Glass in building - Determination of the lateral load resistance of glass panes by calculation

This document gives a method of determining the design value of the bending strength of glass. It gives:the general method of calculation, and guidance for lateral load resistance of linearly supported glazed elements used as infill panels
NOTE   Examples of lateral loads are wind loads, snow loads, self weight of sloping glass, and cavity pressure variations on insulating glass units.
This document gives recommended values for the following factors for glass as a material:
- material partial factors, M;A and M;v ;
- factors for the load duration, kmod ;
- factor for stressed edges, ke.
Most glass in buildings is used as infill panels.  This document covers those infill panels that are in a class of consequence lower than those covered in EN 1990, so proposed values for the partial load factors, yQ and yG, are given for these infill panels.
The action of cavity pressure variations on insulating glass units is not covered by Eurocodes, so this document also gives proposed values of partial factors, 0, 1 and 2, for this action.
This document does not determine suitability for purpose. Resistance to lateral loads is only one part of the design process, which could also need to take into account:
-   in-plane loading, buckling, lateral torsional buckling, and shear forces,
-   environmental factors (e.g. sound insulation, thermal properties),
-   safety characteristics (e.g. fire performance, mode of breakage in relation to human safety, security).
This document does not apply to channel shaped glass, glass blocks and pavers, or vacuum insulated glass units.

Glas im Bauwesen - Bestimmung des Belastungswiderstandes von Glasscheiben durch Berechnung

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Bemessungswerte für die Biegefestigkeit von Glas fest. Es legt das allgemeine Berechnungsverfahren und eine Leitlinie für den Querbelastungswiderstand von linear gestützten verglasten Elementen fest, die als Ausfachungen verwendet werden.
ANMERKUNG   Beispiele für Querbelastungen sind Wind  und Schneelasten, das Eigengewicht schräg installierter Glaselemente sowie Druckschwankungen des Scheibenzwischenraums von Mehrscheiben-Isolierglas.
Dieses Dokument enthält empfohlene Werte für die folgenden Faktoren für den Werkstoff Glas:
-   Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte γM;A und γM;v;
-   Beiwerte für die Lasteinwirkungsdauer kmod;
-   Kantenbelastungsbeiwert ke.
In Gebäuden wird Glas hauptsächlich als Ausfachung verwendet. Dieses Dokument deckt solche Ausfachungen ab, die in eine niedrigere Schadensfolgeklasse eingeordnet werden als die von der EN 1990 abgedeckten Ausfachungen, sodass Vorschläge für die Werte für die Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte γQ und γG für diese Ausfachungen angegeben werden.
Die Einwirkung von Druckschwankungen des Scheibenzwischenraums auf Mehrscheiben-Isolierglas wird von den Eurocodes nicht abgedeckt, sodass dieses Dokument ebenfalls Vorschläge für Werte für die Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte ψ0, ψ1 und ψ2 für diese Einwirkung enthält.
Dieses Dokument legt nicht die Gebrauchstauglichkeit fest. Der Querbelastungswiderstand ist nur ein Teil des Konstruktionsprozesses, bei dem auch Folgendes berücksichtigt werden könnte:
-   Belastungen in der Ebene, Beulen, seitliches Torsionsknicken und Schubspannungskräfte;
-   umgebungsbezogene Faktoren (z. B. Schalldämmung, thermische Eigenschaften);
-   Sicherheitsmerkmale (z. B. Brandverhalten, Bruchverhalten in Bezug auf den Schutz von Personen, Sicherheit).
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für U Glas, Glassteine und Betongläser oder Vakuum-Mehrscheiben-Isolierglas.

Verre dans la construction - Détermination par calcul de la résistance des vitrages aux charges perpendiculaires à leur plan.

Ce document donne une méthode de détermination du calcul de la résistance du verre soumis à la flexion. Elle donne la méthode générale de calcul, et un document d’orientation pour la résistance aux charges perpendiculaires des éléments vitrés supportés linéairement.
NOTE Les charges dues au vent et les charges dues à la neige, ainsi que le poids propre du verre incliné et la pression interne aux lames de gaz de vitrage isolant sont des exemples de charges perpendiculaires.
Ce document donne des valeurs recommandées pour les coefficients suivants pour le produit verrier :
- les coefficients partiels des matériaux, γM;A et γM;v ;
- les coefficients désignant une durée d’application des charges kmod ;
- les coefficients partiels pour les actions, γG, γQ, et ψ ;
- le coefficient pour les bords soumis à contraintes, ke.
La plupart des vitrages pour bâtiments sont utilisés en tant qu’éléments de remplissage. Ce document couvre les éléments de remplissage qui ont une classe de conséquence inférieure à celles couvertes par la EN 1990, par conséquent, les valeurs proposées pour les coefficients partiels de charge, γQ et γG sont donnés pour ces éléments de remplissage.
L’action des variations de charges internes dans les lames de gaz d’un vitrage isolant n’est pas couverte par les Eurocodes, par conséquent, ce document propose des valeurs de coefficients de combinaison de charges, ψ0, ψ1 et ψ2, pour cette action.
Ce document ne préjuge pas de l’aptitude à l’emploi. La résistance aux charges perpendiculaires.n’est qu’une partie du processus de conception, qui peut également devoir prendre en compte :
- le chargement dans le plan, le flambage, le déversement et les forces de cisaillement ;
- les facteurs environnementaux (par exemple l’isolation acoustique, les propriétés thermiques) ;
- les caractéristiques de sécurité (par exemple le comportement au feu, les caractéristiques de rupture vis-à-vis de la sécurité des personnes, la sécurité).
Ce document ne s’applique pas au verre profilé en U, ni aux pavés de verre, ni aux vitrages isolants à lame de vide.

Steklo v gradbeništvu - Določevanje bočne nosilnosti steklenih plošč z izračunom

Ta evropski standard podaja metodo za določevanje konstrukcijske vrednosti upogibne trdnosti stekla. Podaja:
– splošno metodo izračuna in
– smernice za bočno nosilnost linearno podprtih zastekljenih elementov, ki se uporabljajo kot polnilne plošče.
OPOMBA: Primeri bočnih obremenitev so obremenitev stekla z vetrom in snegom ter lastna teža poševnega stekla in podnebne obremenitve na izolacijskih steklenih enotah.
Standard priporoča vrednosti za naslednje faktorje stekla kot materiala:
– delne faktorje materiala (γM;A in γM;v);
– faktorje za trajanje obremenitve (kmod);
– delne faktorje vplivov (γG , γQ , in ψ);
– faktor za obremenitev robov (ke).
Steklo se v stavbah uporablja večinoma kot polnilne plošče.  Polnilne plošče so v nižjem razredu posledic, kot je določen v standardu EN 1990, zato sta za polnilne plošče podana delna faktorja obremenitve γQ in γG. Vpliv podnebnih obremenitev na izolacijske steklene enote ni zajeto z evrokodom, tako da ta dokument podaja tudi vrednosti delnih faktorjev ψ0, ψ1 in ψ2 za te vplive. Ta evropski standard ne določa primernosti za namen. Odpornost na bočne obremenitve je le en del procesa načrtovanja, pri katerem je treba upoštevati še na primer:
– obremenitve v ravnini, uklon, bočni torzijski uklon in strižne sile,
– okoljske dejavnike (npr. zvočna izolacija, toplotne lastnosti),
– varnostne značilnosti, ki jih ni mogoče izračunati (npr. požarne lastnosti, lastnosti loma v zvezi z varnostjo oseb, zaščita, zadrževanje).
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za steklo v obliki kanala.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Oct-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
16-Oct-2019
Completion Date
16-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16612:2020
01-februar-2020
Steklo v gradbeništvu - Določevanje bočne nosilnosti steklenih plošč z izračunom

Glass in building - Determination of the lateral load resistance of glass panes by

calculation
Glas im Bauwesen - Bestimmung des Belastungswiderstandes von Glasscheiben durch
Berechnung und Prüfung

Verre dans la construction - Détermination par calcul de la résistance des vitrages aux

charges latérales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16612:2019
ICS:
81.040.20 Steklo v gradbeništvu Glass in building
SIST EN 16612:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16612:2020
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 81.040.20
English Version
Glass in building - Determination of the lateral load
resistance of glass panes by calculation

Verre dans la construction - Determination de la Glas im Bauwesen - Bestimmung des

resistance des feuilles de verre par calcul et par essai Belastungswiderstandes von Glasscheiben durch

Berechnung und Prüfung
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16612:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 13

5.1 Basis of determination of load resistance of glass ........................................................................... 13

5.2 Material partial factor ................................................................................................................................ 14

5.3 Process of determining the load resistance of glass ........................................................................ 14

6 Mechanical and physical properties of glass ...................................................................................... 14

6.1 Values ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.2 Approximate values .................................................................................................................................... 15

7 Actions .............................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.1 Assumptions related to the actions and combinations of actions .............................................. 15

7.2 Combinations of actions ............................................................................................................................ 15

8 Strength and stress ...................................................................................................................................... 16

8.1 Design value of bending strength for annealed glass...................................................................... 16

8.2 Design value of bending strength for prestressed glass ................................................................ 18

9 Calculation principles and conditions .................................................................................................. 19

9.1 General method of calculation ................................................................................................................ 19

9.2 Calculation method for laminated glass and laminated safety glass ......................................... 22

9.3 Calculation method for insulating glass units ................................................................................... 22

Annex A (informative) Parameters ....................................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Calculation formulae for stress and deflection for large deflections of

rectangular panes supported on all edges .......................................................................................... 32

Annex C (informative) Calculation process for insulating glass units...................................................... 36

Annex D (informative) Simplified calculation method for laminated glass ........................................... 48

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 52

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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 16612:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 129 “Glass in

Building”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020 and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
Introduction

This document gives a method of determining the lateral load resistance of linearly supported glass

elements.

The method of determining the load resistance of glass is in accordance with the principles of structural

Eurocode EN 1990: Basis of structural design. The actions are determined in accordance with the

structural Eurocode 1 series for actions on structures, e.g. EN 1991-1-1, EN 1991-1-3 and EN 1991-1-4,

including the National annexes. In the design processes, the reliability is part of national competency.

For that reason, this document foresees that, to conform with the rules applied by the Eurocodes, the

following parameters are subject to national determination:
— material partial factors, γ and γ ;
M;A M;v
— factors for the load duration, k ;
mod
— factor for stressed edges, k .
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document gives a method of determining the design value of the bending strength of glass. It gives

the general method of calculation, and guidance for lateral load resistance of linearly supported glazed

elements used as infill panels.

NOTE Examples of lateral loads are wind loads, snow loads, self weight of sloping glass, and cavity pressure

variations on insulating glass units.

This document gives recommended values for the following factors for glass as a material:

— material partial factors, γ and ;
M;A γM;v
— factors for the load duration, k ;
mod
— factor for stressed edges, k .

Most glass in buildings is used as infill panels. This document covers those infill panels that are in a

class of consequence lower than those covered in EN 1990, so proposed values for the partial load

factors, γ and γ , are given for these infill panels.
Q G

The action of cavity pressure variations on insulating glass units is not covered by Eurocodes, so this

document also gives proposed values of combination factors, ψ , ψ and ψ , for this action.

0 1 2

This document does not determine suitability for purpose. Resistance to lateral loads is only one part of

the design process, which could also need to take into account:
• in-plane loading, buckling, lateral torsional buckling, and shear forces,
• environmental factors (e.g. sound insulation, thermal properties),

• safety characteristics (e.g. fire performance, mode of breakage in relation to human safety,

security).

This document does not apply to channel shaped glass, glass blocks and pavers, or vacuum insulated

glass units.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 410, Glass in building — Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing

EN 572-1, Glass in building — Basic soda-lime silicate glass products — Part 1: Definitions and general

physical and mechanical properties

EN 673, Glass in building — Determination of thermal transmittance (U value) — Calculation method

EN 1279-5, Glass in building — Insulating glass units — Part 5: Product standard

EN 1288-2, Glass in building — Determination of bending strength of glass — Part 2: Coaxial double ring

test on flat specimens with large test surface areas
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)

EN 1288-3, Glass in building — Determination of the bending strength of glass — Part 3: Test with

specimen supported at two points (four point bending)

EN 1748-1-1, Glass in building — Special basic products — Borosilicate glasses — Part 1-1: Definition and

general physical and mechanical properties

EN 1748-2-1, Glass in building — Special basic products —Glass ceramics — Part 2-1: Definitions and

general physical and mechanical properties

EN 1863-1, Glass in building — Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass — Part 1: Definition and

description
, Eurocode — Basis of structural design
EN 1990:2002

EN 1991-1-1, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures — Part 1-1: General actions — Densities, self-weight,

imposed loads for buildings

EN 1991-1-3, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures — Part 1-3: General actions - Snow loads

EN 1991-1-4, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures — Part 1-4: General actions - Wind actions

EN 12150-1, Glass in building — Thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass — Part 1: Definition

and description

EN 12337-1, Glass in building — Chemically strengthened soda lime silicate glass — Part 1: Definition and

description

EN 13024-1, Glass in building — Thermally toughened borosilicate safety glass — Part 1: Definition and

description

EN 14178-1, Glass in building — Basic alkaline earth silicate glass products — Part 1: Float glass

EN 14179-1, Glass in building — Heat soaked thermally toughened soda lime silicate safety glass — Part

1: Definition and description

EN 14321-1, Glass in building — Thermally toughened alkaline earth silicate safety glass — Part 1:

Definition and description

EN 14449, Glass in building — Laminated glass and laminated safety glass — Evaluation of

conformity/Product Standard

EN 15681-1, Glass in building — Basic alumino silicate glass products — Part 1: Definitions and general

physical and mechanical properties

EN 15682-1, Glass in building — Heat soaked thermally toughened alkaline earth silicate safety glass —

Part 1: Definition and description

EN 16613, Glass in building — Laminated glass and laminated safety glass — Determination of interlayer

mechanical properties

1 This document is impacted by the amendment EN 1990:2002/A1:2005 and the corrigendum

EN 1990:2002/A1:2005/AC:2010.
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
infill panel

panel that closes openings in buildings but does not contribute to the stability of the load bearing

members
3.2
annealed glass

glass which has been treated during manufacture to minimise the residual stress in the glass, allowing it

to be cut by scoring and snapping

Note 1 to entry: Examples are float glass, drawn sheet glass, patterned glass and wired glass.

3.3
prestressed glass

glass which has been subjected to a strengthening treatment, by heat or chemicals, which induces a

compressive surface stress into the whole surface of the glass, balanced by a tensile stress within the

body of the glass

Note 1 to entry: Examples are thermally toughened safety glass, heat strengthened glass and chemically

strengthened glass.
3.4
enamelled glass

glass which has a ceramic frit applied to the surface, by e.g. painting or screen printing, which is

subsequently fired into the surface of the glass

Note 1 to entry: Examples are enamelled heat strengthened glass, enamelled toughened glass and enamelled

heat soaked toughened glass.
3.5
equivalent thickness (of laminated glass)

thickness calculated for laminated glass which, when used in place of the glass thickness in an

engineering formula, will result in a reasonably accurate determination of the deflection of and / or

stress in the laminated glass
3.6
lateral load resistance

resistance to forces applied normal to the glass surface (i.e. at right angles to it)

3.7
cavity pressure variation

pressure applied to the panes of insulating glass units due to the internal volume of the hermetically

sealed cavity or cavities being affected by changes in temperature and changes in the ambient

atmospheric pressure in service
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
3.8
altitude load

cavity pressure change solely resulting from a difference in altitude between the place of assembly

(sealing) and the place of use
4 Symbols and abbreviations
A Surface area of the pane (= a x b)
a Shorter dimension of the pane
a* Characteristic length of a double insulating glass unit
b Longer dimension of the pane
C Limiting design value of the relevant serviceability criterion

c Coefficient for the effect of altitude change on isochore pressure (=0,12 kPa/m)

c Coefficient for the effect of cavity temperature change on isochore pressure
(=0,34 kPa/K)
E Young’s modulus of glass
E Tensile modulus of an interlayer material
F Design value of the action
F Design value of the action on pane 1 of a double insulating glass unit
d;e
F Design value of the action on pane 2 of a double insulating glass unit
d;i
F Design value of the action on pane 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
d;1
F Design value of the action on pane 3 of a triple insulating glass unit
d;3
f Frequency (of vibration)
Characteristic value of the bending strength of prestressed glass
b;k
f Design value of bending strength for the surface of glass panes
g;d
f Characteristic value of the bending strength of annealed glass
g;k
g Self weight load
g Self weight load of pane 1
g Self weight load of pane 2
g Self weight load of pane 3
G Permanent action
G Shear modulus of an interlayer material
H Altitude
H Altitude of production of insulating glass unit
h Nominal thickness of the pane

h Nominal thickness of pane 1 of an insulating glass unit or ply 1 of a laminated glass

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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)

h Nominal thickness of pane 2 of an insulating glass unit or ply 2 of a laminated glass

h Nominal thickness of pane 3 of an insulating glass unit or ply 3 of a laminated glass

h External heat transfer coefficient
Equivalent thickness of a laminated glass for calculating out-of-plane bending
eq;w
deflection

h Equivalent thickness of a laminated glass for calculating out-of-plane bending stress

eq;σ

h Equivalent thickness of a laminated glass for calculating out-of-plane bending stress

eq;σ;j
of ply j
Internal heat transfer coefficient

h Nominal thickness of pane j of an insulating glass unit or ply j of a laminated glass

h Nominal thickness of pane k of an insulating glass unit or ply k of a laminated glass

h The distance of the mid-plane of the glass ply 1 from the mid-plane of the laminated

m;1
glass

h The distance of the mid-plane of the glass ply 2 from the mid-plane of the laminated

m;2
glass

The distance of the mid-plane of the glass ply 3 from the mid-plane of the laminated

m;3
glass

h The distance of the mid-plane of the glass ply j from the mid-plane of the laminated

m;j
glass

h The distance of the mid-plane of the glass ply k from the mid-plane of the laminated

m;k
glass
h Cavity heat transfer coefficient
h Cavity heat transfer coefficient - cavity 1
h Cavity heat transfer coefficient - cavity 2

J Variable used in calculations of cavity temperatures for triple glazed insulating glass

units

J Variable used in calculations of cavity temperatures for triple glazed insulating glass

units

J Variable used in calculations of cavity temperatures for triple glazed insulating glass

units

J Variable used in calculations of cavity temperatures for triple glazed insulating glass

units
k Coefficient used in the calculation of large deflection: stresses
k Coefficient used in the calculation of large deflection: deflections
k Coefficient used in the calculation of large deflection: volume changes
k Coefficient used in the calculation of insulating glass unit edge seal force
k Factor for edge strength
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)

k Coefficient of class of consequence expressing the reduction of safety applicable to

the secondary structures and infill panels compared to that applicable for the main

structures
k Factor for the load duration
mod
k Factor for the load duration of the dominant action in a load combination
mod;1
k Factor for the load duration when there are combined loads
mod;c
k Factor for the load duration of a permanent action in a load combination
mod;G
k Factor for the load duration of a non-dominant action in a load combination
mod;i
k Factor for the glass surface profile
Factor for strengthening of prestressed glass

n coefficient used in the formula for static fatigue (stress corrosion) of glass. The

normally used value is 16.
p Pressure
p Isochore pressure for an insulating glass unit
p Isochore pressure for cavity 1 of an insulating glass unit
0;1
p Isochore pressure for cavity 2 of an insulating glass unit
0;2
p Meteorological air pressure (air pressure at sea level)
Average meteorological air pressure = 100 kN/m
a;m

p Isochore pressure due to the effect of change in cavity temperature and air pressure

C;0

p Externally applied uniformly distributed load on pane 1 of a triple insulating glass

ex;1
unit
p Externally applied snow load on pane 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
ex;1;S
p Externally applied wind load on pane 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
ex;1;W

p Externally applied uniformly distributed load on pane 3 of a triple insulating glass

ex;3
unit
p Isochore pressure due to the effect of change in altitude
H;0

p Meteorological air pressure (air pressure at sea level) at the time of production of

insulating glass unit
p Load partition for pane 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
res;1
p Load partition for pane 2 of a triple insulating glass unit
res;2
p Load partition for pane 3 of a triple insulating glass unit
res;3

Load partition of cavity pressure variation for pane k of a triple insulating glass unit

res;C;k
p Load partition of dead load for pane k of a triple insulating glass unit
res;G;k

p Load partition of snow + dead load for pane k of a triple insulating glass unit

res;S;k

p Load partition of wind + snow + dead load for pane k of a triple insulating glass unit

res;W;k
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SIST EN 16612:2020
EN 16612:2019 (E)
p* Non-dimensional uniformly distributed load
Q Single action or dominant action
k,1
Actions which are not dominant
k,i
q Insulating glass unit edge seal force
R Design value of the resistance to the actions
s Nominal cavity width of a double glazed insulating glass unit
s Nominal cavity width of cavity 1 in a triple glazed insulating glass unit
s Nominal cavity width of cavity 2 in a triple glazed insulating glass unit
T Insulating glass unit cavity temperature
T Insulating glass unit cavity temperature - cavity 1
C;1
Insulating glass unit cavity temperature - cavity 2
C;2
T External air temperature
ext
Glass temperature of the central pane of a triple glazed insulating glass unit
g;cen
T Glass temperature of the outer pane of an insulating glass unit
g;ext
T Glass temperature of the inner pane of an insulating glass unit
g;int
T Internal (room) air temperature
int
T Temperature of production of insulating glass unit
t Load duration (in hours)
V Volume displaced due to the deflection of a pane
Nominal volume of cavity 1 in an insulating glass unit
pr;1
V Nominal volume of cavity 2 in an insulating glass unit
pr;2
V Nominal volume of cavity k in an insulating glass unit
pr;k
w Design value of deflection
w Maximum deflection calculated for the design load
max
z Coefficient used in the approximate calculation of k
1 4
z Coefficient used in the approximate calculation of k
2 1
z Coefficient used in the approximate calculation of k
3 1
z Coefficient used in the approximate calculation of k
4 1

Relative volume changes for the panes on either side of cavity 1 of a triple insulating

α α
1 1
glass unit

Relative volume changes for the panes on either side of cavity 2 of a triple insulating

α α
2 2
glass unit

Relative volume changes for the panes on either side of cavity k of a triple insulating

α , α
k k
glass unit
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α Solar direct effective absorptance of the outer pane of an insulating glass unit

α Solar direct effective absorptance of the second pane of an insulating glass unit

α Solar direct effective absorptance of the third pane of an insulating glass unit

β Factor used in calculating internal pressure differences in triple insulating glass

units
Δp Internal pressure difference for cavity 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
1;j
Δp Internal pressure difference for cavity 2 of a triple insulating glass unit
2;j

Δp Internal pressure difference due to cavity pressure variations for cavity i of a triple

C;i;j
insulating glass unit

Δp Internal pressure difference due to dead loads for cavity i of a triple insulating glass

G;i;j
unit
Δp Internal pressure difference for cavity i of a triple insulating glass unit
i;j

Δp Internal pressure difference due to snow + dead loads for cavity i of a triple

S;i;j
insulating glass unit

Δp Internal pressure difference due to wind + snow + dead loads for cavity i of a triple

W;i;j
insulating glass unit
δ Stiffness partition for pane 1 of a double insulating glass unit
δ Stiffness partition for pane 2 of a double insulating glass unit
ϕ Insulating glass unit factor for a double insulating glass unit
ϕ Insulating glass unit factor for cavity 1 of a triple insulating glass unit
ϕ Insulating glass unit factor for cavity 2 of a triple insulating glass unit
Incident solar radiant flux
γ Partial factor

γ Partial factor for permanent actions, also accounting for model uncertainties and

dimensional variations
γ Material partial factor for annealed glass
M;A
γ Material partial factor for surface prestress
M;v
Partial factor for variable actions, also accounting for model uncertainties and
dimensional variations
= a b
Aspect ratio of the pane ( )
μ Poisson number
ν Volume change of glass pane 1 when subjected to unit uniform pressure
p;1
ν Volume change of glass pane 2 when subjected to unit uniform pressure
p;2
ν Volume change of glass pane 3 when subjected to unit uniform pressure
p;3
ν Volume change of glass pane k when subjected to unit uniform pressure
p;k
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ν Volume change of glass pane k+1 when subjected to unit uniform pressure
p;k+1
θ Temperature
ρ Glass density
σ Stress
σ Allowable stress
all
σ Allowable stress associated with load type i
all;i
σ Calculated stress from load type i
calc;i
σ Calculated stress from dead load
σ Maximum stress calculated for the design load
max
Calculated stress from snow load
σ Calculated stress from wind load
ψ Combination factor
ψ Combination factors for the actions which are not dominant
ψ Factors for combination value of accompanying variable actions
0,i
ψ Combination factor for a frequent value of a variable action

Note 1 to entry: This value is determined - in so far as it can be fixed on statistical

bases - so that either the total time, within the reference period, during which it is

exceeded is only a small given part of the reference period, or the frequency of it

being exceeded is limited to a given value. It may be expressed as a determined part

of the characteristic value by using a factor ψ ≤ 1
ψ Combination factor for a quasi-permanent value of a variable action

Note 1 to entry: This value is determined so that the total period of time for which

it will be exceeded is a large fraction of the reference period. It may be expressed as

a determined part of the characteristic value by using a factor ψ ≤ 1
ψ Combination factor for a quasi-permanent value of a variable action
2,i

Note 1 to entry: This value is determined so that the total period of time for which

it will be exceeded is a large fraction of the reference period. It may be expressed as

a determined part of the characteristic value by using a factor ψ ≤ 1
2;i
ω Coefficient for the shear transfer of an interlayer in laminated glass
5 Requirements
5.1 Basis of determination of load resistance of glass

The process shall follow the principles of EN 1990: Eurocode – Basis of structural design.

The determination of actions shall be in accordance with the relevant parts of EN 1991-1-1,

EN 1991-1-3 and EN 1991-1-4. Where relevant or required, other codes shall also be taken into account.

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5.2 Material partial factor
The proposed values of the material partial factor are given in Table 1.
Table 1 — Proposed values of the material partial factor
Ultimate limit state
γ = 1,8
Annealed glass
M;A
γ = 1,2
Surface prestress
M;v

The material partial factor for annealed glass is also applied to a component of the

bending strength of prestressed glass - see Formula (6).

Informative Annex A gives further explanations about the material partial factors.

5.3 Process of determining
...

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