Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing of soil - Part 9: Consolidated triaxial compression tests on water saturated soils (ISO 17892-9:2018)

ISO 17892-9:2018 specifies a method for consolidated triaxial compression tests on water-saturated soils.
ISO 17892-9:2018 is applicable to the laboratory determination of triaxial shear strength under compression loading within the scope of geotechnical investigations.
The cylindrical specimen, which can comprise undisturbed, re-compacted, remoulded or reconstituted soil, is subjected to an isotropic or an anisotropic stress under drained conditions and thereafter is sheared under undrained or drained conditions. The test allows the determination of shear strength, stress-strain relationships and effective stress paths. All stresses and strains are denoted as positive numerical values in compression.
NOTE 1 This document provides a test for a single specimen. A set of at least three relatable tests are required to determine the shear strength parameters from these tests. Procedures for evaluating the results are included in Annex B and, where required, the shear strength parameters are to be included in the report.
Special procedures such as:
a) tests with lubricated ends;
b) multi-stage tests;
c) tests with zero lateral strain (K0) consolidation;
d) tests with local measurement of strain or local measurement of pore pressure;
e) tests without rubber membranes;
f) extension tests;
g) shearing where cell pressure varies,
are not fully covered in this procedure. However, these specific tests can refer to general procedures described in this document.
NOTE 2 This document fulfils the requirements of consolidated triaxial compression tests for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997‑1 and EN 1997‑2.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil 9: Konsolidierte triaxiale Kompressionsversuche an wassergesättigten Böden (ISO 17892-9:2018)

Diese Internationale Norm legt ein Verfahren für konsolidierte triaxiale Kompressionsversuche an wassergesättigten Böden fest.
Diese Internationale Norm gilt für die im Labor durchgeführte Bestimmung der triaxialen Scherfestigkeit unter Kompressionsbelastung innerhalb des Anwendungsbereichs geotechnischer Erkundungen.
Der zylindrische Probekörper, der aus ungestörtem, nachverdichtetem, aufbereitetem oder aufbereitetem und konsolidiertem Boden bestehen kann, wird einem isotropen oder anisotropen Spannungszustand unter dränierten Bedingungen ausgesetzt und anschließend unter undränierten oder dränierten Bedingungen abgeschert. Der Versuch ermöglicht die Bestimmung von Scherfestigkeit, Beziehungen zwischen Spannung und Dehnung und von wirksamen Spannungspfaden. Sämtliche Spannungen und Dehnungen sind als positive numerische Werte bei der Kompression angegeben.
Besondere Verfahren wie:
a)   Versuche mit geschmierten Endflächen;
b)   Mehrstufenversuche;
c)   Versuche, bei denen die Querdehnungs-Konsolidation null (K0) ist;
d)   Versuche mit lokaler Messung der Verformungen oder des Porenwasserdrucks;
e)   Versuche ohne Gummihülle;
f)   Extensionsversuche;
g)   Abscheren mit veränderlichem Zellendruck;
h)   Abscheren bei konstantem Volumen
werden in dieser Norm nicht vollständig behandelt. Allerdings können diese spezifischen Versuche auf allgemeine Verfahren verweisen, die in dieser Norm beschrieben sind.
ANMERKUNG   Dieses Dokument erfüllt die Anforderungen an konsolidierte triaxiale Kompressionsversuche für geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung nach EN 1997-1 und EN 1997-2.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 9: Essais en compression à l'appareil triaxial consolidés sur sols saturés (ISO 17892-9:2018)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode pour les essais à l'appareil triaxial de révolution en compression sur sols saturés consolidés.
Ce document s'applique à la détermination en laboratoire de la résistance au cisaillement triaxial en conditions de chargement par compression dans le cadre d'investigations géotechniques.
L'éprouvette cylindrique, pouvant être constituée de sol non remanié, recompacté, remanié ou reconstitué, est soumise à une contrainte isotrope ou anisotrope avec un drainage et est ensuite cisaillée avec ou sans drainage. L'essai permet de déterminer la résistance au cisaillement, les relations contrainte-déformation et les chemins de contraintes effectives. Toutes les contraintes et toutes les déformations sont indiquées sous forme de valeurs numériques positives en compression.
NOTE 1: Ce document trait de la réalisation d'un essai sur une seule éprouvette. Un ensemble d'au moins trois éprouvettes est nécessaire pour déterminer les paramètres de résistance au cisaillement à partir de ces essais. Les procédures d'interprétation des résultats figurent à l'Annexe B et, le cas échéant, les paramètres de résistance au cisaillement doivent être inclus dans le rapport.
Les procédures particulières suivantes:
a) essais avec des embases lubrifiées;
b) essais en plusieurs phases;
c) essais avec consolidation à déformations latérales nulles (essais K0);
d) essais avec une mesure locale de la déformation ou de la pression interstitielle;
e) essais sans membrane en caoutchouc;
f) essais en extension;
g) cisaillement avec variations de la pression dans la cellule de l'appareil triaxial;
ne sont pas entièrement couvertes par la présente procédure. Toutefois, ces essais spécifiques peuvent faire référence aux procédures générales décrites dans le présent document.
NOTE 2 Ce document satisfait aux exigences relatives aux essais en compression à l'appareil triaxial sur sols consolidés à des fins d'investigation et d'essais géotechniques conformément aux normes EN 1997‑1 et EN 1997‑2.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Laboratorijsko preskušanje zemljin - 9. del: Konsolidiran triosni tlačni preskus na z vodo zasičenih zemljinah (ISO 17892-9:2018)

Ta dokument določa metodo za konsolidirane triosne tlačne preskuse na z vodo zasičenih zemljinah. Ta dokument se uporablja za laboratorijsko določevanje triosne strižne trdnosti pod tlačno obremenitvijo, ki spada na področje uporabe geotehničnega preiskovanja.
Valjast primerek, ki je lahko sestavljen iz neporušene, ponovno zgoščene, pregnetene ali obdelane zemljine, je izpostavljen izotropni ali anizotropni napetosti pod dreniranimi pogoji in se nato striže pod nedreniranimi ali dreniranimi pogoji. Preskus omogoča določevanje strižne trdnosti, razmerij napetost–deformacija in poti učinkovite napetosti. Vse napetosti in deformacije so pri stiskanju označene kot pozitivne
številske vrednosti.
OPOMBA 1: V tem dokumentu je podan preskus za en sam primerek. Za določevanje parametrov strižne trdnosti iz preskusov je potreben nabor najmanj treh sorodnih preskusov. Postopki za vrednotenje rezultatov so vključeni v dodatek B, poročilo pa mora po potrebi vključevati parametre strižne trdnosti.
Posebni postopki, kot so:
a) preskusi z mazanimi konci;
b) večstopenjski preskusi;
c) preskusi s konsolidacijo z ničelno lateralno deformacijo (K0);
d) preskusi z lokalnim merjenjem deformacij ali lokalnim merjenjem pornega tlaka;
e) preskusi brez gumijastih membran;
f) razširitveni preskusi;
g) striženje, kjer celični tlak variira,
v tem postopku niso zajeti v celoti. Vendar ti posebni preskusi se lahko nanašajo na splošne postopke, opisane v tem dokumentu.
OPOMBA 2: Ta dokument izpolnjuje zahteve za konsolidirane triosne tlačne preskuse za geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje v skladu s standardoma EN 1997-1 in EN 1997-2.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Apr-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
04-Apr-2018
Completion Date
04-Apr-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
01-junij-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 17892-9:2004
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 17892-9:2004/AC:2010

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GHO.RQVROLGLUDQWULRVQLWODþQLSUHVNXVQD]YRGR]DVLþHQLK]HPOMLQDK ,62



Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing of soil - Part 9: Consolidated

triaxial compression tests on water saturated soils (ISO 17892-9:2018)

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil 9:

Konsolidierte triaxiale Kompressionsversuche an wassergesättigten Böden (ISO 17892-

9:2018)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 9:

Essais en compression à l'appareil triaxial consolidés sur sols saturés (ISO 17892-

9:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ICS:
13.080.20 Fizikalne lastnosti tal Physical properties of soils
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
EN ISO 17892-9
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.20; 93.020 Supersedes CEN ISO/TS 17892-9:2004
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Laboratory testing
of soil - Part 9: Consolidated triaxial compression tests on
water saturated soils (ISO 17892-9:2018)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Essais de Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

laboratoire sur les sols - Partie 9: Essais en Laborversuche an Bodenproben - Teil 9: Konsolidierte

compression à l'appareil triaxial consolidés sur sols triaxiale Kompressionsversuche an wassergesättigten

saturés (ISO 17892-9:2018) Böden (ISO 17892-9:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 February 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17892-9:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
EN ISO 17892-9:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
EN ISO 17892-9:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 17892-9:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

"Geotechnics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TS 17892-9:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17892-9:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17892-9:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17892-9
First edition
2018-02
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Laboratory testing of soil —
Part 9:
Consolidated triaxial compression
tests on water saturated soils
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Essais de laboratoire sur
les sols —
Partie 9: Essais en compression à l'appareil triaxial consolidés sur
sols saturés
Reference number
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Triaxial cell ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Confining membrane ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Porous discs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Filter paper ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.6 Pressure systems ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Load frame .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.8 Measuring devices................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.8.1 Load measuring device ........................................................................................................................................... .... 8

5.8.2 Pressure measuring devices .................................................................................................................................. 9

5.8.3 Vertical displacement measuring device .................................................................................................... 9

5.8.4 Volume change measuring device ..................................................................................................................... 9

5.9 Cell and back pressure fluids ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.10 Ancillary apparatus ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 General requirements and equipment preparation .............................................................................................10

6.2 Preparation of specimens ...........................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Saturation of specimen .................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Saturation ...................................................................... ......................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Application of cell and back pressure .........................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Saturation checks .........................................................................................................................................................12

6.4 Isotropic consolidation (CIU and CID tests) ...............................................................................................................13

6.5 Anisotropic consolidation (CAU and CAD tests) .....................................................................................................13

6.6 End of consolidation........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Shearing .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7.2 Undrained tests (CIU and CAU) ........................................................................................................................14

6.7.3 Drained tests (CID and CAD) ..............................................................................................................................14

6.8 Dismounting ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

7 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.1 Bulk density, dry density and water content .............................................................................................................15

7.2 Calculations of test parameters .............................................................................................................................................16

7.2.1 Height after consolidation ....................................................................................................................................16

7.2.2 Corrected cross sectional area ..........................................................................................................................16

7.2.3 Corrections for elastic membrane .................................................................................................................16

7.2.4 Correction for filter paper strips .....................................................................................................................17

7.2.5 Vertical total stress......................................................................................................................................................17

7.2.6 Vertical effective stress ............................................................................................................................................17

7.2.7 Horizontal total stress ..............................................................................................................................................18

7.2.8 Horizontal effective stress ....................................................................................................................................18

7.2.9 Pore pressure change................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.10 Vertical strain ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.11 Vertical strain during shear .................................................................................................................................18

7.2.12 Volumetric strain ..........................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.13 Volumetric strain during shear ........................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

8.1 Mandatory reporting ......................................................................................................................................................................19

8.2 Graphical presentation ..................................................................................................................................................................20

8.3 Optional reporting ............................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (normative) Calibration, maintenance and checks ....................................................................................................21

Annex B (informative) Additional calculations for effective shear strength ...........................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 341, Geotechnical investigation and testing, in collaboration with ISO Technical

Committee TC 182, Geotechnics, in accordance with the agreement on technical cooperation between

ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This first edition of ISO 17892-9 cancels and replaces ISO/TS 17892-9:2004, which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates ISO/TS 17892-9:2004/Cor.1:2006.
A list of all the parts in the ISO 17892 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
Introduction

This document covers areas in the international field of geotechnical engineering never previously

standardised. It is intended that this document presents broad good practice throughout the world and

significant differences with national documents is not anticipated. It is based on international practice

(see Reference [1]).
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory
testing of soil —
Part 9:
Consolidated triaxial compression tests on water
saturated soils
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for consolidated triaxial compression tests on water-saturated soils.

This document is applicable to the laboratory determination of triaxial shear strength under

compression loading within the scope of geotechnical investigations.

The cylindrical specimen, which can comprise undisturbed, re-compacted, remoulded or reconstituted

soil, is subjected to an isotropic or an anisotropic stress under drained conditions and thereafter is

sheared under undrained or drained conditions. The test allows the determination of shear strength,

stress-strain relationships and effective stress paths. All stresses and strains are denoted as positive

numerical values in compression.

NOTE 1 This document provides a test for a single specimen. A set of at least three relatable tests are required

to determine the shear strength parameters from these tests. Procedures for evaluating the results are included

in Annex B and, where required, the shear strength parameters are to be included in the report.

Special procedures such as:
a) tests with lubricated ends;
b) multi-stage tests;
c) tests with zero lateral strain (K ) consolidation;
d) tests with local measurement of strain or local measurement of pore pressure;
e) tests without rubber membranes;
f) extension tests;
g) shearing where cell pressure varies,

are not fully covered in this procedure. However, these specific tests can refer to general procedures

described in this document.

NOTE 2 This document fulfils the requirements of consolidated triaxial compression tests for geotechnical

investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1:

Identification and description
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)

ISO 17892-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 1: Determination

of water content

ISO 17892-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 2: Determination

of bulk density

ISO 17892-3, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 3: Determination

of particle density
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
CIU-test
isotropically consolidated undrained test
3.2
CAU-test
anisotropically consolidated undrained test
3.3
CID-test
isotropically consolidated drained test
3.4
CAD-test
anisotropically consolidated drained test
3.5
pore pressure
pressure of water in the void space within the soil specimen
3.6
back pressure

external pressure by which the pore pressure is increased prior to consolidation or shearing to ensure

saturation
3.7
cell pressure
pressure applied to the cell fluid
3.8
deviator stress
difference between the vertical total stress and the horizontal total stress
3.9
effective stress
difference between the total stress and pore pressure
3.10
failure
stress or strain condition at which one of the following criteria are met:
— peak deviator stress
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)

— peak effective stress ratio i.e. the ratio between the vertical and horizontal effective stress

— a specified deformation criterion e.g. 10 % vertical strain
— other definitions if required
4 Symbols
A initial cross sectional area of the specimen
A cross-sectional area of the specimen at any point in time
cor
a cross-sectional area of the piston if an external load cell is used

B pore pressure coefficient i.e. the ratio of the increase in pore pressure, Δu resulting

from an increment of cell pressure, Δσ under undrained conditions
D specimen diameter at the end of consolidation
D initial specimen diameter

D initial internal diameter of the confining membrane (before it is placed on specimen)

E elastic modulus of the confining membrane
F factor for calculating the rate of displacement of the load frame
f factor relating the vertical strain to the specimen volumetric strain
H specimen height at the end of consolidation
H initial height of specimen
h distance from the top of the top cap to the mid-height of the specimen

K load (when fully mobilized) carried by filter paper covering a unit length of the speci-

men perimeter
P vertical load reading
P fraction of perimeter covered by filter paper
t initial thickness of the unstressed membrane
t time required for 50 % primary consolidation to take place
t time required for 100 % primary consolidation to take place
100
u pore pressure at the mid height of the specimen
u back pressure (i.e. the pore pressure at start of shearing)
V initial volume of specimen
v rate of vertical displacement of the load frame during shearing
max

W gravity force acting on the sum of the deadweight hanger (if used), the piston, the top

cap and one half of the soil specimen
ΔH specimen change in height (with compression being a positive numerical value)
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)

ΔH vertical change in height during consolidation, including any vertical change in height

during saturation, if measured
Δu change in pore pressure at the mid height of the specimen

ΔV specimen volume change (with a reduction in volume being a positive numerical value)

ΔV volume change up to the end of consolidation
Δσ change in cell pressure
(Δσ ) correction to horizontal total stress due to membrane restraint
h m
(Δσ ) correction to vertical total stress due to restraint of the filter paper
v fp
(Δσ ) correction to vertical total stress due to membrane restraint
v m
γ unit weight of the cell fluid
ε strain (with compression being a positive numerical value)
ε vertical strain during shear (expressed as a ratio)
ε volumetric strain during shear (expressed as a ratio)
svol
ε vertical strain (expressed as a ratio)
ε expected vertical strain at failure (expressed as a ratio)
(ε ) vertical strain of the membrane (expressed as a ratio)
v m
ε volumetric strain
vol

(ε ) volumetric strain of the volume enclosed by the membrane (expressed as a ratio)

vol m
σ cell pressure
σ horizontal total stress at the mid height of the specimen (see note)
σ′ horizontal effective stress at the mid height of the specimen (see note)

σ′ horizontal effective stress at the mid height of the specimen at the end of consolidation

σ vertical total stress at the mid height of the specimen (see note)
σ′ vertical effective stress at the mid height of the specimen (see note)
σ − σ deviator stress
v h
(σ′ − 2σ′ )/3 mean effective stress
v h

σ′ vertical effective stress at the mid height of the specimen at the end of consolidation

NOTE Throughout this document, effective stresses are indicated by a prime. Vertical and horizontal

directions are indicated by the suffixes “v” and “h” respectively. This convention ensures that the directions of

the action of stress acting on the specimen are clear and independent of their relative magnitudes.

4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
5 Apparatus
5.1 General

The equipment shall undergo regular calibration, maintenance and checks as specified in Annex A.

A schematic diagram of a typical apparatus for triaxial compression testing is shown in Figure 1.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 17892-9:2018
ISO 17892-9:2018(E)
Key
1 alte
...

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