference fields although this is not always established in the workplace fields for which the dosemeter should be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths. This document also deals with the determination of the response as a function of photon energy and angle of radiation incidence. Such measurements can represent part of a type test in the course of which the effect of further influence quantities on the response is examined.
This document is only applicable for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h.
This document does not cover the in-situ calibration of fixed installed area dosemeters.
The procedures to be followed for the different types of dosemeters are described. Recommendations are given on the phantom to be used and on the conversion coefficients to be applied. Recommended conversion coefficients are only given for matched reference radiation fields, which are specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Clauses 4 to 6. ISO 4037‑1:2019, Annexes A and B, both informative, include fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, for which detailed published information is not available. ISO 4037-1:2019, Annex C, gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index. For all these radiation qualities, conversion coefficients are given in Annexes A to C, but only as a rough estimate as the overall uncertainty of these conversion coefficients in practical reference radiation fields is not known.
NOTE The term dosemeter is used as a generic term denoting any dose or doserate meter for individual or area monitoring.

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This document specifies the procedures for the dosimetry of X and gamma reference radiation for the calibration of radiation protection instruments over the energy range from approximately 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and from 4 MeV to 9 MeV and for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. The considered measuring quantities are the air kerma free-in-air, Ka, and the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) and Hp(0,07), together with the respective dose rates. The methods of production are given in ISO 4037-1.
This document can also be used for the radiation qualities specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Annexes A, B and C, but this does not mean that a calibration certificate for radiation qualities described in these annexes is in conformity with the requirements of ISO 4037.
The requirements and methods given in this document are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods of the reference fields are proposed in ISO 4037-1.
The first is to produce "matched reference fields", which follow the requirements so closely that recommended conversion coefficients can be used. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in this document. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037-3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used.
The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields". Either this is done by determining the conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and, if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. The conversion coefficients can be determined for any distance, provided the air kerma rate is not below 1 µGy/h.
Both methods require charged particle equilibrium for the reference field. However this is not always established in the workplace field for which the dosemeter shall be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths.
This document is not applicable for the dosimetry of pulsed reference fields.

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This document gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations and on the procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This document concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10), H*(10), Hp(3) and H'(3) and for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described.

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The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and evaluation of the performance of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories.
This document addresses:
a) the responsibilities of both the customer and the laboratory;
b) the confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the laboratory;
c) the laboratory safety requirements;
d) sample processing; culturing, staining and scoring, including the criteria for scoring for translocation analysis by FISH;
e) the calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose‑response curves that contribute to the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency and the detection limit;
f) the scoring procedure for translocations stained by FISH used for evaluation of exposure;
g) the criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose (also appears as "dose");
h) the reporting of results;
i) the QA and QC;
j) Annexes A to F containing sample instructions for the customer, sample questionnaire, sample datasheet for recording aberrations, sample of report and fitting of the low dose-response curve by the method of maximum likelihood and calculating the uncertainty of dose estimate.

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This document focuses on monitoring the activity concentrations of radioactive gases. They allow the calculation of the activity releases, in the gaseous effluent discharge from facilities producing positron emitting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Such facilities produce short-lived radionuclides used for medical purposes or research and can release gases typically including, but not limited to 18F, 11C, 15O and 13N. These facilities include accelerators, radiopharmacies, hospitals and universities. This document provides performance‑based criteria for the design and use of air monitoring equipment including probes, transport lines, sample monitoring instruments, and gas flow measuring methods. This document also provides information on monitoring program objectives, quality assurance, development of air monitoring control action levels, system optimisation and system performance verification. The goal of achieving an unbiased measurement is accomplished either by direct (in-line) measurement on the exhaust stream or with samples extracted from the exhaust stream (bypass), provided that the radioactive gases are well mixed in the airstream. This document sets forth performance criteria and recommendations to assist in obtaining valid measurements. NOTE 1 The criteria and recommendations of this document are aimed at monitoring which is conducted for regulatory compliance and system control. If existing air monitoring systems were not designed according to the performance criteria and recommendations of this document, an evaluation of the performance of the system is advised. If deficiencies are discovered based on a performance evaluation, a determination of the need for a system retrofit is to be made and corrective actions adopted where practicable. NOTE 2 The criteria and recommendations of this document apply under both normal and off‑normal operating conditions, provided that these conditions do not include production of aerosols or vapours. If the normal and/or off-normal conditions produce aerosols and vapours, then the aerosol collection principles of ISO 2889 also apply.

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These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of human health[2][4][5][6][7][8]. The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to protect the public from ionizing radiation. This document provides — guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments (atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food; — guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective dose assessment methods of public exposure; — guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities' officers in charge of the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent radioactive discharge authorizations; — information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered. Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge of supplementary parameters. The reference and limit values are not included in this document.

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This standard describes the requirements for rapid testing of water samples under emergency situations in laboratories:
- taking into account a special context for analyses, e.g. an unknown and unusual contamination;
- using or adapting if possible radioactivity measurements methods used in routine to get a result
rapidly or applying specific rapid methods previously tested by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination ;
- preparing the laboratory to analyse a large number of potentially contaminated samples.
The focus thereby is on cases where rapid radioactivity test methods are applied for all kind of waters. The first steps of the analytical strategy is often based on gross alpha and gross beta as screening methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 10703). Then if necessary, specific radionuclides standards are adapted and applied (for example, Strontium 90 measurement following ISO 13160).
This guideline refers to a number of ISO standards. If appropriate, it will also refer to national or other
publically available standards.
Screening techniques that can be carried out on site are not part of this guide.

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This document contains the terms, definitions, notes to entry and examples corresponding to the frequently used concepts which apply to diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. It comprises the minimum essential information for each nuclear medicine concept represented by a single term. It provides the reader with the information required to approach this multidisciplinary speciality, such as medical, radiopharmacy and medical physics point of view. It is intended to facilitate communication and promote common understanding.

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IEC 62484:2020 defines the performance requirements of installed monitors used for the detection and identification of gamma emitters and the detection of neutron radiation emitters. These monitors are commonly known as spectrometric radiation portal monitors or SRPMs. They are used to monitor vehicles, cargo containers, people, or packages and are typically used at national and international border crossings and ports of entry. SRPMs may be used at any location where there is a need for this type of monitoring.
This document establishes the general, radiological, climatic, mechanical, electric and electromagnetic and documentation requirements and associated test methods. A summary of the performance requirements and informative listing of environmental requirements from IEC 62706 is provided.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- title modified;
- making the standard consistent with the new standards for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material (see the Introduction);
- creating unformed functionality test for all environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical tests and a requirement for the coefficient of variation of each nominal mean reading;
- reference to IEC 62706 for the environmental, electromagnetic and mechanical test conditions;
- adding information regarding climatic exposures.

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This document applies to the testing of surfaces that may become contaminated by radioactive materials. The ease of decontamination is a property of a surface and an important criterion for selecting surface materials used in the nuclear industry, interim storage or disposal facilities from which contamination can be removed easily and rapidly without damaging the surface. The test described in this document is a rapid laboratory-based method to compare the ease of decontamination of different surface materials. The results from the test can be one parameter to take into account when selecting surface coatings such as varnish or impervious layers such as ceramics and other surfaces. The radionuclides used in this test are those commonly found in the nuclear industry (137Cs, 134Cs and 60Co) in aqueous form. The test can also be adopted for use with other radionuclides and other chemical forms, depending on the customer requirements, if the solutions are chemically stable and do not corrode the test specimen. The test does not measure the ease of decontamination of the surface materials in practical use, as this depends on the radionuclide(s) present, their chemical form, the duration of exposure to the contaminant and the environmental conditions amongst other factors. The test method is not intended to describe general decontamination procedures or to assess the efficiency of decontamination procedures (see ISO 7503 series). The test method is not suitable for use of radiochemicals if the radionuclide emit low energy gamma rays or beta particles that are readily attenuated in the surface.

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This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an emergency situation, consideration should be given to: — taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of contamination; — using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination; — preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples. The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public. Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels. NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards[8] or national authorities[9]. A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time. The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample, to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance of the water with intervention levels[10][11][12]. It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be evaluated and may increase from routine analyses. The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required[13], test method standards for specific radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, 90Sr measurement according to ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A. This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to national standards or other publicly available documents. Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

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This document specifies the conceptual basis for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the
evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft and for the calibration of instruments
used for that purpose.

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This document specifies the conditions for the determination of uranium isotope activity concentration in samples of environmental water (including sea waters) using alpha-spectrometry and 232U as a yield tracer. A chemical separation is required to separate and purify uranium from a test portion of the sample.

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IEC 61031:2020 applies to the design, location and application of installed equipment for monitoring local gamma radiation dose rates within nuclear facilities during normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. High range area gamma radiation dose rate monitoring equipment for accident conditions currently addressed by IEC 60951-1 and IEC 60951-3 is not within the scope of this document. This document does not apply to the measurement of neutron dose rate. Additional equipment for neutron monitoring may be required, depending on the plant design, if the neutron dose rate makes a substantial contribution to the total dose equivalent to personnel.
This document provides guidelines for the design principles, the location, the application, the calibration, the operation, and the testing of installed equipment for continuously monitoring local gamma radiation dose rates in nuclear facilities under normal operation conditions and anticipated operational occurrences. These instruments are normally referred to as area radiation monitors. Portable instruments are also used for this purpose but are not covered by this document.

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The purpose of this document is to provide minimum criteria required for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories applying ex vivo X-band EPR spectroscopy with human tooth enamel. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in tooth enamel (hydroxyapatite). It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. This document addresses: a) responsibilities of the customer and laboratory; b) confidentiality and ethical considerations; c) laboratory safety requirements; d) the measurement apparatus; e) preparation of samples; f) measurement of samples and EPR signal evaluation; g) calibration of EPR dose response; h) dose uncertainty and performance test; i) quality assurance and control.

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The primary purpose of this document is to provide minimum acceptable criteria required to establish a procedure for retrospective dosimetry by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and to report the results. The second purpose is to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in the measured material. It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. It covers measurements in both biological and inanimate samples, and specifically: a) based on inanimate environmental materials like glass, plastics, clothing fabrics, saccharides, etc., usually made at X-band microwave frequencies (8 GHz to 12 GHz); b) in vitro tooth enamel using concentrated enamel in a sample tube, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered; c) in vivo tooth dosimetry, currently using L-band (1 GHz to 2 GHz), but higher frequencies are also being considered; d) in vitro nail dosimetry using nail clippings measured principally at X-band, but higher frequencies are also being considered; e) in vivo nail dosimetry with the measurements made at X-band on the intact finger or toe; f) in vitro measurements of bone, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered. For biological samples, in vitro measurements are carried out in samples after their removal from the person or animal and under laboratory conditions, whereas the measurements in vivo are carried out without sample removal and may take place under field conditions. NOTE The dose referred to in this document is the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in the measured materials.

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This document specifies the conceptual basis for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft and for the calibration of instruments used for that purpose.

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This document specifies methods and procedures for characterizing the responses of devices used for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in civilian aircraft. The methods and procedures are intended to be understood as minimum requirements.

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This document specifies the different leakage test methods for sealed sources. It gives a comprehensive set of procedures using radioactive and non-radioactive means. This document applies to the following situations: — leakage testing of test sources following design classification testing in accordance with ISO 2919[1]; — production quality control testing of sealed sources; — periodic inspections of the sealed sources performed at regular intervals, during the working life. Annex A of this document gives guidance to the user in the choice of the most suitable method(s) according to situation and source type. It is recognized that there can be circumstances where special tests, not described in this document, are required. It is emphasized, however, that insofar as production, use, storage and transport of sealed radioactive sources are concerned, compliance with this document is no substitute for complying with the requirements of the relevant IAEA regulations[17] and other relevant national regulations. It is also recognized that countries can enact statutory regulations which specify exemptions for tests, according to sealed source type, design, working environment, and activity (e.g., for very low activity reference sources where the total activity is less than the leakage test limit).

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IEC 62963:2020 describes the technical requirements, test methods, inspection requirements, markings and labelling, and requirements on the accompanying documents, packaging, shipping and storage for X-ray security inspection systems that inspect bottled or canned liquids (hereinafter referred to as "the system") based on X-ray computed tomography (CT). Here, the system is limited to those that feature tomographic scanning, not standard X-ray projection. This document is applicable to liquids, aerosols and gelatinous objects in transparent or visually opaque containers.
This technical performance document includes minimum or baseline performance requirements; regulators may require additional performance testing.

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The use of a continuous air monitor (CAM) is mainly motivated by the need to be alerted quickly and in the most accurate way possible with an acceptable false alarm rate when significant activity concentration value is exceeded, in order to take appropriate measures to reduce exposure of those involved. The performance of this CAM does not only depend on the metrological aspect characterized by the decision threshold, the limit of detection and the measurement uncertainties but also on its dynamic capacity characterized by its response time as well as on the minimum detectable activity concentration corresponding to an acceptable false alarm rate. The ideal performance is to have a minimum detectable activity concentration as low as possible associated with a very short response time, but unfortunately these two criteria are in opposition. It is therefore important that the CAM and the choice of the adjustment parameters and the alarm levels be in line with the radiation protection objectives. This document describes — the dynamic behaviour and the determination of the response time, — the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit, limits of the coverage interval), and — a possible way to determine the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup. Finally the annexes of this document show actual examples of CAM data which illustrate how to quantify the CAM performance by determining the response time, the characteristics limits, the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup.

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The use of a continuous air monitor (CAM) is mainly motivated by the need to be alerted quickly and in the most accurate way possible with an acceptable false alarm rate when a significant activity concentration value is exceeded, in order to take appropriate measures to reduce exposure of those involved. The performance of this CAM does not only depend on the metrological aspect characterized by the decision threshold, the limit of detection and the measurement uncertainties but also on its dynamic capacity characterized by its response time as well as on the minimum detectable activity concentration corresponding to an acceptable false alarm rate. The ideal performance is to have a minimum detectable activity concentration as low as possible associated with a very short response time, but unfortunately these two criteria are in opposition. It is therefore important that the CAM and the choice of the adjustment parameters and the alarm levels be in line with the radiation protection objectives. The knowledge of a few factors is needed to interpret the response of a CAM and to select the appropriate CAM type and its operating parameters. Among those factors, it is important to know the half-lives of the radionuclides involved, in order to select the appropriate detection system and its associated model of evaluation. CAM using filter media accumulation sampling techniques are usually of two types: a) fixed filter; b) moving filter. This document first describes the theory of operation of each CAM type i.e.: — the different models of evaluation considering short or long radionuclides half-lives values, — the dynamic behaviour and the determination of the response time. In most case, CAM is used when radionuclides with important radiotoxicities are involved (small value of ALI). Those radionuclides have usually long half-life values. Then the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit, limits of the coverage interval) of a CAM is described by the use of long half-life models of evaluation. Finally, a possible way to determine the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup is pointed out. The annexes of this document show actual examples of CAM data which illustrate how to quantify the CAM performance by determining the response time, the characteristics limits, the minimum detectable activity concentration and the alarms setup.

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This document contains the terms, definitions, notes to entry and examples corresponding to the basic concepts of the nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection subject fields. It provides the minimum essential information for each cross-cutting concept represented by a single term. NOTE A full understanding of concepts goes with a background knowledge of nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection. It is intended to facilitate communication and promote common understanding.

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    19 pages
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2020-01-08 CV: BT decision (D164/C119) to proceed to publication without link to legislation
2019-11-07 mah: consultant assessment missing: blocked.
2019-11-12 - JO: BT document to remove link to the MDD under review

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2020-03-17-JO- BT decision BT164/DG11529/DV to remove the link to the MDD (93/42/EEC)
Publication on hold due to negative assessment

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EN-IEC 62311 applies to electronic and electrical equipment for which no dedicated product standard or product family standard regarding human exposure to electromagnetic fields applies. It covers equipment with intentional or non-intentional radiators as well as a combination thereof. This document provides assessment methods and criteria to evaluate equipment against limits on exposure of people related to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The frequency range covered is from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. This document does not specify limits expressed by means of basic restrictions and/or reference levels. Such limits are subject to the applied assessment scheme, for example by means of regional limits.

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ISO 18557 presents guidelines for sampling strategies and characterization processes to assess the contamination of soils, buildings and infrastructures, prior to remediation and/or to check that the remediation objectives have been met (final release surveys). The principles presented need to be appropriately graded as regards the specific situations concerned (size, level of contamination?). It can be used in conjunction with each country's key documentation.
ISO 18557 deals with characterization in relation to site remediation. It applies to sites contaminated after normal operation of older nuclear facilities. It could also apply to site remediation after a major accident, and in this case the input data will be linked to the accident involved.
ISO 18557 complements existing standards, notably concerning sampling, sample preservation and their transport, treatment and laboratory measurements, but also those related to in situ chemical and radiological measurements. References in the Bibliography contain links to appropriate documentation and techniques as required by individual member countries.
ISO 18557 does not apply to the following issues: execution of clean-up works, sampling and characterization of waste (conditioned or unconditioned) or to waste packages.
It does not apply to groundwater characterization (saturated zone).
Given the case-by-case nature of site remediation and decommissioning, the principles and guidance communicated in ISO 18557 are intended as general guidance only, not prescriptive requirements.

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This document specifies the requirements for personal contamination monitoring and dose assessment following wounds involving radioactive materials. It includes requirements for the direct monitoring at the wound site, monitoring of uptake of radionuclides into the body and assessment of local and systemic doses following the wound event. It does not address: — details of monitoring and assessment methods for specific radionuclides; — monitoring and dose assessment for materials in contact with intact skin or pre-existing wounds, including hot particles; — therapeutic protocols. However, the responsible entity needs to address the requirements for decontamination and decorporation treatments if appropriate.

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ISO 13164-4:2015 describes a test method for the determination of radon-222 (222Rn) activity concentration in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, are at least above 0,5 Bq l−1 for a 10 ml test sample and a measuring time of 1 h.
This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples and it is the responsibility of the laboratory to ensure the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
Annex A gives indication on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required detection limits for drinking water monitoring.

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ISO 13164-2:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following the measurement of its short-lived decay products by direct gamma-spectrometry of the water sample.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available gamma-ray instruments, range from a few becquerels per litre to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 1 l test sample.
This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
An annex gives indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring.

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ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.
The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

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ISO 13164-3:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following its transfer from the aqueous phase to the air phase by degassing and its detection. It gives recommendations for rapid measurements performed within less than 1 h.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, range from 0,1 Bq l−1 to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 100 ml test sample.
This test method is used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
This test method can be applied on field sites or in the laboratory.
Annexes A and B give indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring

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This document specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) and radium-228 (228Ra) activity concentrations in drinking water samples by chemical separation of radium and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting.
Massic activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters go down to 0,01 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 0,06 Bq/kg for 228Ra for a 0,5 kg sample mass and a 1 h counting time in a low background liquid scintillation counter[8].
The test method can be used for the fast detection of contamination of drinking water by radium in emergency situations.

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IEC 62387:2020 is available as IEC 62387:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 62387:2020 applies to all kinds of passive dosimetry systems that are used for measuring:
- the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) (for individual whole body monitoring),
- the personal dose equivalent Hp(3) (for individual eye lens monitoring),
- the personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07) (for both individual whole body skin and local skin for extremity monitoring),
- the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) (for workplace and environmental monitoring),
- the directional dose equivalent H'(3) (for workplace and environmental monitoring), or
- the directional dose equivalent H'(0,07) (for workplace and environmental monitoring).
This document applies to dosimetry systems that measure external photon and/or beta radiation in the dose range between 0,01 mSv and 10 Sv and in the energy ranges given in Table 1. All the energy values are mean energies with respect to the fluence. The dosimetry systems usually use electronic devices for the data evaluation and thus are often computer controlled.

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IEC 63121:2020 applies to vehicle-mounted mobile systems (also known as mobile systems or mobile monitors) that are used for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials; these instruments may also be used for protection of major public events and for rapid screening of large areas. These vehicle-mounted mobile systems consist of one or more radiation detectors mounted in a vehicle, e.g., car or van, which travels predominantly on public roads. This document does not apply to detection systems mounted in other types of vehicles, e.g., planes, helicopters, trains, or boats. Vehicle-mounted detection systems covered by this document are designed to detect radioactive sources while the vehicle is in motion. They may also be used as stationary monitors that scan stationary or moving objects. Vehicle-mounted mobile systems detect gamma radiation and may include neutron detection and/or identification of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides.

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This document specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) and radium-228 (228Ra) activity concentrations in drinking water samples by chemical separation of radium and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting. Massic activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters go down to 0,01 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 0,06 Bq/kg for 228Ra for a 0,5 kg sample mass and a 1 h counting time in a low background liquid scintillation counter[8]. The test method can be used for the fast detection of contamination of drinking water by radium in emergency situations.

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    28 pages
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    31 pages
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IEC 61322:2020 applies to installed dose equivalent rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors, as defined below. It covers equipment intended to measure neutron radiation in dose equivalent rates in the energy region between thermal and 20 MeV for the purposes of radiation protection.
Assemblies of this type are commonly defined as area radiation monitors. They are normally employed to determine continuously the radiological situation in working areas in which the radiation field may change with time, for example, nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, high-activity laboratories, fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and provide alarms when the radiation field goes outside predetermined limits.
The assemblies considered in this document comprise at least:
a detector assembly, which may, for example, consist of a detector probe (for thermal neutrons such as BF3 proportional counter, 3He proportional counter, 6LiI(Tl) scintillation detector, etc.) and a moderating and absorbing medium surrounding the detector;
a processing assembly, which may be fitted into a centralized panel, which, in the case of warning assemblies and monitors, provides signal outputs and contacts capable of activating alarm or other trip circuits;
alternatively, the case when all the processing electronics are placed within the detection unit (so called "smart blocks") may be considered. In this case the functions of the processing assembly will be composed of only the indication, the providing signal outputs and contacts.  
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1994This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
this document has been updated to take account of the requirements of the relevant IEC standards, IEC 60532:2010 and IEC 61005:2014.

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