Metallic materials - Small punch test method

This document specifies the small punch method of testing metallic materials and the estimation of tensile, creep and fracture mechanical material properties from cryogenic up to high temperatures.

Metallische Werkstoffe - Small-Punch-Test

Dieses Dokument legt das Small-Punch-Prüfverfahren für metallische Werkstoffe und die Abschätzung der mechanischen Werkstoffeigenschaften in Bezug auf Zug, Kriechen und Bruch bei sehr tiefen bis hohen Temperaturen fest.

Matériaux métalliques - Méthode d’essai de micro-emboutissage

Le présent document spécifie la méthode d’essai de micro-emboutissage des matériaux métalliques et l’estimation des propriétés de traction, de fluage et de mécanique de la rupture depuis les températures cryogéniques jusqu’aux hautes températures.

Kovinski materiali - Preskusna metoda z uporabo majhnega bata

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
14-Apr-2021
Completion Date
14-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 10371:2021
01-junij-2021
Kovinski materiali - Preskusna metoda z uporabo majhnega bata
Metallic materials - Small punch test method
Small punch test für metallische Werkstoffe
Matériaux métalliques - Méthode d’essai de micro-emboutissage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 10371:2021
ICS:
77.040.10 Mehansko preskušanje kovin Mechanical testing of metals
SIST EN 10371:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 10371:2021
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.040.10
English Version
Metallic materials - Small punch test method

Matériaux métalliques - Méthode d'essai de micro- Metallische Werkstoffe - Small-Punch-Test

emboutissage
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 11 January 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 10371:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Symbols and designations ............................................................................................................................ 9

5 Test piece ........................................................................................................................................................ 12

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Material sampling ........................................................................................................................................ 14

6 Apparatus ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

6.1 Testing machine ........................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2 Test environment ......................................................................................................................................... 15

6.3 Applying and measuring force ................................................................................................................ 15

6.4 Punch and specimen holder ..................................................................................................................... 15

6.5 Measuring displacement and/or deflection ....................................................................................... 17

6.6 Measuring test temperature .................................................................................................................... 17

7 Small punch test............................................................................................................................................ 18

7.1 Principle .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 18

7.3 Characteristic parameters on the force-deflection curve F(u) .................................................... 19

7.4 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 23

8 Small punch creep test ............................................................................................................................... 23

8.1 Principle .......................................................................................................................................................... 23

8.2 Specificities of apparatus for small punch creep testing ............................................................... 24

8.3 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 24

8.4 Characteristics of the deflection-time curve ...................................................................................... 25

8.5 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

Annex A (informative) Determining the compliance of a small punch test rig for

displacement measurements ................................................................................................................... 27

Annex B (informative) Procedure for temperature control and measurement during small

punch testing ................................................................................................................................................. 30

from small punch testing ..... 35
Annex C (informative) Estimation of ultimate tensile strength Rm

Annex D (informative) Estimation of proof strength R from small punch testing ...................... 39

p0,2

Annex E (informative) Estimation of DBTT from small punch testing .................................................. 40

Annex F (informative) Estimation of fracture toughness from small punch testing ....................... 43

Annex G (informative) Estimation of creep properties from small punch creep testing ............... 46

Annex H (informative) Post-test examination of the test piece .............................................................. 50

Annex I (informative) Machine readable formats ........................................................................................ 56

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 10371:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 459/SC 1 “Test

methods for steel (other than chemical analysis)”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
Introduction
This document describes small punch testing of metallic materials.

While it is recognized that the small punch test technique is not equivalent to uniaxial testing and cannot

currently replace uniaxial and fracture mechanics tests with larger specimens, it allows estimation of the

values normally obtained using classical standard size uniaxial or fracture mechanics specimens.

The small punch technique is especially useful when only small amounts of material are available as in

the case of experimental material batches, or for assessing aging of components where the extraction of

classical specimen types would require expensive repairs. Other areas of interest for small punch testing

are the characterization of irradiated materials, where small specimens minimize laboratory staff

exposure to radiation or the investigation of different zones in welds.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies the small punch method of testing metallic materials and the estimation of

tensile, creep and fracture mechanical material properties from cryogenic up to high temperatures.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 60584-1, Thermocouples - Part 1: EMF specifications and tolerances (IEC 60584 1)

EN ISO 148-1, Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 1: Test method (ISO 148-1)

EN ISO 204, Metallic materials - Uniaxial creep testing in tension - Method of test (ISO 204)

EN ISO 286-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - ISO code system for tolerances on linear sizes -

Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance classes and limit deviations for holes and shafts (ISO 286-2)

EN ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

(ISO 6892-1)

EN ISO 6892-2, Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 2: Method of test at elevated temperature

(ISO 6892-2)

EN ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials - Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines - Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines - Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

(ISO 7500-1)

EN ISO 7500-2, Metallic materials - Verification of static uniaxial testing machines - Part 2: Tension creep

testing machines - Verification of the applied force (ISO 7500-2)

EN ISO 9513, Metallic materials - Calibration of extensometer systems used in uniaxial testing (ISO 9513)

ISO 2768-1, General tolerances - Part 1: Tolerances for linear and angular dimensions without individual

tolerance indications
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
punch

single solid rod with a hemispherical tip or a cylindrical rod combined with a ball is used to punch through

the centre of the disc shaped test piece

Note 1 to entry: The hemispherical portion of the punch or the ball shall have a sufficient hardness to ensure

rigidity so as not to be deformed during the test. Ultra-hard ball-bearing balls can be used for that application. The

compliance of the punch will affect the displacement measurement (see 3.5).
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
3.2
test piece
circular, disc shaped piece of the material under investigation

Note 1 to entry: The testing of other geometries is admissible according to this document if the active part of the

specimen has a flat cylindrical shape and the clamped area is equal to or larger than that of the specimens included

in this document.
3.3
small punch (SP) test

when the punch tip/ball is pushed through the specimen with constant displacement rate of the cross

head, ẇ and the force, F is measured as a function of deflection, u / displacement, v

Note 1 to entry: The test can be used for estimating tensile and fracture material properties. If displacement is

used, consideration of machine compliance is necessary (Annex A).
3.4
small punch creep (SPC) test

when the punch tip/ball is pushed through the specimen under constant force, F and the deflection, u /

displacement, v is measured as a function of time
Note 1 to entry: The test can be used for estimating uniaxial creep properties.
3.5
displacement, v of the punch tip

distance by which the punch tip has moved after initial contact with the specimen surface

3.6
crosshead displacement

distance by which the cross head has moved after initial contact of the punch tip with the specimen

surface
3.7
deflection

distance by which the point at the centre of the specimen on the surface opposite to the point of contact

between the punch and the specimen has moved after initial contact of the punch tip with the test piece

3.8
creep-deflection curve
u(t)

data record of deflection, u as a function of time, t for a given applied force, F from a small punch creep

test

Note 1 to entry: The loading period is part of the creep deflection curve. t = 0, F = 0 (or F = preload) refers to the

point in time when loading is started.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
3.9
creep-displacement curve
v(t)

data record of displacement, v as a function of time, t for a given applied force, F from a small punch creep

test

Note 1 to entry: The loading period is part of the creep displacement curve. t=0, F=0 (or F=preload) refers to the

point in time when loading is started.
3.10
force-deflection curve
F(u)

record of the force, F required to keep the punch moving at constant crosshead displacement rate, ẇ as a

function of the deflection
3.11
force-displacement curve
F(v)

record of the force, F required to keep the punch moving at constant crosshead displacement rate, ẇ as a

function of the displacement of the punch tip

Note 1 to entry: If the displacement is not measured at the punch tip, but derived from the displacement of the

crosshead or at another point along the force line, the displacement signal needs to be corrected for compliance.

For details, refer to Annex A.
3.12
ductile to brittle transition temperature
DBTT

temperature where the fracture behaviour of a given material changes from brittle to ductile as defined

in EN ISO 148-1
3.13
small punch ductile to brittle transition temperature

characteristic temperature at which the fracture behaviour in a small punch test changes from brittle to

ductile (Annex E)
3.14
small punch energy
integral of the force-deflection curve up to the deflection at maximum force, u

Note 1 to entry: This energy is used for determining TSP. In the case of pop-ins, the integration is carried out up

to the first significant pop-in (Annex E).
Note 2 to entry: Instead of deflection, displacement is allowed to be used.

Note 3 to entry: In the case of ductile materials, failure has not yet occurred when the maximum force, Fm is

reached. However, limiting the integration to deflection at maximum force, um allows harmonized treatment of

ductile and brittle failure.
3.15
normalized small punch energy
E normalized by the maximum force F
SP m
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
3.16
upper shelf energy

some materials like ferritic/martensitic steels show a distinct transition of E (T) from a lower to a higher

level at a given temperature, T , the higher level of E (T) is called upper shelf energy, E

SP SP US
3.17
lower shelf energy

some materials like ferritic/martensitic steels show a distinct transition of E (T) from a lower to a higher

level at a given temperature, T , the lower level of E (T) is called lower shelf energy, E

SP SP LS
3.18
pop-in significant for E calculation

event during a SP test where the force in the F(u) or F(v) curves drops quasi instantaneously and rises

again
Note 1 to entry: A pop-in is indicative for brittle failure.

Note 2 to entry: For calculating E a significant pop-in is defined as a drop of the force by 10% of the maximum

SP,
force, F in the test at any point (Annex E).
3.19
creep rupture time from uniaxial testing

time to rupture for a test piece maintained at the specified temperature, T and initial stress, R as defined

in EN ISO 204

Note 1 to entry: The symbol t in a uniaxial creep test may have as superscript the specified temperature in

degrees Celsius and as subscript the initial stress, R in mega pascals.
3.20
creep rupture time from small punch testing

time to rupture for a test piece maintained at the specified temperature, T and constant force F in a small

punch creep test

Note 1 to entry: The symbol t in a uniaxial creep test may have as superscript the specified temperature in

degrees Celsius and as subscript the force, F in newtons.
3.21
proof strength

proof strength determined from uniaxial tensile testing as defined in EN ISO 6892-1 and EN ISO 6892-2

or estimated from small punch testing (Annex D)

Note 1 to entry: The symbol is followed by a suffix giving the prescribed percentage of strain, for example R .

p0,2
3.22
yield strength
R R
eL, eH

lower and higher yield strength determined from uniaxial tensile testing as defined in EN ISO 6892-1 and

EN ISO 6892-2 or estimated from small punch testing (Annex D)
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
3.23
tensile strength

stress corresponding to maximum force in uniaxial tensile testing as defined in EN ISO 6892-1 and

EN ISO 6892-2 or estimated from small punch testing (Annex C)
3.24
plane strain fracture toughness

crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip plane-strain, expressed as a critical value of

stress intensity factor
3.25
plane strain J-integral fracture toughness

crack-extension resistance under conditions of crack-tip plane strain, expressed as a critical value of J-

integral, J
3.26
effective fracture strain

natural logarithm of the ratio from the initial specimen thickness h and the thickness after testing close

to the fracture surface, h (Annex H)
4 Symbols and designations
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and designations apply.

NOTE This list only includes the most pertinent symbols. Less important symbols that are only used in a

specific context are not listed.
Symbol Unit Designation Reference
A % Total uniform elongation of the uniaxial tensile test Annex C
A, B mm Parameters in the tanh fit of E (T) Annex E
A , B - Parameters in the tanh-fit of ε (T) Annex E
ε ε f
α - Transfer factor between Τ and Τ : Τ = α Τ Annex E
SP CVN SP CVN
α - Transfer factor between Τ and Τ : Τ = α Τ Annex E
ε SP,ε CVN SP,ε ε CVN
β - Correlation factor for estimation of R Annex C
Rm m
C K Parameter in the tanh fit of E (T) Annex E
C K Parameter in the tanh-fit of ε (T) Annex E
ε f
CP mm/N Compliance of punch and push rod Annex A
d mm Diameter of the punch tip Clause 6
D mm Diameter of the receiving hole (lower die) Clause 6
DBTT °C, K Ductile to brittle transition temperature Annex E
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
Symbol Unit Designation Reference
D mm Diameter of the test piece Clause 5
E mJ Lower shelf energy Annex E
EMF - Electromotive force Annex B
E mm E normalised by F Annex E
n SP m
E mJ Small punch energy Annex E
E mJ Upper shelf energy Annex E
ELS mJ Lower shelf energy Annex E
E GPa Young's modulus Annex A
ε - Effective fracture strain ε = ln(h /h ) Annex E
f f 0 f
ε - Effective fracture strain in the lower shelf Annex E
Estimated uniaxial minimum strain rate corresponding to
ε min 1/h Annex G
minimum deflection rate in a SPC test
ε - Effective fracture strain in the upper shelf Annex E
F N Force applied to the specimen Clause 7,
Clause 8
F N Elastic-plastic transition force in a small punch test Clause 7,
Annex D
F N Maximum of F during the test Annex C,
Annex E
F N Force at deflection u or displacement v used for estimating Annex C
i i i,
h mm Thickness of the test piece Clause 5
h mm Initial thickness of the test piece (at the beginning of the Clause 5
test)
h mm Final thickness of the test piece adjacent to the fracture area Annex E,
Annex H
J N/mm Plane strain J-integral fracture toughness Annex F
0,5
K MPa m Plane strain fracture toughness Annex F
L mm Length of the chamfer in the receiving hole Clause 6
Ψ N/MPa Force to stress ratio in SPC Annex G
r mm Radius of the punch tip Clause 6
R mm Radius of the receiving hole (lower die) Clause 6
R MPa Initial stress in a uniaxial creep test Annex G
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
Symbol Unit Designation Reference
R μm Surface roughness (of the test piece) Clause 5
R MPa Ultimate tensile strength Annex C
R MPa Proof strength Annex D
σ MPa Equivalent stress Annex G
T °C, K Test temperature Clause 6,
Clause 7,
Clause 8,
Annex B
T °C, K Charpy transition temperature defined at 50 % of upper Annex E
CVN
shelf energy (see EN ISO 148-1)
t h Rupture time of SPC test Annex G
Τ °C, K Ductile to brittle transition temperature as determined from Annex E
SP testing
T °C, K T determined from fracture strain Annex E
SP,ε SP
t h Rupture time in uniaxial creep testing Annex G
u mm Deflection of the specimen Clause 7,
Clause 8
u mm Deflection at F Annex D
e e
u mm Characteristic deflection used for estimating R Annex C
i m
u mm Deflection at F Annex C,
m m
Annex E
u mm  Annex G
min Deflection at minimum deflection rate in a SPC test
min
mm/h Deflection rate Annex G
 mm/h Minimum deflection rate in a SPC test Annex G
min
u mm Deflection at first significant pop-in Annex E
v mm Displacement of the ball/punch tip Clause 7,
Clause 8
v mm Characteristic displacement used for estimating R Annex C
i m
v mm Displacement at first significant pop-in Annex E
v mm Displacement at rupture Annex G
w mm Displacement of the crosshead Annex A
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
5 Test piece
5.1 General

The test pieces that should be used are circular discs with a diameter of D = 8 mm and an initial thickness

of h = 0,5 mm. The use of other specimen shapes is admissible according to this document provided the

thickness and surface finish requirements are met and they can be properly clamped.

The use of smaller test pieces (D = 3 mm, h = 0,25 mm) is also admissible according to this document.

S 0
This allows the use of specimens adapted to the size of a TEM specimen holder.

For obtaining macroscopic material properties a representative volume element shall be contained in the

specimen thickness. The specimen should contain at least 5 grains in thickness cross-section, but some

exceptions can be accepted for coarse-grain, directionally solidified or single crystal materials.

These cases shall be reported accordingly; the recommended correlations for tensile and fracture

estimations might not apply.

To eliminate the influence of surface damage, the specimen should be machined to a minimal thickness

of h +0,1 mm and then should be ground from both sides on abrasive paper with a recommended

abrasive grit size designation P320 followed by fine grinding (P1200) to reach the final thickness with a

tolerance of no more than 1 %. Grinding on both faces shall be done with minimal 0,03 mm material

removal from each side of the test piece. Since the test piece is clamped during test, the tolerance of its

diameter, D is not critical, but it shall not be less than the value indicated in Table 1 to ensure sufficient

clamping. The thickness of the test disc specimen shall be measured at four positions around the

perimeter at 90° intervals from each other and in the centre. Each measurement shall be within the

specifications. The diameter shall be measured in two positions at 90° from each other.

Table 1 — Required test piece dimensions, tolerances and surface roughness
D [mm] h [mm] Ra [µm]
S 0
Ø 8 0 0,50 +0,005 < 0,25
−0,1 −0,005
Ø 3 0 0,25 +0,0025 < 0,25
−0,025 −0,0025
Orientation of the test piece shall be defined by Figure 1 in the test report.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
Key
L longitudinal direction (i.e. rolling direction)
T transverse direction
S short transverse direction
C circumferential direction
R radial direction

NOTE The specimens are classified so that the letter designating the axis falls together with the axis along

which the force is applied. Because of the multiaxial stress state, the directions tested in a SP test do not coincide

with the force axis.
Figure 1 — Orientation of SP specimen
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
5.2 Material sampling

A major benefit of the small punch test method is that it enables estimation of actual mechanical

properties of operating components or structural materials without affecting their integrity and

operational performance. Sampling of the material can be done by a minimally invasive, virtually non-

destructive manner. It means that testing material is removed from the component without requirements

for its repair due to the small volume of the extracted material that is necessary for the small punch

specimen manufacture. Current standardized mechanical tests, on the other hand, require relatively large

volumes of material that cannot be extracted from in-service equipment without repair after the material

removal.

For the material sampling, existing mechanical or electric discharge machining (EDM) extraction

techniques can be used. As a universal system for the sampling of different devices without any significant

impact on the component surface and without necessity to repair or modify the component, a Scoop

Cutter Sampling technique can be used. The unique hemispherical liquid cooled cutter used in the scoop

sampler is able to remove sufficient volume of material without mechanical distortion or thermal

degradation of the component. The principle of the sampling by this machine is schematically shown in

Figure 2 [1]-[3].
Figure 2 — Schematic view of abrasive-edged spinning cutter [2]
6 Apparatus
6.1 Testing machine

Universal testing machines are often used for SP testing (Clause 7) whereas SPC tests are mainly

conducted on test specific dead-weight machines (Clause 8). In both test types, a disc-shaped test piece

is clamped between an upper and a lower part of the specimen holder. A hemispherical punch or ball

deforms the disc specimen until fracture is indicated by force drop (SP) or sudden rise in

deflection/displacement (SPC).

For both test types, the testing machine shall apply a force perpendicular to the surface of the test piece

while preventing inadvertent tilting of the punch and misalignment of the specimen. Prior to the test, the

machine should be visually examined to ensure that the punch, specimen holder, universal joints and

associated equipment are in a good state of repair.
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SIST EN 10371:2021
EN 10371:2021 (E)
6.2 Test environment
6.2.1 General

When oxidation of the specimen becomes an issue for a given temperature and expected test duration,

testing needs to be carried out in inert environment or vacuum.
6.2.2 Heating/cooling system
Small punch tests can be perfor
...

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