This document specifies a method for the determination of the loss on ignition (wLOI) of fine, intermediate, composite and coarse soils, organic soils and anthropogenic materials (according to
EN 16907 2) after ignition under air at 550°C.
NOTE The loss of mass suffered by these materials at 550 °C is usually due to the release of volatile compounds, water (absorbed, crystalized or structural) and gases from decomposition of organic matter and inorganic substances such as sulfur, sulfides or hydroxides (e.g. H2O, CO2, SO2).
A method is given in Annex B in order to estimate the organic matter content (COM) from the value of wLOI for clayey soils.
- Standard12 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
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This document defines the principle and the methods for the determination of the "fragmentability coefficient" of rocky material.
The fragmentability coefficient IFR distinguishes the behaviour of certain rocky material and is used to show the change in particle size from the moment than the material is excavated through to its subsequent implementation and in certain cases during its whole service life. Changes in the particle size occur due to the structural resistance of the rock being unable to support the mechanical stress to which it is subjected during its implementation and use.
- Standard12 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
- Draft10 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
This document defines the principle and the methods for the determination of the "degradability coefficient" of rocky material.
The degradability coefficient IDG distinguishes the behaviour of certain rocky material and is used to show the change in the geotechnical characteristics (particle size, clay content, plasticity, etc.) in relation to the characteristics seen immediately following excavation.
Changes in the particle size occur due to the combined action of climatic or geohydrological elements (frost, soaking-drying cycles) and mechanical stress to which it is subjected. In the case of degradable rocky material, this leads to a fairly significant and continuous reduction in the mechanical and geometric characteristics of the works in which they are used.
The two methods developed in this document for the determination of IDG are not equivalent, so any result obtained by this document can refer to the method used.
- Standard18 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
- Draft17 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
This document describes the reference method for the determination of the methylene blue value (VBS) in soils and rocks for earthworks.
The test is based on measuring the quantity of methylene blue that can be adsorbed by the material suspended in water. This quantity of absorbed methylene blue is reported by direct proportionality to the 0/50 mm ground. The soil blue value is directly related to the specific surface area of the soil particles or rocky material.
NOTE The VBS test uses common equipment and calibration as the methylene blue test MB for aggregates (EN 933 9), but the test is applies to another granular fraction (5 mm for VBS and 2 mm for MB, respectively). Thus, the results obtained between the two tests cannot be compared in the general case.
- Standard14 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
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This European Standard gives general guidelines for the hydraulic placement of extractive wastes applicable, in particular, to the extractive industries.
The scope of this European Standard includes any dam, confining embankment or other structure serving to contain, retain, confine or otherwise support such wastes on surface in a terrestrial environment.
This standard therefore addresses the characterisation of the extractive waste for the purposes of hydraulic placement in the MWF both as part of the confining embankment and for safe storage, and in addition:
- specifies minimum requirements for the data to be acquired before the design and execution stage of a hydraulic fill project;
- provides guidelines for the selection of the type of confining embankment appropriate for the selected site;
- provides guidelines for the selection and characterisation of the construction materials;
- establishes general principles on how to design and execute the hydraulic fill project from pre deposition through operation to closure and rehabilitation;
- provides guidelines for monitoring and quality control of all stages of the hydraulic fill project to ensure long-term safety and stability.
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This document describes the reference method for the determination of the Index of dust emission (IDE) in soil treatment for earthworks.
This test concerns more particularly:
- limes in conformity with EN 459-1, Building lime - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria;
- cements in conformity with EN 197-1, Cement - Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements;
- road binders in conformity with EN 13282-1, Hydraulic road binders - Part 1: Rapid hardening hydraulic road binders - Composition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- road binders in conformity with EN 13282-2, Hydraulic road binders - Part 2: Normal hardening hydraulic road binders - Composition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- fly ashes in conformity with EN 14227-4, Hydraulically bound mixtures - Specifications - Part 4: Fly ash for hydraulically bound mixtures;
- siliceous fly ashes in conformity with EN 450-1, Fly ash for concrete - Part 1: Definition, specifications and conformity criteria;
- ground-granulated blastfurnace slag in conformity with EN 15167-1, Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout - Part 1: Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.
- Technical specification14 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
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This document describes the reference method for the determination of the lime fixation point (LFP) in soil treatment for earthworks.
The test consists in measuring the lowest quantity of lime to be added in a soil suspension in water that will result in a pH value of the soil-lime mix suspension of 12,4, measured at 25 °C ± 1 °C.
This test method cannot be used to provide information about soil reactivity with lime, or other performance values (mechanical characteristics of soil-lime mixes) applicable for improvement or stabilization purposes. Those performance tests will be conducted in a laboratory from a specific study, the lime dosage to be applied being indicated from this method.
- Technical specification16 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
- Draft16 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
This European Standard deals with underwater excavation and hydraulic placement of fill material for land reclamation projects.
The scope is limited to soils that exhibit free-draining behaviour during and after placement.
The main purpose of this European Standard is to ensure that functional requirements and specifications for such projects are in harmony with site boundary conditions and construction methods.
This European Standard specifies minimum requirements for site related data to be acquired before the procurement and execution stage of a dredging and land reclamation project.
This European Standard gives guidance on how the selection of the dredging equipment shall be undertaken. It also gives guidance on the selection of a borrow area and on the judgement regarding the suitability of the fill material for the project.
This European Standard offers the general principles on how to design the actual execution of a dredged hydraulic fill project and offers guidelines for monitoring and quality control of that execution in order to guarantee that the fill mass exhibits the behaviour as intended by the designer of the land reclamation.
This European Standard does not cover dredging and/or placement of rock, mine tailings, mineral wastes and contaminated soils.
- Standard55 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
This European Standard provides recommendations and guidance on the quality assurance and quality control of earthworks construction forming part of general civil engineering and building works. It provides guidance on the techniques to be used to give clients, contractors and designers confidence that the earthworks have been constructed in accordance with their requirements.
- Standard19 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
This European Standard provides execution procedures for excavating, transporting and placing soils and rocks for the construction of earth-structures and guidance for the work. Additionally, it includes excavation and placement of rock materials underwater.
Dredging of soils and the associated hydraulic placement of fills are covered by EN 16907-6 and EN 16907-7.
Execution of earthworks follows the conclusions of the earthworks design and optimization phase (EN 16907-1), which should anticipate soil and rock specificities and their suitability. In case some events could not be foreseen, additional design is performed during the execution of works.
- Standard85 pagesEnglish languagesale 10% offe-Library read for1 day
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This European Standard (Part 1) gives definitions, principles and general rules for the planning, design and specification of earthworks. It introduces the other parts of the standard, which will be used together with Part 1.
Earthworks are a civil engineering process aimed at creating earth-structures by changing the geometry of the earth surface for construction or other activities. Application fields of earthworks are associated with:
- transport infrastructures (road and motorways, railways, waterways, airports);
- platforms for industrial, commercial and residential buildings;
- water engineering, flood defence and coastal protection works;
- harbours and airport areas, including the construction of embankments in water;
- river dykes and marine embankments for land reclamation;
- earth and rock fill dams;
- onshore embankments made of hydraulically placed fill;
- noise barriers, visual barrier, and other non-load bearing earthworks:
- landscaping embankments;
- backfilling of open mines and quarries;
- tailings dams;
They are characterized by the need to use available natural or recycled materials and to handle them in a way appropriate to yield prescribed properties.
This standard is applicable to all types of earth-structures, except the cases listed below:
- some specific types of works such as the execution of trenches and small earthworks may be organized using simplified or specific rules;
- some structures, such as dykes and dams, need earthworks which have specific design and construction requirements: these may extend beyond the rules of this standard.
This standard does not cover ground improvement beneath an earth-structure by techniques such as piling, jet grouting, deep soil mixing, vertical drains or stone columns.
Due to the variable subsoil and climate conditions within Europe and to the different national contract conditions, national sets of rules have been established in several European countries which could not be harmonized within a short period by a European Standard. This European Standard gives therefore basic rules to reach the aims described above. Informative Annexes B to H of this document give examples of national practices following these rules.
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This document defines a common basis for description and classification for use by all parties involved in the design, planning and construction of the earthworks.
This document specifies the processes and properties to be used in the description and classification of earthworks materials. It specifies soil and rock groups as a basis of material specifications for earth structure elements. This classification relates to the physical and chemical properties of the soil and rock materials.
NOTE 1 The approach to description of soil and rock set out in EN ISO 14688-1 and EN ISO 14689 respectively and the approach to classification of soil set out in EN ISO 14688-2 are applicable to earthworks, but the range and scope of classification for earthworks given here is more detailed and orientated to the specific demands of earthwork procedures and earth structure elements.
NOTE 2 Informative examples of existing national experience based classification systems and their use are presented in the annexes to EN 16907-1:2018.
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This European Standard applies to the treatment with binders of natural soils, weak rocks, intermediate rocks, chalk, recycled materials and artificial materials for the execution of earthworks during the construction and maintenance of roads, railways, airfields, platforms, dykes, ponds and any other types of earth structure.
It relates only to the treatment in layers, produced for earthworks in situ or from a mixing plant, as opposed to the treatment by columns for example.
The standard specifies the requirements for the constituents of the mixtures, the preliminary laboratory testing methodology, the laboratory performance classification, the execution and control.
NOTE 1 The informative annexes also give example of good practices for execution and control.
The laboratory performance classification specified in this European Standard covers the two types of treatment: improvement and stabilization.
For improvement, the classification relates to the short term performance.
For stabilization, the classification relates to the medium to long term performance.
NOTE 2 FprEN 16907-4 prepared by CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks” is for improvement and stabilization in earthworks applications. EN 14227-15 prepared by CEN/TC 227 “Road materials“ is for stabilization only in pavement applications.
NOTE 3 For stabilization, the performance classification specified in FprEN 16907-4 uses generally the same laboratory performance classification specified in EN 14227-15, except for the performance classification diagram according to “Rt and E” specific to pavements in EN 14227-15, which has been replaced in FprEN 16904-4 by a performance classification diagram according to “Rt and E” specific to earthworks (Figure 1).
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This technical specification provides guidance, specifications and requirements on the use of Continuous Compaction Control (CCC) as a quality control method in earthworks by means of roller integrated dynamic measuring and documentation systems.
The CCC method is suitable for soils, granular materials and rockfill materials which can be compacted using vibratory rollers.
NOTE A continuous Compaction Control (CCC) technology based on the measure of propel energy necessary to overcome the rolling resistance is also available and can be used as a quality control method in earthworks. The propelling power of the compactor provides an indication of the material stiffness and it is measured as a function of the machine ground speed, slope angle and rolling resistance. This method is not included in this document.
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