Earthworks - Continuous Compaction Control (CCC)

This technical specification provides guidance, specifications and requirements on the use of Continuous Compaction Control (CCC) as a quality control method in earthworks by means of roller integrated dynamic measuring and documentation systems.
The CCC method is suitable for soils, granular materials and rockfill materials which can be compacted using vibratory rollers.
NOTE   A continuous Compaction Control (CCC) technology based on the measure of propel energy necessary to overcome the rolling resistance is also available and can be used as a quality control method in earthworks. The propelling power of the compactor provides an indication of the material stiffness and it is measured as a function of the machine ground speed, slope angle and rolling resistance. This method is not included in this document.

Erdarbeiten - Flächendeckende dynamische Verdichtungskontrolle (FDVK)

Diese Technische Spezifikation bietet Richtlinien, Spezifikationen und Anforderungen für den Einsatz von kontinuierlicher Verdichtungskontrolle (CCC) als ein Qualitätsprüfverfahren für Erdarbeiten mittels eines in Walzen integriertem dynamischen Mess- und Dokumentationssystems.
Die kontinuierliche Verdichtungskontrolle eignet sich für Böden, gleichkörnige Materialien und Steinschüttmaterialien, die mit Vibrationswalzen verdichtet werden können.
ANMERKUNG   Es ist auch eine Technik der kontinuierlichen Verdichtungskontrolle (CCC) einsetzbar, die auf der Messung der zur Überwindung des Walzwiderstands nötigen Antriebsenergie basiert. Sie kann als Qualitätslenkungsverfahren bei Erdarbeiten verwendet werden. Die Antriebskraft der Verdichtungswalze gibt einen Indikator für die Materialsteifigkeit an. Sie wird als Funktion aus der Maschinenfahrtgeschwindigkeit, dem Neigungswinkel und dem Walzwiderstand gemessen. Dieses Verfahren ist nicht Bestandteil dieses Dokuments.

Terrassements - Contrôle du Compactage en Continu (CCC)

Zemeljska dela - Kontinuirana kontrola zgoščanja (CCC)

Te tehnične specifikacije ponujajo smernice, opise in zahteve za uporabo kontinuirane kontrole zgoščanja (CCC) kot metode zagotavljanja kakovosti zemeljskih del s pomočjo sistemov dinamičnega merjenja in dokumentiranja, vgrajenih v valjar.
Metoda kontinuirane kontrole zgoščanja je primerna za zemljo, sipke materiale in skalnate materiale, ki jih je mogoče utrditi z vibracijskimi valjarji.
OPOMBA:   Na voljo je tudi tehnologija kontinuirane kontrole zgoščanja, ki temelji na stopnji pogonske energije, potrebne za premagovanje odpornosti na valjanje, in se lahko uporablja kot metoda nadzora kakovosti zemeljskih del. Pogonska moč kompaktorja podaja oceno togosti materiala in se meri kot funkcija hitrosti vožnje stroja, naklona in kotalnega upora. Ta metoda ni vključena v tem dokumentu.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Dec-2016
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
15-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17006:2017
01-april-2017
=HPHOMVNDGHOD.RQWLQXLUDQDNRQWUROD]JRãþDQMD &&&
Earthworks - Continuous Compaction Control (CCC)
Erdarbeiten - Kontinuierliche Verdichtungskontrolle
Terrassements - Contrôle du Compactage en Continu (CCC)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17006:2016
ICS:
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17006:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17006:2017
CEN/TS 17006
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
December 2016
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 93.020
English Version
Earthworks - Continuous Compaction Control (CCC)

Terrassements - Contrôle du Compactage en Continu Erdarbeiten - Kontinuierliche Verdichtungskontrolle

(CCC)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 5 October 2016 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17006:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Fundamentals and principles of CCC measurements ......................................................................... 7

4 Influences on the CCC measuring value .................................................................................................. 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Roller ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Static linear load of roller drum ................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.3 Vibration amplitude ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.4 Vibration frequency ....................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.5 Operating speed ............................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.6 Direction of roller ........................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Measuring depth .............................................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Soils, granular materials and rockfill materials .................................................................................. 9

4.4.1 Type of material and water content ......................................................................................................... 9

4.4.2 Evenness and inhomogeneities on the layer surface ...................................................................... 10

4.4.3 Resting time of the compacted layer ..................................................................................................... 10

5 Preconditions and requirements ........................................................................................................... 10

5.1 Soils, granular materials and rockfill materials ............................................................................... 10

5.1.1 Soil type ........................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.1.2 Requirements for the layer surface ....................................................................................................... 10

5.2 Requirements for CCC rollers .................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 CCC Measuring and documentation system ........................................................................................ 11

5.3.1 Structure of the measuring and documentation system ................................................................ 11

5.3.2 Requirements for the CCC measuring and documentation system ............................................ 11

5.4 Reproducibility ............................................................................................................................................. 12

5.5 Personnel requirements ............................................................................................................................ 12

6 CCC applications ........................................................................................................................................... 12

7 CCC with calibration for indirect continuous density and stiffness control and QC and QA

purpose ............................................................................................................................................................ 12

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

7.2 CCC quality control and acceptance testing with calibration ....................................................... 13

7.2.1 Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 13

7.2.2 Control areas / inspection areas ............................................................................................................ 13

7.2.3 Alternative decision rules ......................................................................................................................... 14

7.3 Selection of the calibration test area .................................................................................................... 14

7.4 Calibration procedure ................................................................................................................................ 14

7.5 Development of correlations ................................................................................................................... 15

7.5.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................ 15

7.5.2 Quality and validity of correlation ......................................................................................................... 15

7.5.3 Examples of correlations ........................................................................................................................... 16

8 CCC weak area analysis and documentation for QC and QA purpose ........................................ 16

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

8.2 CCC quality control and acceptance testing for weak area analysis .......................................... 16

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9 CCC – documentation of maximum compaction achievable for QC and QA purpose............ 17

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

9.2 CCC quality control and acceptance testing for documentation of maximum compaction for

QA purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

10 CCC - documentation of compaction method ...................................................................................... 17

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

10.2 CCC quality control and acceptance testing for method specification ....................................... 18

11 CCC test report ............................................................................................................................................... 18

Annex A (informative) Analysis of the vibration behaviour ...................................................................... 19

A.1 Principle of compaction energy ............................................................................................................... 19

A.2 Principle of harmonic wave ...................................................................................................................... 20

A.3 Measuring the dynamic stiffness ............................................................................................................. 21

Annex B (informative) Statistical evaluation of CCC values based on decision rules for CCC

application with calibration ..................................................................................................................... 22

B.1 Decision rules – Analysis of the unweighted fall-below areas if normally distributed

measuring values exist ............................................................................................................................... 22

B.2 Evaluation of the unweighted fall-below areas in case of arbitrary distribution of the

measuring values or the total fall-below area ratio ......................................................................... 24

B.3 Evaluation of the weighted fall-below areas in case of arbitrary distribution of the

measuring values or the total fall-below area ratio ......................................................................... 24

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17006:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks”,

the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights

This Technical Specification was prepared with the aim of having a 3-year lifetime.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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1 Scope

This technical specification provides guidance, specifications and requirements on the use of Continuous

Compaction Control (CCC) as a quality control method in earthworks by means of roller integrated dynamic

measuring and documentation systems.

The CCC method is suitable for soils, granular materials and rockfill materials which can be compacted using

vibratory rollers.

NOTE A continuous Compaction Control (CCC) technology based on the measure of propel energy necessary to

overcome the rolling resistance is also available and can be used as a quality control method in earthworks. The propelling

power of the compactor provides an indication of the material stiffness and it is measured as a function of the machine

ground speed, slope angle and rolling resistance. This method is not included in this document.

2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
vibratory roller
vibratory roller is a roller which generates:
a) vertical vibrations (circular exciters) with fixed amplitudes; or
b) horizontal vibrations (oscillation rollers) with fixed amplitudes; or

c) vibrations with a direction, amplitude and/or frequency that can be automatically or manually adjusted

during operations

Note 1 to entry: Vibratory rollers operating with automatic amplitude and/or frequency mode are called 'intelligent

rollers'.
2.2
measuring roller

vibratory roller which is equipped with a compaction measuring and documentation system which measures

and maps the dynamic properties of the compacted surface
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
2.3
Continuous Compaction Control
CCC
use of measuring rollers for quality control in earthworks
2.4
CCC measuring value

dynamic value which depends on the measuring principle, the type of roller, operating weight, amplitude,

frequency and operating speed used, the type of soil or granular or rockfill material and its water content

Note 1 to entry: CCC measuring values determined by different systems are not necessarily equivalent.

2.5
stiffness of a soil
quotient of applied force (loading) and the corresponding deformation
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2.6
dynamic stiffness of a soil

quotient of variation of dynamic soil reaction force and the corresponding variation of deformation (soil

displacement)
2.7
compaction depth

depth below the point at which the drum meets the investigated surface over which the roller provides a

significant compaction effect
2.8
measuring depth

depth below the point at which the drum meets the investigated surface over which the resulting response

from the underlying materials still has an effect on the CCC measuring value
2.9
CCC inspection area

part of the production that has been processed under uniform conditions for which a unique compaction

requirement is valid
2.10
fall-below spot

part of the control areas in which the CCC measuring value falls below a certain CCC target value

2.11
measuring area unit

part of a control area, the width of which equals the drum width of the roller and the length of which

corresponds to the product of the operating speed and duration of the individual measurement

2.12
jump operation

roller drum that partially loses ground contact, which occurs with increasing soil stiffness

2.13
double jump
jump operation when the drum loses contact during a complete vibration cycle

Note 1 to entry: The roller drum hits the very stiff ground, rebounds and then makes a full cycle in the air before hitting

the ground again

Note 2 to entry: When jump operation becomes more pronounced because of high soil stiffness double jump can occur,

which usually significantly reduces the magnitude of the CCC measured values. In this way, the CCC measuring system can

identify and indicate jumping operation.
2.14
positioning system

system for georeferencing the compaction or measuring roller on the area being processed

2.15
roller pass
one forward or backward operation of a vibratory roller over a certain distance
2.16
weak area

part of CCC control area, which presents lower CCC values than the rest of the control area

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3 Fundamentals and principles of CCC measurements

Roller integrated continuous compaction control (CCC) is based on the dynamic interaction between the

excited drum of a vibratory roller and the soil or granular or rockfill material that has to be compacted. The

dynamically measured value determined from the movement behaviour of the drum shall be physically clearly

defined.

Vibratory rollers are characterized by a drum that is excited by one or more eccentric masses rotating at

constant speed. CCC rollers are equipped with acceleration transducers, processors and a display to provide a

record of the drum to soil interaction (Figure 1).

During the roller pass of a vibratory roller there is a continuous exchange of kinetic energy between the roller

drum and the roller/soil vibrating system.

Both the soil stiffness and the absorption of the roller vibration change with increasing compaction. By

analysing the vibration behaviour, conclusions can be made about the compaction quality. This analysis can

follow various principles. See Annex A.
Key
1 compaction depth
2 measuring depth
A acceleration transducer
B distance sensor
C processor
D display and recorder
E positioning systems (GNSS antenna)
Figure 1 — Single drum roller for CCC measurements (schematic diagram)
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4 Influences on the CCC measuring value
4.1 General

The CCC measuring values can be used to evaluate the stiffness, the soil compaction process and the

compaction quality. For proper interpretation of the CCC measuring values, the major influencing parameters

need to be considered. The most important parameters are the weight, amplitude, frequency and operating

speed of the roller, driving direction, measuring depth and layer thickness, the type of material, its water

content and the evenness of soil surface.
4.2 Roller
4.2.1 General
There are three types of rollers as follows:

— Single drum rollers (vibratory rollers driven by rubber wheels) with a smooth drum, which may also be

driven, provide the best results with respect to constant travel speed. Their higher mobility and generally

problem-free use on slopes and loose surfaces are also advantageous. It is also possible to use vibrating

pad foot rollers for certain materials.

— Tandem vibratory rollers with two smooth drums are usually less suitable. Under some subgrade and

adverse terrain conditions (e.g. slopes) these rollers may sometimes suffer from “slip” of the driven drums.

The travel speed then sometimes becomes difficult to control.

— “Intelligent” rollers are vibratory rollers which automatically adjust the compaction energy by changing

the amplitude and/or frequency during the compaction process. When intelligent rollers are used for CCC,

the amplitude and the frequency need to be fixed.
4.2.2 Static linear load of roller drum

The static linear load is a roller parameter which is the load of the drum plus the effective frame weight divided

by the drum width.
The higher the static linear load, the larger the measuring depth.

NOTE The static linear load influences the motion behaviour of the drum, such that rollers with a light frame have a

higher tendency to jump.
4.2.3 Vibration amplitude

The theoretical amplitude of the drum is a roller parameter which is a function of the drum mass, the eccentric

mass and its eccentricity.

The magnitude of the amplitude influences the measuring depth and the motion behaviour of the drum and

consequently the magnitude and range of the CCC measuring values.

NOTE The measuring depth is higher if the roller is operating with high amplitude. However, this mode of operation

increases the risk of grain crushing and re-loosening of soil near the surface; and the drum has a higher tendency to jump

than during operation with lower amplitudes.
4.2.4 Vibration frequency

The vibration frequency is a roller parameter which is the number of vibration cycles per second. The

frequency affects the magnitude of the CCC values.
4.2.5 Operating speed

The operating speed affects the magnitude of the CCC measuring values. In general for much lower speeds

higher measuring values can be expected.
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4.2.6 Direction of roller
The operating direction affects the magnitude of the CCC measuring values.

If construction purposes require measuring passes to be performed when the roller is moving both forwards

and backwards, then comparative passes with the roller travelling in each direction need to be performed

beforehand; these are to check whether the magnitude of the CCC measuring values obtained during backwards

passes differs from the values obtained during forward passes.
4.3 Measuring depth

The measuring depth depends particularly on the static linear load of the drum, the vibration amplitude and

vibration frequency, the stiffness of the layer to be compacted and the stiffness of the underlaying materials.

Under uniform conditions, the measuring depth can be estimated according to Table 1, which shows, as an

example, the values that can be achieved by smooth single drum vibrating rollers on gravelly soil placed in

layers.

Table 1 — Examples of measuring depth to be expected (gravelly soil, smooth single drum vibrating

rollers)
Operating Static Low amplitude High amplitude
mass linear load
(0,8 – 1 mm) (1,5 – 2 mm)
15 – approx. 0,4 m to approx. 0,6 m to
Light single drum rollers < 10 t
30 kN/m 0,6 m 1,0 m
Medium weight single drum 20 – approx. 0,4 m to approx. 0,6 m to
10 – 15 t
rollers 40 kN/m 0,8 m 1,5 m
40 – approx. 0,6 m to approx. 1,0 m to
Heavy single drum rollers 15 – 22 t
60 kN/m 1,2 m 2,0 m
Extra-heavy single drum 60 - approx. 0,6 m to approx. 1,0 m to
> 22 t
vibratory rollers 80 kN/m 1,2 m 2,5 m

Non-uniform soil stiffnesses have a major influence on the measuring depth, so CCC should carefully be used on

the bottom layer of an embankment and should only be used from the second layer on upwards when

estimation of density is purpose of the measurement.

NOTE The measuring depth is usually greater than compaction depth (See Figure 1).

4.4 Soils, granular materials and rockfill materials
4.4.1 Type of material and water content

The type of soil and particularly the proportion of fine grained materials (<0,063 mm) and the water content

influence the magnitude of the CCC measuring value.

For soils and granular materials with up to 15 % < 0,063 mm, good correlations between degree of compaction

and CCC measuring value can typically be expected if the water contents are below the optimum water content.

In such cases, there is also usually a good correlation between the CCC measuring value and static or dynamic

deformation modulus.

For composite soils with more than 15 % < 0,063 mm and fine soils, special attention should be given to the

water content. A correlation between CCC measuring value and degree of compaction is only possible under

uniform soil and water conditions.

NOTE When satisfactory compaction of composite and fine soils is not possible because the water content of the

material to be compacted is too high, a lower CCC measuring value is registered which does not increase but rather

decreases as the number of passes increases.
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Softened surfaces (after heavy rain) also exhibit a decrease of the level of CCC measuring values.

Wet composite and fine soils with high degrees of saturation can show a tendency to flow under the dynamic

load of a vibratory roller and cannot produce reliable CCC measuring values.
4.4.2 Evenness and inhomogeneities on the layer surface

The roller drum shall have full contact with the layer surface, otherwise the CCC measurement values cannot be

used.

The layer or zone to be measured by CCC should consist as far as possible of homogeneous material, since

locally strongly varying contact conditions under the drum (e.g. sand on one side and cobbles on the other)

produce CCC measuring values which cannot be used for compaction assessment, even if the surface is

sufficiently level.
4.4.3 Resting time of the compacted layer

The resting time of the compacted layer can influence the CCC result especially if the water content is high.

The resting time between completion of compaction and the measuring pass shall be kept as short as possible,

because this resting time may cause changes in the CCC measuring values. This could be due to the site

condition (site traffic), weather influences or subsequent settlement. Weather and longer resting times

between the completion of compaction and the subsequent measuring pass(es) influence the CCC measured

values. The longer this period, the more problematic is the establishment of a reference to the original result.

5 Preconditions and requirements
5.1 Soils, granular materials and rockfill materials
5.1.1 Soil type

Roller integrated measuring systems can generally only be used for materials which are dynamically

compactable with vibrating rollers. Because the CCC measuring value is influenced by the type of soil, the

proportion of fines and the water content, special attention shall be given to composite soils with a fines

proportion (<0,063 mm) > 15 % and to the water content.

The fill material should be as homogeneous as practicable, with no strongly varying material such as cobbles or

boulders, accumulation of fine particles or widely varying water content. Otherwise the interpretation of the

measured results is difficult.

CCC can be used on treated (stabilized) soils but only before the curing of the material.

5.1.2 Requirements for the layer surface

The soil surface shall be even, e.g. with no truck ruts; and the drum shall have contact with the ground over its

entire width.
5.2 Requirements for CCC rollers
During the CCC measurements:
— the exciter frequency shall be kept constant within a range of Δf < 2 Hz;
— the amplitude shall be kept constant with a range of Δa < 0,1 mm;
— the operating speed shall be kept constant within a range of Δv < 1 km/h.

The vibration behaviour of the drum shall be reproducible. Periodical irregularities due to roller influences (e.g.

worn out bearings, unbalanced drum) have to be rectified by appropriate repair; otherwise such rollers shall

not be used as measuring rollers.
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5.3 CCC Measuring and documentation system
5.3.1 Structure of the measuring and documentation system

The CCC system consists of the following system units which are linked to each other by appropriate

connections (Figure 1):
— transducer (measurement of the drum acceleration);
— processor unit (calculation of the dynamic measuring value);

— display unit (display of the actual measuring value in real time for the roller driver, e.g. screen, analogue

clock, paper strip);

— documentation unit (storage of measured data and geographic locations of the CCC measured values

secured against manipulation, so that they are available for a subsequent evaluation);

— transducer for position-wise assignment for the dynamic measuring values within a roller track or

positioning system;

— positioning systems such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), differential global navigation

satellite systems (D-GNSS) or real time kinematic (RTK) systems and tachymeter systems also enable the

documentation;

— for assembly and operation, the instructions given by the manufacturer of the measuring system are to be

observed.
5.3.2 Requirements for the CCC measuring and documentation system
The requirements for the CCC system are as follows:

— Measurement and documentation of operating speed, frequency, selected theoretical amplitude and the

dynamic measuring values as well as their position-wise assignment and the
...

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