Ambient air - Automated measuring systems for the measurement of the concentration of particulate matter (PM10; PM2,5)

In order to be in compliance with EU Air Quality Directive requirements, the reference methods given in the Directive 2008/50/EC [1] for the measurement of mass concentrations of particulate matter are not commonly used for operation in routine monitoring networks. These networks usually apply automated continuous measurement systems (AMS), such as those based on the use of oscillating microbalances, ß-ray attenuation, or in-situ optical methods. Such AMS are typically capable of producing 24-hour average measurement values over a measurement range up to 1 000 µg/m3 and 1-hour average measurement values up to 10 000 µg/m3, if applicable, where the volume of air is the volume at ambient conditions near the inlet at the time of sampling.
The 1-hour average values may be used for:
a)   direct information of the public;
b)   aggregation to produce daily or yearly average concentration values for regulatory reporting purposes.
Directive 2008/50/EC allows the use of such systems after demonstration of equivalence with the reference method, i.e. after demonstration that these systems meet the Data Quality Objectives for continuous measurements. Guidelines for the demonstration of equivalence are given in Reference [2].
This European Standard lays down the minimum performance requirements and test procedures for the type approval of appropriate AMS for particulate matter. This includes the evaluation of its equivalence with the reference method as laid down in Directive 2008/50/EC.
Further, this European Standard describes minimum requirements for ongoing quality assurance – quality control (QA/QC) of AMS deployed in the field. These requirements are necessary to ensure that uncertainties of measured concentrations are kept within the required limits during extended periods of continuous monitoring in the field, and include procedures for maintenance, calibration and control checks.
Additional procedures are described that determine whether an instrument’s equivalence to the reference method is maintained through possible pollution climate changes, over periods longer than five years.
Lastly, this European Standard describes harmonized requirements and procedures for the treatment and validation of raw measurement data that are used for the assembly of daily or yearly average concentration values. Experience with existing methods for data treatment and validation – for similar AMS – has shown that the different ways of data treatment and validation applied may lead to significant differences in reported results for similar datasets [3].
When the European Standard is used for purposes other than measurements required by Directive 2008/50/EC, the range and uncertainty requirements may not apply.
This European Standard contains information for different groups of users.
Clauses 5 and 6 and Annex A contain general information about the principles of automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter, and relevant equipment.
Clause 7 and Annexes B and C are specifically directed towards test houses and laboratories that perform type-approval testing of automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter. These clauses contain information about:
c)   type-approval test conditions, test procedures and test requirements;
d)   system performance requirements;
e)   evaluation of the type-approval test results;
f)   evaluation of the uncertainty of the measurement results of the automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter based on the type-approval test results.
Clauses 8 to 11 are aimed at monitoring networks performing the practical measurements of particulate matter in ambient air. These clauses contain information about:
g)   initial installation of the system in the monitoring network and acceptance testing;
h)   ongoing quality assurance/quality control;
i)   on-going verification of suitability;
j)   treatment, validation and reporting of measurement results.

Außenluft - Automatische Messeinrichtungen zur Bestimmung der Staubkonzentration (PM10; PM2,5)

Um den Anforderungen der EU-Luftqualitätsrichtlinie 2008/50/EG [1] zu entsprechen, werden die dort angeführten Referenzverfahren zur Messung der Staubmassenkonzentrationen beim Betrieb von Messnetzen in der Regel nicht für die Routineüberwachung angewendet. In diesen Messnetzen werden üblicherweise kontinuierlich messende automatische Messeinrichtungen (AMS) eingesetzt wie z. B. solche, die auf dem Prinzip der oszillierenden Mikrowaage, der ß-Strahlen-Absorption oder optischen In situ Verfahren beruhen. Derartige AMS sind üblicherweise in der Lage, 24-h-Mittelwerte der Messwerte über einen Messbereich von bis zu 1 000 µg/m3 und 1-h-Mittelwerte von bis zu 10 000 µg/m3 zu erzeugen, sofern anwendbar. Das zugrunde liegende Luftvolumen bezieht sich auf die Außenluftbedingungen in der Nähe des Lufteinlasses.
Die 1-h-Mittelwerte dürfen für Folgendes verwendet werden:
a)   zeitnahe Unterrichtung der Öffentlichkeit;
b)   Aggregation zur Erzeugung von Tages- oder Jahresmittelwerten der Konzentration für Berichtspflichten im gesetzlich geregelten Bereich.
ANMERKUNG   Nationale Berichtspflichten im gesetzlich geregelten Bereich können andere Mittelungszeiträume für die Durchschnittswerte erforderlich machen (z. B. monatlich).
Die EU-Luftqualitätsrichtlinie 2008/50/EG ermöglicht die Anwendung derartiger Messeinrichtungen nach dem Nachweis der Gleichwertigkeit mit dem Referenzverfahren, d. h. nach dem Nachweis, dass diese Messeinrichtungen die Datenqualitätsziele für kontinuierliche Messungen einhalten. Die Leitlinien zum Nachweis der Gleichwertigkeit sind in Literaturhinweis [2] angeführt.
Diese Europäische Norm legt die Mindestleistungsanforderungen und Eignungsprüfverfahren geeigneter AMS für Staub fest. Die Norm schließt die Bewertung der Gleichwertigkeit mit dem Referenzverfahren nach der Richtlinie 2008/50/EG ein.
Außerdem werden in dieser Europäischen Norm die Mindestanforderungen an die laufende Qualitätssicherung/Qualitätslenkung (QA/QC) von im Feld eingesetzten AMS beschrieben. Diese Anforderungen sind notwendig, um sicherzustellen, dass die Unsicherheiten der gemessenen Konzentrationen über einen längeren Zeitraum der kontinuierlichen Messung im Feld innerhalb der geforderten Grenzen bleiben; sie schließen Verfahren für Wartung, Überprüfung und Kalibrierung ein.
Zusätzliche Verfahren werden beschrieben, um die Gleichwertigkeit eines Geräts mit dem Referenzverfahren unter möglichen Luftverunreinigungs- und Klimaveränderungen über einen Zeitraum von mehr als fünf Jahren sicherzustellen.
Schließlich werden in dieser Europäischen Norm harmonisierte Anforderungen an und Verfahren zur Verarbeitung und Validierung von Rohmessdaten beschrieben, die zur Berechnung von Tages- oder Jahresmittelwerten verwendet werden. Erfahrungen mit bestehenden Verfahren zur Verarbeitung und Validierung von Daten - für gleichartige AMS - haben gezeigt, dass verschiedene angewendete Methoden der Datenverarbeitung und -validierung bei gleichartigen Datensätzen zu signifikanten Unterschieden bei den in Berichten angeführten Ergebnissen führen können [3].
Wird diese Europäische Norm zu anderen Zwecken als den nach der Richtlinie 2008/50/EG geforderten Messungen angewendet, treffen die Anforderungen an Messbereich und Unsicherheit möglicherweise nicht zu.
Diese Norm enthält Informationen für verschiedene Nutzergruppen.
Die Abschnitte 5 und 6 sowie Anhang A enthalten allgemeine Angaben zu den Prinzipien von kontinuierlich messenden automatischen Messeinrichtungen für Staub sowie zu der entsprechenden Ausrüstung.
Abschnitt 7 sowie die Anhänge B und C richten sich speziell an Prüfinstitute und -laboratorien, die Eignungsprüfungen von kontinuierlich messenden automatischen Messeinrichtungen für Staub durchführen. Diese Abschnitte enthalten Informationen zu Folgendem:
c)   Eignungsprüfbedingungen, -verfahren und -anforderungen;
d)   Anforderungen an die Leistungsfähigkeit der Einrichtung;
(...)

Air ambiant - Systèmes automatisés de mesurage de la concentration de matière particulaire (PM10; PM2,5)

Pour se conformer aux exigences de la Directive de l’Union européenne sur la qualité de l'air, les méthodes de référence indiquées dans la Directive 2008/50/CE [1] pour le mesurage de la concentration massique de la matière particulaire ne sont pas systématiquement appliquées en routine dans les réseaux de surveillance. Ces réseaux utilisent en règle générale des systèmes de mesurage continu automatisés (AMS) tels que ceux s'appuyant sur l'utilisation de microbalances oscillantes ou l'atténuation du rayonnement bêta, ou sur des méthodes optiques in situ. Ces AMS sont, en règle générale, capables de produire des mesures moyennes sur vingt-quatre heures pour une plage allant jusqu'à 1 000 µg/m3 et des mesure moyennes sur une heure jusqu'à 10 000 µg/m3, le cas échéant, pour un volume d’air rapporté aux conditions ambiantes au niveau de l’orifice d’entrée d’échantillonnage lors du prélèvement.
Les valeurs moyennes sur une heure peuvent :
a)   fournir une information directe du public ;
b)   être agrégées pour produire des valeurs de concentrations moyennes journalières ou annuelles destinées à satisfaire aux exigences réglementaires de rapportage.
La Directive 2008/50/CE autorise l'utilisation de ces systèmes sous réserve qu'ils aient démontré leur équivalence à la méthode de référence, c'est-à-dire lorsqu'il est démontré que ces systèmes répondent aux objectifs de qualité des données en matière de mesurage en continu. La Référence [2] donne les lignes directrices relatives à la démonstration de cette équivalence.
La présente norme stipule les exigences de performance minimales et les modes opératoires d'essais pour l'approbation de type d’AMS adaptés à la matière particulaire. Ceci inclut l'évaluation de leur équivalence à la méthode de référence telle que stipulée dans la Directive 2008/50/CE.
En outre, la présente norme décrit les exigences minimales en matière d'assurance qualité/contrôle qualité (AQ/CQ) en continu des AMS déployés sur site. Ces exigences sont nécessaires pour garantir que les incertitudes des concentrations mesurées se maintiennent dans les limites requises pendant des périodes prolongées de surveillance continue sur site. Elles comportent des modes opératoires d'entretien, d'étalonnage et de vérification de contrôle.
Il est également procédé à la description de modes opératoires additionnels qui déterminent si l'équivalence d'un instrument à la méthode de référence est toujours valide en dépit des variations possibles des caractéristiques de la pollution sur des périodes supérieures à cinq ans.
Enfin, la présente norme décrit des exigences et des modes opératoires harmonisés se rapportant au traitement et à la validation des données de mesure brutes agrégées pour la production de concentrations moyennes journalières ou annuelles. L'expérience acquise avec les méthodes existantes de traitement et de validation des données, pour des AMS semblables, montre que les différents modes de traitement et de validation des données appliqués peuvent conduire à des différences importantes dans les résultats reportés pour des ensembles de données similaires [3].
Lorsque la présente norme est utilisée à des fins autres que les mesurages exigés par la Directive 2008/50/CE, les exigences en matière de plage et d'incertitudes peuvent ne pas s'appliquer.
La présente norme comporte des informations à l'usage de groupes d'utilisateurs différents.
Les Articles 5 et 6, ainsi que l'Annexe A, comportent des informations générales sur les principes de fonctionnement de systèmes automatisés de mesurage continu de la matière particulaire, ainsi que sur l'instrumentation correspondante.
(...)

Zunanji zrak - Avtomatski merilni sistemi za merjenje koncentracije delcev (PM10; PM2,5)

Da bi bile skladne z zahtevami Evropske direktive o kakovosti zraka, se referenčne metode za merjenje masne koncentracije delcev, navedene v Direktivi, pogosto ne uporabljajo v rutinskih mrežah za spremljanje stanja. Te mreže ponavadi uporabljajo avtomatizirane sisteme za neprekinjeno merjenje (AMS), kot so tisti, ki temeljijo na uporabi oscilirajočih mikroravnotežij ali znižanju ravni beta žarkov, in optične metode na kraju samem. Taki avtomatizirani merilni sistemi običajno lahko proizvedejo 24-urne povprečne merilne vrednosti do 1000 μg/m3 in 1-urne merilne vrednosti do 10.000 μg/m3, če je potrebno, ko je prostornina zraka prostornina pri sobnih pogojih blizu dovoda v času vzorčenja. 1-urne povprečne vrednosti se lahko uporabijo za: – neposredno obveščanje javnosti, – združevanje rezultatov za določanje dnevnih ali letnih koncentracij za namene regulativnega poročanja. Evropska direktiva o kakovosti zraka 2008/50/ES dovoljuje uporabo takih sistemov, če je bila dokazana enakovrednost z referenčno metodo, oz. po prikazu, da so ti sistemi skladni s cilji o kakovosti podatkov za neprekinjene meritve. V tem standardu so navedene minimalne zahteve glede zmogljivosti in preskusni postopki za izbiro primernih avtomatiziranih sistemov za merjenje delcev (homologacija). To vključuje oceno enakovrednosti z referenčno metodo. Ta standard prav tako opisuje minimalne zahteve za neprekinjeno zagotavljanje kakovosti – nadzor kakovosti (QA/QC) avtomatiziranega sistema na terenu. Te zahteve so potrebne za zagotavljanje, da so merilne negotovosti izmerjenih koncentracij v daljših obdobjih spremljanja na terenu znotraj zahtevanih omejitev in sistemi vključujejo vzdrževalne postopke, kalibracijo in kontrolne preglede. Opisani so dodatni postopki za zagotavljanje enakovrednosti instrumenta z referenčno metodo v obdobjih, daljših od petih let, zaradi morebitnih podnebnih sprememb, ki nastanejo kot posledica onesnaženja. Nazadnje pa ta standard opisuje zahteve in postopke za obravnavo in validacijo neobdelanih izmerjenih podatkov, ki bodo uporabljeni za izdelavo dnevnih ali letnih povprečnih vrednosti koncentracije. Izkušnje z obstoječimi metodami za obdelavo podatkov in validacijo – za podobne avtomatizirane merilne sisteme – so pokazale, da različni načini obdelave podatkov in validacije lahko vodijo do pomembnih razlik v rezultatih pri podobnih naborih podatkov. Če se ta standard uporablja za druge namene in ne za namene Direktive EU, zahteve glede razponov in negotovosti ne veljajo.  Ta standard vsebuje informacije za različne skupine uporabnikov. Točki 5 in 6 ter dodatek A vsebujejo splošne informacije o načelih avtomatiziranih sistemov za neprekinjeno merjenje delcev in s tem povezane opreme. Osrednji predmet obravnave točke 7 in prilog B in C so laboratoriji, ki izvajajo homologacijske preizkuse avtomatiziranih sistemov za neprekinjeno merjenje delcev. Te točke vsebujejo informacije o naslednjem: – pogoji homologacijskega preskusa, preskusni postopki in zahteve; zahteve za delovanje sistema; – ocena rezultatov homologacijskega preskusa; – ocena negotovosti rezultatov meritev avtomatiziranih sistemov za neprekinjeno merjenje delcev na podlagi rezultatov homologacijskega preskusa. Osrednji predmet obravnave točk od 8 do 11 je spremljanje mrež, ki opravljajo praktične meritve delcev v zunanjem zraku. Te točke vsebujejo informacije o naslednjem: – začetna namestitev sistema v mreži za spremljanje stanja in preskušanje ustreznosti; – neprekinjeno zagotavljanje kakovosti/nadzor kakovosti; – preverjanje enakovrednosti; – obravnava, validacija in poročanje rezultatov merjenja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Mar-2017
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
02-Sep-2022
Completion Date
02-Sep-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16450:2017
01-julij-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16450:2013

Zunanji zrak - Avtomatski merilni sistemi za merjenje koncentracije delcev (PM10;

PM2,5)

Ambient air - Automated measuring systems for the measurement of the concentration of

particulate matter (PM10; PM2,5)
Außenluft - Automatische Messeinrichtungen zur Bestimmung der Staubkonzentration
(PM10; PM2,5)
Air ambiant - Systèmes automatisés de mesurage de la concentration de matière
particulaire (PM10; PM2,5)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16450:2017
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
SIST EN 16450:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16450:2017
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.20 Supersedes CEN/TS 16450:2013
English Version
Ambient air - Automated measuring systems for the
measurement of the concentration of particulate matter
(PM10; PM2,5)

Air ambiant - Systèmes automatisés de mesurage de la Außenluft - Automatische Messeinrichtungen zur

concentration de matière particulaire (PM10; PM2,5) Bestimmung der Staubkonzentration (PM10; PM2,5)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 January 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16450:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................ 9

5 Principle .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 12

7 Type testing .................................................................................................................................................... 13

8 Field operation and ongoing quality control ..................................................................................... 29

9 Data handling, validation and data reports ........................................................................................ 38

10 Reporting of AMS data ................................................................................................................................ 39

11 Test reports and documentation – Field operation ......................................................................... 39

Annex A (informative) Examples of principles of AMS for monitoring particulate matter ............ 40

A.1 Oscillating microbalance ........................................................................................................................... 40

A.2 ß-ray attenuation ......................................................................................................................................... 41

A.3 Light scattering ............................................................................................................................................. 42

A.4 System consisting of a central instrument and an array of regional instruments ............... 42

Annex B (normative) Orthogonal regression algorithms ........................................................................... 43

Annex C (normative) Performing calibrations of the AMS ......................................................................... 45

Annex D (normative) Elements of type testing report ................................................................................. 47

Annex E (informative) Elements of suitability evaluation report ........................................................... 49

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 50

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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16450:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”,

the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TS 16450:2013.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)
1 Scope

In order to be in compliance with EU Air Quality Directive requirements, the reference methods given in

the Directive 2008/50/EC [1] for the measurement of mass concentrations of particulate matter are not

commonly used for operation in routine monitoring networks. These networks usually apply automated

continuous measurement systems (AMS), such as those based on the use of oscillating microbalances,

ß-ray attenuation, or in situ optical methods. Such AMS are typically capable of producing 24-h average

measurement values over a measurement range up to 1 000 µg/m and 1-h average measurement

values up to 10 000 µg/m , if applicable, where the volume of air is the volume at ambient conditions

near the inlet.
The 1-h average values may be used for:
a) direct information of the public;

b) aggregation to produce daily or yearly average concentration values for regulatory reporting

purposes.

NOTE National regulatory reporting purposes could require other time basis for averages (i.e. monthly).

Directive 2008/50/EC allows the use of such systems after demonstration of equivalence with the

reference method, i.e. after demonstration that these systems meet the Data Quality Objectives for

continuous measurements. Guidelines for the demonstration of equivalence are given in Reference [2].

This European Standard lays down the minimum performance requirements and test procedures for

the type testing of appropriate AMS for particulate matter. The standard includes the evaluation of its

equivalence with the reference method as laid down in Directive 2008/50/EC.

Further, this European Standard describes minimum requirements for ongoing quality assurance –

quality control (QA/QC) of AMS deployed in the field. These requirements are necessary to ensure that

uncertainties of measured concentrations are kept within the required limits during extended periods

of continuous monitoring in the field, and include procedures for maintenance, calibration and control

checks.

Additional procedures are described that determine whether an instrument’s equivalence to the

reference method is maintained through possible pollution climate changes, over periods longer than

five years.

Lastly, this European Standard describes harmonized requirements and procedures for the treatment

and validation of raw measurement data that are used for the assembly of daily or yearly average

concentration values. Experience with existing methods for data treatment and validation – for similar

AMS – has shown that the different ways of data treatment and validation applied may lead to

significant differences in reported results for similar data sets [3].

When the European Standard is used for purposes other than measurements required by

Directive 2008/50/EC, the range and uncertainty requirements may not apply.
This European Standard contains information for different groups of users.

Clauses 5 and 6 and Annex A contain general information about the principles of automated continuous

measurement systems for particulate matter, and relevant equipment.
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)

Clause 7 and Annexes B and C are specifically directed towards test houses and laboratories that

perform type testing of automated continuous measurement systems for particulate matter. These

clauses contain information about:
c) type testing conditions, test procedures and test requirements;
d) system performance requirements;
e) evaluation of the type testing results;

f) evaluation of the uncertainty of the measurement results of the automated continuous

measurement systems for particulate matter based on the type testing results.

Clauses 8 to 11 are aimed at monitoring networks performing the practical measurements of

particulate matter in ambient air. These clauses contain information about:

g) initial installation of the system in the monitoring network and acceptance testing;

h) ongoing quality assurance/quality control;
i) on-going verification of suitability;
j) treatment, validation and reporting of measurement results.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12341, Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or

PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
ambient air

outdoor air in the troposphere, excluding workplaces as defined by Directive 89/654/EEC [4] where

provisions concerning health and safety at work apply and to which members of the public do not have

regular access
[SOURCE: Directive 2008/50/EC [1]]
3.2
automated measuring system
AMS

entirety of all measuring instruments and additional devices necessary for obtaining a measurement

result
3.3
availability of the AMS

fraction of the time period for which valid measuring data of the ambient air concentration is available

from an AMS
[SOURCE: EN 14211 [5]]
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)
3.4
calibration

operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity

values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding

indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to

establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication

Note 1 to entry: A calibration may be expressed by a statement, calibration function, calibration diagram,

calibration curve, or calibration table. In some cases, it may consist of an additive or multiplicative correction of

the indication with associated measurement uncertainty.

Note 2 to entry: Calibration should not be confused with adjustment of a measuring system, often mistakenly

called “self-calibration”, nor with verification of a calibration.
[SOURCE: JCGM 200:2012 (VIM) [6]]
3.5
combined standard uncertainty

standard uncertainty of the result of a measurement when that result is obtained from the values of a

number of other quantities, equal to the positive square root of a sum of terms, the terms being the

variances or covariances of these other quantities weighted according to how the measurement result

varies with changes in these quantities
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 [7]]
3.6
competent authority

organization which implements the requirements of EU Directives and regulates installations, which

shall comply with the requirements of applicable European Standards

Note 1 to entry: In ambient air quality monitoring this is an authority that performs one or more of the tasks

listed in Article 3 of Directive 2008/50/EC.
3.7
competent body

organization which can demonstrate its competence for a specific task to the competent authority in the

Member State
3.8
coverage factor

numerical factor used as a multiplier of the combined standard uncertainty in order to obtain an

expanded uncertainty
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 [7]]
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SIST EN 16450:2017
EN 16450:2017 (E)
3.9
data capture

percentage of the time for which the AMS has produced valid data to the time for which the aggregated

value is to be calculated, excluding periods of regular calibration or normal maintenance

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/50/EC [1]]
3.10
detection limit

smallest concentration of a measurand that can be reliably detected by a specific measurement process

3.11
equivalent method

method other than the reference method for the measurement of a specified air pollutant meeting the

data quality objectives for fixed measurements specified in the relevant Air Quality Directive [1]

Note 1 to entry: Equivalence is granted for defined (regional) situations within a Member State, but may be

granted for situations encompassing more than one region or Member State.
3.12
expanded uncertainty

quantity defining an interval about the result of a measurement that may be expected to encompass a

large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand

Note 1 to entry: The fraction may be viewed as the coverage probability or level of confidence of the interval.

Note 2 to entry: To associate a specific level of confidence with the interval defined by the expanded uncertainty

requires explicit or implicit assumptions regarding the probability distribution characterized by the measurement

result and its combined standard uncertainty. The level of confidence that may be attributed to this interval can be

known only to the extent to which such assumptions may be justified.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 [7]]
3.13
interferent

component of the air sample, excluding the measured constituent, that affects the output signal

3.14
limit value

level fixed on the basis of scientific knowledge, with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful

effects on human health and/or the environment as a whole, to be attained within a given period and

not to be exceeded once attained
[SOURCE: Directive 2008/50/EC [1]]
3.15
monitoring station

enclosure located in the field in which an AMS has been installed to measure particulate matter in such

a way that its performance and operation comply with the prescribed requirements
3.16
parallel measurement

measurement from measuring systems, sampling from the same air over the same time period

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3.17
performance characteristic
one of the parameters assigned to an AMS in order to define its performance
3.18
performance criterion

limiting quantitative numerical value assigned to a performance characteristic, to which conformance is

tested
3.19
period of unattended operation

time period over which the drift is within the performance criterion for long term drift

3.20

particulate matter suspended in air which passes through a size-selective inlet at a constant flow with a

50 % efficiency cut-off at x µm aerodynamic diameter

Note 1 to entry: By convention, the size-selective standard inlet designs prescribed in EN 12341 — used at the

prescribed flow rates – possess the required characteristics to sample the relevant PM fraction suspended in

ambient air.

Note 2 to entry: The efficiency of the size selectiveness of other inlets used could have a significant effect on the

fraction of PM surrounding the cut-off, and, consequently on the mass concentration of PMx determined.

3.21
reference method

measurement method(ology) which, by convention, gives the accepted reference value of the

measurand
3.22
sampled air
ambient air that has been sampled through the sampling inlet and sampling system
3.23
sampling inlet

entrance to the sampling system where ambient air is collected from the atmosphere

3.24
span

a means to produce an instrument response different from zero suitable to evaluate the sensitivity of

the AMS
3.25
standard uncertainty
uncertainty of the result of a measurement expressed as a standard deviation
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 [7]]
3.26
surrounding temperature

temperature of the air directly surrounding the AMS (temperature inside the monitoring station or

laboratory)
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3.27
time coverage

percentage of the reference period of the relevant limit value for which valid data for aggregation have

been collected
3.28
type approval

decision taken by a competent authority that the pattern of an AMS conforms to the requirements as

laid down in this document
3.29
type testing

examination of two or more AMS of the same pattern which are submitted by a manufacturer to a

competent body for testing of performance requirements
3.30
uncertainty (of measurement)

parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values

that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 [7]]
3.31
zero air
air containing particulate matter at a level ≤ 1,0 µg/m
3.32
zero level
average of the results of a number of replicate measurements of zero air
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply.

a, c intercept of orthogonal regression of results of AMS vs. reference method results

A availability of the AMS

b, d slope of orthogonal regression of results of AMS vs. reference method results

k coverage factor
L limit value
∆P pressure difference determined for the time interval ∆t (leak test)
P pressure at t = 0 (leak test)
T is the surrounding air temperature
T is the surrounding air temperature at the laboratory
s,lab
∆t time interval needed for the pressure rise (leak test)
t time during which valid data have been collected (field test)
valid
tcal,maint time spent for scheduled calibrations and maintenance (field test)
t total duration of the field test
field
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V volume leak rate (leak test)
V estimated total volume of the system (dead volume)
sys
u standard uncertainty
u uncertainty of the intercept of the regression formula
u uncertainty of the slope of the regression formula
u between-AMS uncertainty
bs,AMS
u between-RM uncertainty
bs,RM
u random uncertainty of reference method results
w relative uncertainty
W expanded relative uncertainty
x individual measurement result of AMS
y individual reference measurement result
AMS Automated Measuring System
EU European Union
GDE Guide to the Demonstration of Equivalence of Ambient Air Monitoring Methods
GUM Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement
JCGM Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology
PM Particulate Matter
QA/QC Quality Assurance / Quality Control
RM Reference Method(ology)
RSS Residual Sum of Squares
5 Principle
5.1 General

A number of measuring principles may be used to determine the mass concentration of particulate

matter in ambient air. This European Standard is not limited to the application of a single system for the

automated continuous measurement. In general (but not necessarily), the measuring system will

consist of:

a) a size-selective inlet for PM or PM (when using an optical system for size classification of

10 2,5
particulate matter a size-selective inlet is not required);

b) a sample tube of a length needed to meet the specific sampling height requirements given in

Reference [1];
c) a measuring section;
d) a vacuum pump;
e) flow meters and flow controllers;
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f) temperature and pressure sensors;

g) hardware and software for data collection, storage and calculation of measurement results.

Auxiliary equipment may include:
h) sample tube heaters;
i) systems for (partial) drying of the sampled air;
j) humidity sensors;

k) hardware/software for performing compensation measurements, i.e. measurements to compensate

for unwanted effects of interferents or random variations in the PM mass determination.

5.2 Measurement principles

Several measurement principles are currently applied in routine monitoring practice. Descriptions of

the most common principles – which do not preclude other principles – are given in Annex A.

5.3 Type testing

The type testing of an AMS according to Clause 7 and subsequent QA/QC and verification procedures

according to Clause 8 provide evidence that the defined requirements concerning data quality

objectives laid out in relevant EU Directives can be satisfied. A competent body shall perform the type

testing. The type testing shall be awarded by, or on behalf of, the competent authority of a Member

State.

The type testing is based on the evaluation of performance characteristics determined under a

prescribed series of tests. In this European Standard, test procedures are described for the

determination of the actual values of the performance characteristics for at least two AMS in a

laboratory and the same two AMS in the field. The evaluation for type testing of an AMS includes the

calculation of the expanded uncertainty of the measuring result based on the numerical values of the

tested performance characteristics and comparison with a prescribed maximum uncertainty.

Appropriate experimental evidence shall be provided by:

a) type testing performed under conditions of intended use of the specified method of measurement,

and
b) calculation of expanded uncertainty of results of measurement.
5.4 Suitability testing

Before putting a type-approved AMS into operation, the body responsible for the field operation shall

test its suitability for its specific field conditions. If the specific conditions have already been covered by

the type testing, then the suitability test is not necessary. If these conditions have not been covered by

the type testing field tests, suitability tests shall be performed at locations representative of these

specific field conditions.
5.5 Field operation and quality control

After the initial installation of the AMS at the monitoring station its correct functioning shall be tested.

Requirements for quality assurance and quality control are given for the operation and maintenance of

the AMS, to ensure that the uncertainty of subsequent measurement results obtained in the field is not

compromised.
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5.6 Data handling and validation

Practical experience with existing methods for data handling and validation – for similar AMS – has

shown that the different ways of data treatment and validation applied may lead to significant

differences in reported results for similar data sets [3].

Hence, requirements and recommendations are given for the treatment and validation of raw

measurement data collected by the AMS (see Clause 9).
6 Sampling
6.1 General

Conditions and layout of the sampling equipment will contribute to the uncertainty of the

measurement; to minimize this contribution to the measurement uncertainty, performance criteria for

the sampling equipment are given in the following subclauses.
NOTE In Annex A, examples of equipment are schematically presented.
6.2 Sampling location

The location where the ambient air shall be sampled and analysed is not specified as this depends

strongly on the category of a monitoring station (such as measurements in, e.g. a traffic or urban

background area).
NOTE For guidance on sampling points on a micro scale, see reference [1].
6.3 Sample inlet and sampling line

Each AMS is equipped with its own sample inlet and sampling line. Sampling inlets may be – but are not

restricted to – size-selective inlets for PM or PM .
10 2,5

NOTE Examples of designs of size-selective inlets for PM or PM can be found in EN 12341.

10 2,5

The manufacturer should provide information on the design of the sample inlet and the sampling line.

The sample inlet and sampling line shall be made of an inert, non-corroding, electrically conducting

material, preferably stainless steel, or anodized aluminium or aluminium alloy. The inlet shall be

constructed in such a way that ingress of rainwater into the sampling line (or system) is prevented.

The construction of the sampling line shall be such that deposition losses of particulate matter by

kinetic processes as well as losses due to thermal, chemical or electrostatic processes are minimized.

Contact of the sampled air with cold surfaces may cause condensation and shall be avoided. If heating of

surfaces is applied, the instrument shall be tested with this facility in operation as part of the type

testing.

The air flow velocity in the sampling line shall be such that significant losses of particulate matter due

to diffusion or turbulent inertial impaction are minimized.
6.4 Control and regulation of sample flow rate

Correct operation of the AMS requires calibration and control of sampling flow rate, and measurement

of ambient temperature and pressure.

The sample flow rate into the AMS shall be maintained within the specifications as laid down in Table 1.

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6.5 Expression of concentrations

Results shall be reported in units of mass per unit volume expressed at ambient conditions. The air

temperature needed for the conversion to ambient conditions shall be measured close to the sampling

inlet. The air pressure needed for the conversion shall be obtained from on-site measurements, or from

measurements at a representative meteorological site nearby.

When using data from meteorological sites, care shall be taken to convert these to the correct altitude of

the sampling site, if relevant.

It is essential that any conversion to ambient conditions is clearly and unambiguously identified by the

manufacturer. The manufacturer shall inform the test laboratory or test house whether any built-in

corrections are applied. Where no internal corrections are applied, the manufacturer shall provide the

test laboratory or test house with any algorithms that are required for the conversion of the AMS

readings to different temperatures and/or pressures.
7 Type testing
7.1 Performance requirements

This test programme describes a procedure for determining whether an AMS is suitable to be

considered equivalent to the EU Reference Methods for the measurement of particulate matter in

ambient air. Tested AMS will have to meet the Data Qu
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