This document describes the reference method for the determination of the the Lime Fixation Point (LFP) in soil treatment for earthworks.
The test consists in measuring the lowest quantity of lime to be added in a soil suspension in water, that will result in a pH value of the soil-lime mix suspension of 12,4, measured at 25 +/- 1°C.

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This document describes the reference method for the determination of the Index of dust emission (IDE) in soil treatment for earthworks.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation.
The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions.
Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.
This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.
This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:
—   define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;
—   describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
—   define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
—   present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;
—   identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.
This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases:
—   initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;
—   routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;
—   investigations of accident and incident situations;
—   planning and surveillance of remedial action;
—   decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories.
These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout.
In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.
Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques.
The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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This document provides guidance on the type and extent of soil characterization necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances present in possibly leading to adverse effects. It does not provide guidance on: — the design or selection of numerical models that can be used to estimate exposure; — potential exposure to radioactivity, pathogens or asbestos in soil. Background information is provided on human health related to exposure to soil and the influence on exposure via different pathways. NOTE 1 For convenience "soil" in this document also includes "soil material" unless stated otherwise. NOTE 2 Overall exposure can be due to potentially harmful substances (PHSs) in soil, groundwater and air. Exposure to those in soil can be direct (e.g. through inhalation, ingestion, cutaneous contact), or indirect (through the consumption of plants or animals that have taken up substances of concern). NOTE 3 The evaluation of the possible impact on human health of potentially harmful substances is most commonly required when these are present as a result of human activity (e.g. on old industrial sites) but can sometimes be required when they are present naturally. NOTE 4 Soil characterization precedes the assessment of the compatibility between soil and its use (i.e. soil quality assessment). Tools such as a conceptual site model (CSM) and health risk assessment can be used to aid this assessment. NOTE 5 Soil characterization can be used to develop an overview of population exposure to soil. Other International Standards are available that can aid the characterization of other media (e.g. surface and groundwater), in terms of their possible adverse effects on humans.

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This document provides guidance on the range of tests that could be necessary to characterize soil and other soil materials intended to be re-used, with or without preliminary treatment (e.g. screening to remove over large material). It is intended to be of use in determining the suitability of soil materials for re-use (see 3.4.1), and the assessment of the environmental impacts that might arise from re-use. It takes into account the different requirements of topsoil, sub-soil and other soil materials such as sediments or treated soils. International Standard methods are listed that might be of use for characterization. Soil materials include natural soils and other materials (e.g. fill, made ground) excavated, stripped, or otherwise removed from their original in-ground or above-ground location (e.g. stockpile), dredged materials, manufactured soils, and soil treated to remove or destroy contaminants. For manufactured soils, which are often made using excavated materials together with other materials such as "green waste", the characteristics of the components and of the manufactured product might need to be determined. NOTE The terms "excavated soil" and "excavated soil materials" are used for brevity throughout the document to embrace the range of materials covered. An overriding principle governing the guidance provided in this document is that when there is to be no change in intended land use at the target site, imported soil materials cannot lead to a permanent reduction in performance of relevant soil functions. The guidance provided is intended to cover a range of possible end uses, including: — play areas for small children, including nursery schools, kindergartens, etc.; — schools; — gardens and other residential areas; — allotments; — horticulture; — agriculture; — forestry; — recreational areas, e.g. parks, sport fields; — restoration of damaged ecosystems; — mining and industrial sites; — construction sites; — road and rail constructions. It is not applicable to the placement of soil materials in an aqueous environment or to restore underground workings. It does not address geotechnical requirements when soil materials are to be used as construction material. NOTE The sensitive end uses listed above such as play areas for small children, schools, gardens, agriculture and recreational areas require particular care, particularly when excavated soils are derived from contaminated sites.

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This European Standard defines a common basis for description and classification for use by all parties involved in the design, planning and construction of the earthworks.
This European Standard specifies the principles of classification, the processes and properties to be used in the description and classification of earthworks materials. For that, it specifies soil and rock groups as basis of material specifications for earth structure elements.
NOTE   Informative examples of existing national experience based classification systems and their use are presented in the annexes to prEN 16907-1.

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This document is one of a family of International Standards providing guidance on soils and soil materials in relation to certain functions and uses including conservation of biodiversity. It applies in conjunction with these other standards. It provides guidance on the selection of experimental methods for the assessment of the ecotoxic potential of soils and soil materials (e.g. excavated and remediated soils, refills, embankments) with respect to their intended use and possible adverse effects on aquatic and soil dwelling organisms. NOTE This is a reflection of the maintenance of the habitat and retention function of the soil. In fact, the methods listed in this document are suitable for usage in a TRIAD approach, i.e. for an ecological assessment of potentially contaminated soils (see ISO 19204). This document does not cover tests for bioaccumulation. The ecological assessment of uncontaminated soils with a view to natural, agricultural or horticultural use is not within the scope of this document. Such soils can be of interest if they can serve as a reference for the assessment of soils from contaminated sites. The interpretation of results gained by applying the proposed methods is not in the scope of this document.

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This document defines a common basis for description and classification for use by all parties involved in the design, planning and construction of the earthworks.
This document specifies the processes and properties to be used in the description and classification of earthworks materials. It specifies soil and rock groups as a basis of material specifications for earth structure elements. This classification relates to the physical and chemical properties of the soil and rock materials.
NOTE 1 The approach to description of soil and rock set out in EN ISO 14688-1 and EN ISO 14689 respectively and the approach to classification of soil set out in EN ISO 14688-2 are applicable to earthworks, but the range and scope of classification for earthworks given here is more detailed and orientated to the specific demands of earthwork procedures and earth structure elements.
NOTE 2 Informative examples of existing national experience based classification systems and their use are presented in the annexes to EN 16907-1:2018.

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This document gives guidelines for the principles and main methods for the determination of
background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils at a local/regional scale. The site scale
is excluded.
It gives guidelines for sampling and data processing strategies. It identifies methods for sampling and
analysis.
This document does not apply to the determination of background values for groundwater and
sediments.

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This document gives guidelines for the principles and main methods for the determination of background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils at a local/regional scale. The site scale is excluded.
It gives guidelines for sampling and data processing strategies. It identifies methods for sampling and analysis.
This document does not apply to the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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This document gives guidelines for the principles and main methods for the determination of background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils at a local/regional scale. The site scale is excluded. It gives guidelines for sampling and data processing strategies. It identifies methods for sampling and analysis. This document does not apply to the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 18589-3:2015 specifies the identification and the measurement of the activity in soils of a large number of gamma-emitting radionuclides using gamma spectrometry. This non-destructive method, applicable to large-volume samples (up to about 3 000 cm3), covers the determination in a single measurement of all the γ-emitters present for which the photon energy is between 5 keV and 3 MeV.
ISO 18589-3:2015 can be applied by test laboratories performing routine radioactivity measurements as a majority of gamma-emitting radionuclides is characterized by gamma-ray emission between 40 keV and 2 MeV.
The method can be implemented using a germanium or other type of detector with a resolution better than 5 keV.
ISO 18589-3:2015 is addressed to people responsible for determining gamma-emitting radionuclides activity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection.

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ISO 18589-2:2015 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil.
ISO 18589-2:2015 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban, or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
ISO 18589-2:2015 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling, or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.

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ISO 19901-4:2016 contains provisions for those aspects of geoscience and foundation engineering that are applicable to a broad range of offshore structures, rather than to a particular structure type. Such aspects are:
-      site and soil characterization;
-      identification of hazards;
-      design and installation of shallow foundations supported by the seabed;
-      design and installation of pile foundations;
-      soil-structure interaction for auxiliary structures, e.g. subsea production systems, risers and flowlines (guidance given in A.10);
-      design of anchors for the stationkeeping systems of floating structures (guidance given in A.11).
Particular requirements for marine soil investigations are detailed in ISO 19901‑8.
Aspects of soil mechanics and foundation engineering that apply equally to offshore and onshore structures are not addressed. The user of this part of ISO 19901 is expected to be familiar with such aspects.
ISO 19901‑4 outlines methods developed primarily for the design of shallow foundations with an embedded length (L) to diameter (D) ratio L/D < 1 (Clause 7) and relatively long and flexible pile foundations with L/D > 10 (Clause 8). This part of ISO 19901 does not apply to intermediate foundations with 1 < L/D < 10. Such intermediate foundations, often known as 'caisson foundations', comprise either shallow foundations with skirts penetrating deeper into the seabed than the width of the foundation, or shorter, more rigid and larger diameter piles than those traditionally used for founding offshore structures. The design of such foundations can require specific analysis methods; it is important that any extrapolation from the design methods described in this part of ISO 19901 to intermediate foundations be treated with care and assessed by a geotechnical specialist.

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ISO 18589-7:2013 specifies the identification of radionuclides and the measurement of their activity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry with portable systems equipped with germanium or scintillation detectors.

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ISO 28901:2011 provides guidance on environment-friendly burial methods of animal carcasses to prevent epidemics, to curtail the spread of the disease, to destroy the causative agents, and to dispose of the carcasses. ISO 28901:2011 does not apply to the burial of animal carcasses resulting from natural death or by accident. Other methods of disposal are outside the scope of ISO 28901:2011.

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This document describes the reference method for the determination of the Index of dust emission (IDE) in soil treatment for earthworks.
This test concerns more particularly:
- limes in conformity with EN 459-1, Building lime - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria;
- cements in conformity with EN 197-1, Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements;
- road binders in conformity with EN 13282-1, Hydraulic road binders - Part 1: Rapid hardening hydraulic road binders - Composition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- road binders in conformity with EN 13282-2, Hydraulic road binders - Part 2: Normal hardening hydraulic road binders - Composition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- fly ashes in conformity with EN 14227-4, Hydraulically bound mixtures - Specifications - Part 4: Fly ash for hydraulically bound mixtures;
- siliceous fly ashes in conformity with EN 450-1, Fly ash for concrete - Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- ground-granulated blastfurnace slag in conformity with EN 15167-1, Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.

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This document describes the reference method for the determination of the lime fixation point (LFP) in soil treatment for earthworks.
The test consists in measuring the lowest quantity of lime to be added in a soil suspension in water that will result in a pH value of the soil-lime mix suspension of 12,4, measured at 25 °C ± 1 °C.
This test method cannot be used to provide information about soil reactivity with lime, or other performance values (mechanical characteristics of soil-lime mixes) applicable for improvement or stabilization purposes. Those performance tests will be conducted in a laboratory from a specific study, the lime dosage to be applied being indicated from this method.

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This International Standard gives guidelines on the kind and extent of soil characterization necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances that can cause adverse effects.

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This International Standard provides guidance on the selection of experimental methods for the assessment of the ecotoxic potential of soils and soil materials (e.g. excavated and remediated soils, refills, embankments) with respect to their intended use and possible adverse effects on aquatic and soil-dwelling organisms, and habitat maintenance and the retention function of the soil.

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This International Standard provides guidance on the range of tests that may be necessary to characterize soil materials intended to be excavated and re-used, with or without preliminary treatment. Soil materials include excavated soil, dredged materials, fill materials, manufactured soils and soil treated to remove or destroy contaminants. It takes into account the different requirements of top soil, sub-soil and other soil materials such as sediments or treated soils. International Standard methods are listed where available.

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This Technical Report gives indication on sludge utilisation within reclamation programmes of disturbed land.
This Technical Report is applicable to sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308; for example:
3 storm water handling;
3 urban wastewater collecting systems;
3 urban wastewater treatment plants;
3 treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC [18]);
3 water supply treatment plants;
3 water distribution systems;
3 sludge derived materials;
3 but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.
NOTE   Because of the wide range of reclamation sites where sludge use as a soil ameliorate or source of plant nutrients is beneficial, and the different potential final uses of these sites, recommendations for application should be considered on a site-by-site basis. It is far beyond the scope of these guidelines to describe all the possible situations and the individual ways in which sludge could be used. The aim is to address, in a general qualitative way, the key issues which will determine in each particular case whether, how much and which type of sludge can be used.
Planning considerations (clause 5) are emphasised due to the fact that a general scheme can be adopted as a

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This Technical Report gives indication on sludge utilisation within reclamation programmes of disturbed land.
This Technical Report is applicable to sludges described in the scope of CEN/TC 308; for example:
¾ storm water handling;
¾ urban wastewater collecting systems;
¾ urban wastewater treatment plants;
¾ treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater (as defined in Directive 91/271/EEC [18]);
¾ water supply treatment plants;
¾ water distribution systems;
¾ sludge derived materials;
¾ but excluding hazardous sludges from industry.
NOTE   Because of the wide range of reclamation sites where sludge use as a soil ameliorate or source of plant nutrients is beneficial, and the different potential final uses of these sites, recommendations for application should be considered on a site-by-site basis. It is far beyond the scope of these guidelines to describe all the possible situations and the individual ways in which sludge could be used. The aim is to address, in a general qualitative way, the key issues which will determine in each particular case whether, how much and which type of sludge can be used.
Planning considerations (clause 5) are emphasised due to the fact that a general scheme can be adopted as a

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This document describes a method for the determination of the loss on ignition (wLOI) of fine, intermediate, composite and coarse soils, organic soils and anthropogenic materials (according to EN 16907-2) after ignition under air at 550°C.
The loss of mass suffered by these materials at 550 °C is usually due to the release of volatile compounds, water (absorbed, crystalized or structural) and gases from decomposition of organic matter and inorganic substances such as sulfur, sulphides or hydroxides (e.g. H2O, CO2, SO2).
A method is given in Annex B in order to estimate the organic matter content (COM) from the value of wLOI for clayed soils.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the loss on ignition (wLOI) of fine, intermediate, composite and coarse soils, organic soils and anthropogenic materials (according to EN 16907-2) after ignition under air at 550°C.
The loss of mass suffered by these materials at 550 °C is usually due to the release of volatile compounds, water (absorbed, crystalized or structural) and gases from decomposition of organic matter and inorganic substances such as sulfur, sulphides or hydroxides (e.g. H2O, CO2, SO2).
A method is given in Annex B in order to estimate the organic matter content (COM) from the value of wLOI for clayed soils.

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This International Standard provides guidance on the principles and main methods for the determination of pedo-geochemical background values and background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils. This International Standard gives guidance on strategies for sampling and data processing and identifies methods for sampling and analysis. This International Standard does not give guidance on the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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This International Standard provides guidance on the principles and main methods for the determination of pedo-geochemical background values and background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils. This International Standard gives guidance on strategies for sampling and data processing and identifies methods for sampling and analysis. This International Standard does not give guidance on the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 19258:2005 provides guidance on the principles and main methods for the determination of pedo-geochemical background values and background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils. ISO 19258:2005 gives guidance on strategies for sampling and data processing and identifies methods for sampling and analysis. ISO 19258:2005 does not give guidance on the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 19901-4:2003 contains requirements and recommendations for those aspects of geoscience and foundation engineering that are applicable to a broad range of offshore structures, rather than to a particular structure type. Such aspects are site characterization, soil and rock characterization, and design and installation of foundations supported by the seabed (shallow foundations) and the identification of hazards.
Aspects of soil mechanics and foundation engineering that apply equally to offshore and onshore structures are not addressed. The user of this part of ISO 19901-4:2003 is expected to be familiar with such aspects.

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ISO 19258:2005 provides guidance on the principles and main methods for the determination of pedo-geochemical background values and background values for inorganic and organic substances in soils. ISO 19258:2005 gives guidance on strategies for sampling and data processing and identifies methods for sampling and analysis. ISO 19258:2005 does not give guidance on the determination of background values for groundwater and sediments.

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ISO 15800:2003 gives guidelines on the kind and extent of soil characterization necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances that can cause adverse effects. The possibilities of standardizing the calculations used for the assessment of human exposure are not included in ISO 15800:2003. The information needed for evaluation of human exposure to contaminants leached from soil to surface and/or groundwater or transferred by runoff is not included in ISO 15800:2003. Aspects related to radioactivity and pathogens in soil and potential human exposure hereto are also not included in ISO 15800:2003.

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ISO 15799:2003 provides guidance on the selection of experimental methods for the assessment of the ecotoxic potential of soils and soil materials (e.g. excavated and remediated soils, refills, embankments) with respect to their intended use and possible adverse effects on aquatic and soil-dwelling organisms, and habitat maintenance and the retention function of the soil.

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ISO 15176:2002 provides guidance on the range of tests that may be necessary to characterize soil materials intended to be excavated and re-used with, or without, preliminary treatment. Soil materials include excavated soil, dredged materials, fill materials, manufactured soils and soil treated to remove or destroy contaminants. It takes into account the different requirements of top-soil, sub-soil and other soil materials such as sediments or treated soils. International Standard methods are listed where available. The test methods are intended to cover a range of possible end uses, such as play areas for small children, including nursery schools, kindergardens, etc.; schools; gardens and other residential areas; allotments; horticulture; agriculture; forestry; recreational areas, e.g. parks, sport fields; restoration of damaged ecosystems; construction sites. It is intended to be of use in determining the suitability of soil materials for re-use, and the assessment of the environmental impacts that might arise from re-use. ISO 15176:2002 is not applicable to the placement of soil materials in the water environment or to restore underground workings. It does not address geotechnical requirements when soil materials are to be used as construction material.

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