Natural gas - Energy determination (ISO 15112:2018)

This document provides the means for energy determination of natural gas by measurement or by calculation, and describes the related techniques and measures that are necessary to take. The calculation of thermal energy is based on the separate measurement of the quantity, either by mass or by volume, of gas transferred and its measured or calculated calorific value. The general means of calculating uncertainties are also given.
Only systems currently in use are described.
NOTE Use of such systems in commercial or official trade can require the approval of national authorization agencies, and compliance with legal regulations is required.
This document applies to any gas-measuring station from domestic to very large high-pressure transmission.
New techniques are not excluded, provided their proven performance is equivalent to, or better than, that of those techniques referred to in this document.
Gas-measuring systems are not the subject of this document.

Gaz naturel - Détermination de l'énergie (ISO 15112:2018)

Le présent document fournit les moyens permettant de déterminer l'énergie du gaz naturel par mesurage ou par calcul, et décrit les techniques associées et les mesures nécessaires à prendre. Le calcul de l'énergie thermique est fondé sur le mesurage séparé de la quantité de gaz transféré, exprimée en masse ou en volume, et sur son pouvoir calorifique mesuré ou calculé. Il fournit également les moyens généraux permettant le calcul des incertitudes.
Seuls les systèmes actuellement utilisés sont décrits dans le document.
NOTE Qu'il s'agisse du secteur privé ou public, l'utilisation de tels systèmes dans le commerce peut requérir l'approbation d'organismes d'agrément nationaux et il est alors nécessaire qu'ils soient conformes aux dispositions de la loi.
Le présent document s'applique à tout poste de comptage de gaz, de la distribution intérieure au transport à très haute pression.
Le recours à de nouvelles techniques est admis sous réserve de performances éprouvées équivalentes ou supérieures aux techniques citées en référence dans le présent document.
Les systèmes de comptage de gaz ne sont pas abordés dans le présent document.

Zemeljski plin - Določevanje energijske vrednosti (ISO 15112:2018)

Ta dokument zagotavlja sredstva za določevanje energijske vrednosti zemeljskega plina z merjenjem ali izračunom ter opisuje s tem povezane tehnike in ukrepe, ki jih je potrebno sprejeti. Izračun toplotne energije temelji na ločenem merjenju količine (masa ali prostornina) prenesenega plina in njegove izmerjene ali izračunane kalorične vrednosti. Podana so tudi splošna sredstva za izračun negotovosti.
Opisani so samo sistemi, ki se trenutno uporabljajo.
OPOMBA: Za uporabo takšnih sistemov v komercialnem ali uradnem trgovanju je morda potrebna odobritev nacionalnih agencij za izdajo dovoljenj in skladnost z zakonskimi predpisi.
Ta dokument se uporablja za vse merilne postaje za plin od gospodinjskih do velikih postaj z visokotlačnim
prenosom.
Nove tehnike niso izključene, če je dokazano, da delujejo enako dobro ali bolje kot tiste, opisane v tem dokumentu.
Sistemi za merjenje plinov niso predmet tega dokumenta.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-Dec-2018
Completion Date
12-Dec-2018

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
EN ISO 15112:2019
English language
80 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
01-marec-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 15112:2014
=HPHOMVNLSOLQ'RORþHYDQMHHQHUJLMVNHYUHGQRVWL ,62
Natural gas - Energy determination (ISO 15112:2018)
Gaz naturel - Détermination de l'énergie (ISO 15112:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 15112:2018
ICS:
75.060 Zemeljski plin Natural gas
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
EN ISO 15112
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.060 Supersedes EN ISO 15112:2014
English Version
Natural gas - Energy determination (ISO 15112:2018)
Gaz naturel - Détermination de l'énergie (ISO
15112:2018)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 27 October 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 15112:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
EN ISO 15112:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
EN ISO 15112:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 15112:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 193 "Natural

gas" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 238 “Test gases, test pressures, appliance

categories and gas appliance types” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 15112:2014.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 15112:2018 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 15112:2018 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15112
Third edition
2018-11
Natural gas — Energy determination
Gaz naturel — Détermination de l'énergie
Reference number
ISO 15112:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and units ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 General Principles............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Gas measurement ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Volume measurement ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Calorific value measurement ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 Measurement techniques and sampling ...................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Direct measurement — Calorimetry ...........................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Inferential measurement .......................................................................................................................................10

6.3.4 Correlation techniques ............................................................................................................................................10

6.3.5 Pressure and temperature ....................................................................................................................................10

6.3.6 Gas quality tracking ....................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Volume conversion ...........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 Density ...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.3 Compression factor .....................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Calibration ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Data storage and transmission ...............................................................................................................................................11

7 Energy determination ..................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Methods of energy determination .......................................................................................................................................14

7.2.1 Direct determination of energy ........................................................................................................................14

7.2.2 Indirect determination of energy ...................................................................................................................14

8 Strategy and procedures ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Strategies for energy determination .................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 Strategies for single interfaces ..........................................................................................................................18

8.3 Plausibility checks .............................................................................................................................................................................22

9 Assignment methods .....................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.1 Fixed assignment ...............................................................................................................................................................................23

9.1.1 Fixed assignment of a measured calorific value ................................................................................23

9.1.2 Fixed assignment of a declared calorific value ...................................................................................24

9.2 Variable assignment ........................................................................................................................................................................25

9.2.1 Input at two or more different stations with zero floating point ........................................25

9.2.2 Input at two or more different stations with comingled gas flows ...................................26

9.3 Determination of the representative calorific value ............................................................................................27

9.3.1 Arithmetically averaged calorific value .....................................................................................................27

9.3.2 Quantity-weighted average calorific value .............................................................................................27

9.3.3 Gas quality tracking ....................................................................................................................................................27

10 Calculation of energy quantities .......................................................................................................................................................30

10.1 General formulae for energy ....................................................................................................................................................30

10.2 Calculation of averaged values — Calculation from average calorific values and

cumulative volumes .........................................................................................................................................................................31

10.2.1 Arithmetic average of the calorific value .................................................................................................31

10.2.2 Quantity-weighted average of the calorific value .............................................................................32

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)

10.3 Volume and volume-to-mass conversions ....................................................................................................................32

10.4 Energy determination on the basis of declared calorific values ...............................................................32

11 Accuracy on calculated energy ............................................................................................................................................................32

11.1 Accuracy .....................................................................................................................................................................................................32

11.2 Calculation of uncertainty ..........................................................................................................................................................33

11.3 Bias .................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

12 Quality control and quality assurance ........................................................................................................................................35

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................35

12.2 Check of the course of the measuring data ..................................................................................................................35

12.3 Traceability .............................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.4 Substitute values ................................................................................................................................................................................36

Annex A (informative) Main instruments and energy-determination techniques ............................................38

Annex B (informative) Different possible patterns in the change of the calorific value..............................42

Annex C (informative) Volume conversion and volume-to-mass conversion ..........................................................45

Annex D (informative) Incremental energy determination ......................................................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Practical examples for volume conversion and energy quantity

calculation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................48

Annex F (informative) Practical examples for averaging the calorific value due to different

delivery situations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................52

Annex G (informative) Ways of determining substitute values .............................................................................................57

Annex H (informative) Plausibility check graphical example .................................................................................................59

Annex I (informative) Uncorrected data, bias correction and final result graphical example..............60

Annex J (informative) Single-reservoir calorific value determination ..........................................................................62

Annex K (informative) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................64

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................70

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 193, Natural gas.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 15112:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Figures 7 and 8 have been redrafted;
— Clause 9 has been updated;
— Annex K has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
Introduction

Since the early 1 800s, it has been general practice for manufactured gas and, subsequently, natural

gas to be bought and sold on a volumetric basis. Much time and effort has therefore been devoted to

developing the means of flow measurement.

Because of the increasing value of energy and variations in gas quality, billing on the basis of thermal

energy has now become essential between contracting partners and the need to determine calorific

value by measurement or calculation has led to a number of techniques. However, the manner in which

calorific value data are applied to flow volume data to produce the energy content of a given volume of

natural gas has been far from a standardized procedure.

Energy determination is frequently a necessary factor wherever and whenever natural gas is metered,

from production and processing operations through to end-user consumption. This document has been

developed to cover aspects related to production/transmission and distribution/end user. It provides

guidance to users of how energy units for billing purposes are derived, based on either measurement or

calculation or both, to increase confidence in results for contracting partners.

Other standards relating to natural gas, flow measurement, calorific value measurement, calculation

procedures and data handling with regard to gas production, transmission and distribution involving

purchase, sales or commodity transfer of natural gas can be relevant to this document.

This document contains eleven informative annexes.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15112:2018(E)
Natural gas — Energy determination
1 Scope

This document provides the means for energy determination of natural gas by measurement or

by calculation, and describes the related techniques and measures that are necessary to take. The

calculation of thermal energy is based on the separate measurement of the quantity, either by mass

or by volume, of gas transferred and its measured or calculated calorific value. The general means of

calculating uncertainties are also given.
Only systems currently in use are described.

NOTE Use of such systems in commercial or official trade can require the approval of national authorization

agencies, and compliance with legal regulations is required.

This document applies to any gas-measuring station from domestic to very large high-pressure

transmission.

New techniques are not excluded, provided their proven performance is equivalent to, or better than,

that of those techniques referred to in this document.
Gas-measuring systems are not the subject of this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6976, Natural gas — Calculation of calorific values, density, relative density and Wobbe index from

composition
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
accuracy of measurement

closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and a true value of the measurand

[SOURCE: ISO/Guide 98-3:2008, definition B.2.14]
3.2
adjustment

of bringing a measuring instrument into a state of performance suitable

for its use
Note 1 to entry: Adjustment may be automatic, semi-automatic or manual.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
3.3
assignment method

method to derive a calorific value to be applied to the gas passing specified

interfaces having only volume measurements
3.4
availability

probability, at any time, that the measuring system, or a measuring instrument forming part of the

measuring system, is functioning according to specifications
[SOURCE: EN 1776:1998]
3.5
bias

systematic difference between the true energy and the actual energy determined of the gas passing a

gas-measuring station
3.6
calibration

set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities

indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure

or a reference material, and the corresponding values obtained using working standards

[SOURCE: ISO 14532:2014, definition 2.5.1.1, modified — Definition has been slightly changed and Notes

to entry have been removed.]
3.7
superior calorific value

energy released as heat by the complete combustion in air of a specified quantity of gas, in such a

way that the pressure, p , at which the reaction takes place remains constant, and all the products of

combustion are returned to the same specified temperature, T , as that of the reactants, all of these

products being in the gaseous state except for water formed by combustion, which is condensed to the

liquid state at T

[SOURCE: ISO 14532:2014, definition 2.6.4.1, modified — Definition has been slightly reworded and

Notes to entry have been removed.]
3.8
inferior calorific value

energy released as heat by the complete combustion in air of a specified quantity of gas, in such a

way that the pressure, p , at which the reaction takes place remains constant, and all the products of

combustion are returned to the same specified temperature, T , as that of the reactants, all of these

products being in the gaseous state

[SOURCE: ISO 14532:2014, definition 2.6.4.2, modified — Definition has been slightly reworded and

Notes to entry have been removed.]
3.9
calorific value station

installation comprising the equipment necessary for the determination of the calorific value of the

natural gas in the pipeline
3.10
adjusted calorific value

calorific value measured at a measuring station compensated for the time taken for the gas to travel to

the respective volume-measuring station
3.11
corrected calorific value
result of correcting a measurement to compensate for systematic error
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 15112:2019
ISO 15112:2018(E)
3.12
declared calorific value

calorific value that is notified in advance of its application to interfaces for the purpose of energy

determination
3.13
representative calorific value

calorific value which is accepted to sufficiently approximate the actual calorific value at an interface

3.14
charging area
set of interfaces where the same method of energy determination is used
3.15
conversion

determination of the volume under reference conditions from the volume under operating conditions

3.16
correction

value added algebraically to the uncorrected result of a measurement to compensate for systematic error

Note 1 to entry: The correction is equal to the negative of the estimated systematic error.

Note 2 to entry: Since the systematic error cannot be known perfectly, the correction cannot be complete, see

Annex I.
3.17
correction factor

numerical factor by which the uncorrected result of a measurement is multiplied to compensate for a

systematic-error object

Note 1 to entry: Since the systematic error cannot be known perfectly, the correction cannot be complete, see

Annex I.
3.18
determination

set of operations that are carried out on an object in order to provide qualitative or quantitative

information about this object

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the term “determination” is only used quantitatively.

3.19
direct measurement

measurement of a property from quantities which, in principle, define the property

Note 1 to entry: For example, the determination of the calorific value of a gas using the thermoelectric

measurement of the energy released in the form of heat during the combustion of a known amount of gas.

[SOURCE: ISO 14532:2014,
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.