Ambient air - Measurement of bioaerosols - Part 2: Planning and evaluation of plant-related plume measurements

This document describes the general requirements to be taken into account in planning and implementing plant-related plume measurements of microbial air pollutants. A basic principle of this method is to compare the concentrations in air unaffected by the activities of the plant (i.e. background air sampled upwind of the plant) with the concentration of bioaerosols in air downwind of the plant. It is this comparison that allows an assessment of the plant-related contribution and the mean spatial impact range to be made. As it has so far not been possible to set limit values based on dose-response relationships, the mean impact range is to be used as a first criterion for assessing the environmental impact of a plant.
The scale of work for the plume measurements described is necessary to obtain statistically representative data about the impact range of the plant and/or source, taking into account the great variety of influencing factors.
Plant-related measurements of bioaerosol concentrations in ambient air may be required in a number of regulatory situations. Examples of typical measurement objectives and indicative application scenarios are presented in the document. This method specifies the simultaneous measurement of background and downwind air quality to reduce the risk of invalid comparisons resulting from changing background air concentrations. Another important principle of this method is the requirement for repeated measures to take into account day to day and seasonal variations in the processes governing bioaerosol emissions and dispersion.
The objective is to analyse a given measurement problem and derive the associated requirements for organization, the measurement method, the sampling strategy, the evaluation of the measured data, quality assurance and reporting.

Außenluft - Messen von Bioaerosolen - Teil 2: Planung und Auswertung von anlagenbezogenen Fahnenmessungen

In diesem Dokument werden die allgemeinen Anforderungen beschrieben, die bei der Planung und Umsetzung anlagenbezogener Messungen der mikrobiellen Belastung der Außenluft zu berücksichtigen sind. Ein Grundprinzip dieses Verfahrens besteht darin, die Konzentration in der nicht durch die Anlagentätigkeit beeinflussten Luft (d. h. der im Luv der Anlage beprobte Hintergrundluft) mit der Konzentration an Bioaerosolen in der Luft im Lee der Anlage zu vergleichen. Dieser Vergleich ermöglicht eine Beurteilung des anlagenbezogenen Beitrags und der mittleren räumlichen Reichweite. Da es bisher noch nicht möglich war, Grenzwerte auf der Grundlage von Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehungen festzulegen, ist die mittlere Reichweite als ein erstes Kriterium für die Beurteilung der Umweltbelastung durch eine Anlage zu nutzen.
Der mit den hier beschriebenen Fahnenmessungen verbundene Arbeitsaufwand ist erforderlich, um unter Berücksichtigung der großen Vielzahl an Einflussfaktoren statistisch repräsentative Daten zur Reichweite der Anlage und/oder Quelle zu erhalten.
Anlagenbezogene Messungen der Bioaerosolkonzentrationen in der Außenluft können in einer Reihe von regulatorischen Situationen erforderlich sein. Das Dokument enthält Beispiele typischer Messaufgaben und indikativer Anwendungsszenarien. Dieses Verfahren legt die zeitgleiche Messung der Beschaffenheit der Hintergrundluft und der Luftbeschaffenheit im Lee fest, um das Risiko ungültiger Vergleiche aufgrund sich ändernder Hintergrund-Luftkonzentrationen zu verringern. Ein weiterer wichtiger Grundsatz dieses Verfahrens besteht in der Forderung nach Wiederholungsmessungen, um die tagesbezogenen und jahreszeitlichen Schwankungen in den Prozessen zu erfassen, die der Emission und Ausbreitung von Bioaerosolen zugrunde liegen.
Das Ziel besteht in der Analyse eines gegebenen Messproblems und der Ableitung der zugehörigen Anforderungen an Organisation, Messverfahren, Probenahmestrategie, Bewertung der Messdaten, Qualitätssicherung und Berichterstattung.

Qualité de l’air ambiant - Mesurage de bioaérosols - Partie 2 : Planification et évaluation des mesurages dans le panache de fumée des installations industrielles

Le présent document décrit les exigences générales à prendre en compte lors de la planification et de la mise en oeuvre de mesurages dans le panache de fumée d’une installation industrielle afin de déterminer les polluants microbiens présent dans l’air ambiant. Le principe de base de cette méthode est de comparer les concentrations dans l’air non affectées par les activités de l’installation industrielle (c’est-à-dire l’atmosphère de fond prélevée en amont) avec la concentration des bioaérosols dans l’air en aval de cette installation. Cette comparaison permet d’évaluer la contribution liée à l’installation et de déterminer la portée d’impact moyen dans l’espace. Comme il a été jusqu’à présent impossible de fixer des valeurs limites basées sur des relations dose-effet, la portée d’impact moyen doit servir de premier critère pour évaluer l’impact d’une installation industrielle sur l’environnement.
La charge de travail décrite en termes de mesurage dans le panache est requise pour obtenir des données statistiquement représentatives de la portée d’impact de l’installation industrielle et/ou de la source, en tenant compte de la grande diversité des facteurs influents.
Les mesurages des concentrations de bioaérosols dans l’air ambiant au niveau d’une installation industrielle peuvent être exigés par un certain nombre de situations réglementaires. Le présent document donne des exemples d’objectifs de mesure types et des scénarios d’application à titre indicatif. Cette méthode spécifie le mesurage simultané de la qualité de l’air ambiant et de l’air en aval afin de réduire le risque de comparaisons non valables résultant de variations des concentrations atmosphériques de fond. Un autre principe important de cette méthode est l’exigence de mesurages répétés afin de tenir compte des variations d’un jour à l’autre et des variations saisonnières dans les processus régissant les émissions et la dispersion des aérosols.
L’objectif est d’analyser un problème de mesurage particulier et d’en déduire les exigences associées concernant l’organisation, la méthode de mesure, la stratégie d’échantillonnage, l’évaluation des données mesurées, l’assurance qualité et la production de rapports.

Zunanji zrak - Meritve bioaerosolov - 2. del: Načrtovanje in vrednotenje meritev industrijskih izpustov

Ta dokument opisuje splošne zahteve, ki jih je treba upoštevati pri načrtovanju in vrednotenju meritev industrijskih izpustov mikrobnih onesnaževal zraka. Osnovno načelo te metode je primerjava koncentracij v zraku brez vpliva dejavnosti v obratu (tj. zrak v ozadju, vzorčen v smeri vetra proti obratu) s koncentracijo bioaerosolov v zraku, vzorčenih v smeri vetra stran od obrata. Ta primerjava omogoča oceno prispevka obrata in povprečnega obsega prostorskega vpliva. Ker doslej ni bilo mogoče določiti mejnih vrednosti na podlagi razmerij med odzivi na odmerek, je treba povprečni obseg prostorskega vpliva uporabiti kot prvo merilo pri ocenjevanju vpliva obrata na okolje.
Obseg dela za opisane meritve izpustov je nujen za pridobitev statistično reprezentativnih podatkov o obsegu vpliva obrata in/ali vira na okolje, pri čemer je treba upoštevati veliko število drugih dejavnikov.
Meritve koncentracij bioaerosolov v zunanjem zraku se lahko zahtevajo v različnih regulativnih okoljih. V dokumentu so predstavljeni primeri tipičnih ciljev meritev in indikativnih scenarijev. Ta metoda določa hkratno merjenje kakovosti zraka v ozadju in zraka v smeri stran od tovarne, da se zmanjša nevarnost neveljavnih primerjav, ki so posledica spreminjanja koncentracije zraka v ozadju. Drugo pomembno načelo te metode je zahteva, da ponovljene meritve upoštevajo vsakodnevne in sezonske spremembe pri postopkih, ki upravljajo emisije in disperzije bioaerosola.
Cilj je analizirati določeno merilno težavo in izpeljati povezane zahteve za organizacijo, merilno metodo, strategijo vzorčenja, ovrednotenje izmerjenih podatkov, zagotavljanje kakovosti in poročanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Dec-2016
Current Stage
9060 - Closure of 2 Year Review Enquiry - Review Enquiry
Due Date
02-Sep-2022
Completion Date
02-Sep-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16115-2:2017
01-julij-2017
=XQDQML]UDN0HULWYHELRDHURVRORYGHO1DþUWRYDQMHLQYUHGQRWHQMHPHULWHY
LQGXVWULMVNLKL]SXVWRY

Ambient air - Measurement of bioaerosols - Part 2: Planning and evaluation of plant-

related plume measurements
Außenluft - Messen von Bioaerosolen - Teil 2: Planung und Auswertung von
anlagenbezogenen Fahnenmessungen

Qualité de l’air ambiant - Mesurage de bioaérosols - Partie 2 : Planification et évaluation

des mesurages dans le panache de fumée des installations industrielles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16115-2:2016
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16115-2:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16115-2:2017
CEN/TS 16115-2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
December 2016
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 13.040.20
English Version
Ambient air - Measurement of bioaerosols - Part 2:
Planning and evaluation of plant-related plume
measurements

Qualité de l'air ambiant - Mesurage de bioaérosols - Außenluft - Messen von Bioaerosolen - Teil 2: Planung

Partie 2 : Planification et évaluation des mesurages und Auswertung von anlagenbezogenen

dans le panache de fumée des installations Fahnenmessungen
industrielles

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 5 October 2016 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16115-2:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Key principles of sampling and assessment .......................................................................................... 9

5 Measurement objective and applications ........................................................................................... 10

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Indicative applications ............................................................................................................................... 10

6 Relevant plants ............................................................................................................................................. 11

7 Measurement parameters......................................................................................................................... 12

8 Meteorological conditions ........................................................................................................................ 12

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

8.2 Determination of meteorological conditions prior to the ambient air measurement ....... 13

8.3 Determination of meteorological conditions during the ambient air measurement ......... 13

9 Determination of upwind concentration ............................................................................................. 13

10 Measurement strategy for plume measurements ............................................................................ 14

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.2 Principle and objective of plume measurements ............................................................................. 15

10.3 Contextual information .............................................................................................................................. 15

11 Measurement area, sampling locations and siting .......................................................................... 16

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

11.2 Measurement area ....................................................................................................................................... 16

11.3 Sampling locations: Siting ......................................................................................................................... 16

11.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

11.3.2 Sampling location: Siting for point sources ........................................................................................ 16

11.3.3 Sampling location: Siting for area sources and extended sources ............................................. 18

11.3.4 Sampling location: Siting for central traverse model ..................................................................... 20

11.3.5 Sampling location: Siting in the case of cold air drainage ............................................................. 20

12 Measurement period, sampling frequency and sampling duration .......................................... 20

13 Evaluation ....................................................................................................................................................... 21

14 Measurement report ................................................................................................................................... 21

15 Quality assurance ......................................................................................................................................... 22

15.1 Plausibility check of individual values ................................................................................................. 22

15.2 Quality criteria .............................................................................................................................................. 22

16 Limitations ...................................................................................................................................................... 22

Annex A (informative) Measurement parameter and indicator organisms ........................................ 23

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

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A.2 Notes on the use of Table A.1 .................................................................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Determination of the measurement parameter-specific mean impact

range .................................................................................................................................................................. 29

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 29

B.2 Median concentration – mean impact ................................................................................................... 29

B.3 Determination of mean impact range ................................................................................................... 29

B.4 Arithmetic mean of upwind concentration ......................................................................................... 31

B.5 Determination of receptor-oriented plant impact ........................................................................... 31

B.6 Assessment of a potential plant-related impact ................................................................................ 31

B.7 Sensitive receptor and determination of peak concentration ..................................................... 32

B.8 Example calculation ..................................................................................................................................... 32

B.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 32

B.8.2 Fan measurement ......................................................................................................................................... 33

B.8.3 Central traverse measurement ................................................................................................................ 35

B.8.4 Comparison of results of both methods ................................................................................................ 36

B.9 Software ........................................................................................................................................................... 36

B.9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 36

B.9.2 Application instructions ............................................................................................................................. 37

Annex C (informative) Minimum requirements for plume measurements ......................................... 38

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 38

C.2 Minimum requirements for the determination of the spatial concentration

distribution ..................................................................................................................................................... 38

C.3 Minimum requirements for the determination of the median to calculate the mean

impact range ................................................................................................................................................... 38

C.4 Minimum requirements for the determination of the 96th percentile concentration ....... 38

C.5 Minimum requirements for the determination of the arithmetic mean .................................. 39

Annex D (informative) Documentation of measurement preparation (measurement plan) ........ 40

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 41

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16115-2:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

CEN/TS 16115 consists of several parts dealing with the determination of bioaerosols in ambient air:

— Part 1: Determination of moulds using filter sampling systems and culture-based analyses;

— Part 2: Planning and evaluation of plant-related plume measurements.

The basic requirements of the determination of bioaerosols are first published as Technical

Specifications. The precision and the performance characteristics of bioaerosol measurements should

be determined in comparison and validation trials in order to validate the method(s). Based on the

validation results the Technical Specifications can be transferred to European Standards. For this

purpose it is intended to apply for mandated support by the European Commission and the European

Free Trade Association using the Technical Specifications as a basis for validation measurements.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

Airborne particles of biological origin are called bioaerosols. Natural and anthropogenic sources for

bioaerosols are widely distributed in the environment. Anthropogenic sources can for example be

agriculture or waste treatment activities.

The purpose the measurement planning here described is to determine the mean plant- and/or source-

related impact range of microbial air pollutants. As it has so far not been possible to set limit values

based on dose-response relationships, the mean impact range is to be used as a criterion for assessing

the environmental impact of a plant.

The scale of work for the plume measurements here described is necessary to obtain statistically

representative data about the impact range of the plant and/or source, taking into account the great

variety of influencing factors. Whilst a reduced measurement effort is possible in principle, this will lead

to an increased measurement uncertainty.

The objective of measurement planning is to analyse a given measurement problem and derive the

associated requirements for organization, the measurement method, the sampling strategy, the

evaluation of the measured data, quality assurance and reporting.

The requirements set out in this technical specification are to ensure that plant-related ambient air

measurements of microbial air pollution are planned in such a way as to enable a given task to be

processed with sufficient accuracy and at justifiable cost. The aim is to ensure that the measured data

obtained meet the applicable standards for representativeness and hence, enable maximum possible

comparability.
The procedure described in this document is based on VDI 4251 Part 1 [1].
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1 Scope

This document describes the general requirements to be taken into account in planning and

implementing plant-related plume measurements of microbial air pollutants. A basic principle of this

method is to compare the concentrations in air unaffected by the activities of the plant (i.e. background

air sampled upwind of the plant) with the concentration of bioaerosols in air downwind of the plant. It

is this comparison that allows an assessment of the plant-related contribution and the mean spatial

impact range to be made. As it has so far not been possible to set limit values based on dose-response

relationships, the mean impact range is to be used as a first criterion for assessing the environmental

impact of a plant.

The scale of work for the plume measurements described is necessary to obtain statistically

representative data about the impact range of the plant and/or source, taking into account the great

variety of influencing factors.

Plant-related measurements of bioaerosol concentrations in ambient air may be required in a number

of regulatory situations. Examples of typical measurement objectives and indicative application

scenarios are presented in the document. This method specifies the simultaneous measurement of

background and downwind air quality to reduce the risk of invalid comparisons resulting from

changing background air concentrations. Another important principle of this method is the requirement

for repeated measures to take into account day to day and seasonal variations in the processes

governing bioaerosol emissions and dispersion.

The objective is to analyse a given measurement problem and derive the associated requirements for

organization, the measurement method, the sampling strategy, the evaluation of the measured data,

quality assurance and reporting.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

CEN/TS 16115-1, Ambient air quality - Measurement of bioaerosols - Part 1: Determination of moulds

using filter sampling systems and culture-based analyses

EN ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

(ISO/IEC 17025)

EN 13098:2000, Workplace atmosphere - Guidelines for measurement of airborne micro-organisms and

endotoxin
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
additional impact

contribution of the plant under study to the ambient air pollution at a receptor point

3.2
area source

emitting area of a relevant size, normally horizontally orientated; area sources are distinguished into

sources with a defined volumetric flow rate (e.g. biofilter, aerated composting windrow) and sources

without defined volumetric flow rate (e.g. landfills, agricultural land)
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3.3
bioaerosol
airborne particles of biological origin
[SOURCE: EN 13098, 3.3, modified]

Note to entry 1: The term bioaerosols as used in this standard designates all airborne accumulations of particles

carrying, containing or forming fungi (spores, conidia, hyphal fragments), bacteria, viruses and/or pollen as well

as their cell wall components and associated metabolites (e.g. endotoxins, mycotoxins) ([5]; [6]).

3.4
concentration

as defined in this standard denotes the number of microorganisms in concentration of bioaerosol

expressed in the according units e.g. in colony forming units (CFU) per unit volume or Endotoxin units

(EU) per volume
3.5
emission

microbial air pollution emanating from the plant under review; the emission is determined at the point

of transition of the bioaerosols from the emission source to the atmosphere; the result of an emission

measurement is the bioaerosol flow calculated as the product of the concentration and the volumetric

flow rate; emission concentrations of bioaerosols are indicated in CFU/m , emission mass flows in

CFU/h, for instance; the bioaerosol flow is also used as a basis for estimating the geometric centroid of a

source or source system of a plant or for impact forecasts
3.6
extended source

emission source of a spatial structure consisting of a number of individual sources (e.g. Figure 2)

3.7
impact range
distance at which a plant impact can still be detected

Note to entry 1: The plant- or source-related measurement parameter-specific mean impact range described here

designates the distance from the source at which the ambient air concentration of a measurement parameter has

declined to the level of the upwind concentration. The “mean impact range” is determined with the aid of an

exponential depletion curve as described in Annex B.
3.8
indicator organism

microorganisms that are characteristic of the emission of a plant and can be detected by currently

available sampling and analysis methods. Indicator organisms that are characteristic of a defined source

(process) may also be present – usually in small concentrations – in the ambient air outside the zone of

influence of this source; this is due to the ubiquitous nature of many microorganisms

3.9
measurement parameter

constituent of the ambient air for which a defined measured quantity is to be determined; in the present

case, the microbial air pollutant of interest, e.g. bacteria, moulds
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3.10
measurement strategy

methodology applied for the spatial and temporal sampling of air pollutants in order to obtain valid

(representative) random samples in terms of the task at hand; the measurement strategy mainly

comprises the definition of the measurement area, sampling locations, measurement parameters, time

of measurement and the sampling frequency and duration; secondary factors influencing the selection

of the measurement strategy include, for instance, the meteorological conditions, sampling equipment,

resource intensity for the necessary analyses and evaluation; moreover, tertiary influencing factors

such as unfavourable conditions during frost events may have to be considered
3.11
mesophilic

property of microorganisms which depend on a temperature of between 20 °C and 45 °C for optimum

growth and reproduction
3.12
microbial air pollutant

concentration of airborne microorganism which are not naturally present in the respective species

distribution and/or respective quantities in the ambient air at the given location and time

3.13
microorganism

any microbiological entity, cellular or non-cellular, capable of replication or of transferring genetic

material, or entities that have lost these properties
[SOURCE: EN 13098, 3.16, modified)
3.14
moulds

filamentous fungi of the taxonomic classes zygomycetes, ascomycetes and deuteromycetes (fungi

imperfecti) producing a mycelium and spores so that they become macroscopically visible as a

(frequently coloured) mould layer
Note to entry 1: Taxonomically, moulds do not represent a uniform class.

Note to entry 2: The various groups of filamentous fungi form conidia (deuteromycetes) or sporangiospores

(zygomycetes) and, more rarely, ascospores (ascomycetes). In practice, all these reproductive stages are

subsumed under the term “spores”.
3.15
point source

emission source occupying a small “point-shaped” area and having a concentrated output. Point sources

are classified into sources with a defined volumetric flow rate (e.g. exhaust air stack) and sources

without defined volumetric flow rate (e.g. building openings)

) The psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic temperature regions do not have clear cut-off points and are

differently defined in the literature.
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3.16
psychrophilic

property of microorganisms which depend on a maximum temperature of around 20 °C for optimum

growth and reproduction
3.17
sampling location
local point within a defined measurement area at which sampling is performed
3.18
sensitive receptors

humans, animals and plants, soil, water, cultural and other assets as well as the atmosphere itself that

may be exposed to harmful environmental impacts caused by air pollution
3.19
tenacity

resistance to chemical and physical environmental influences (temperature, chemicals, radiation, open

air factors, etc.)
3.20
thermophilic

property of microorganisms which depend on a temperature of above 45 °C to about 80 °C for optimum

growth and reproduction

Note to entry 1: Temperature optimum for hyperthermophilic species: above 80 °C; for extremely thermophilic

species: 70 °C to 80 °C; for strictly thermophilic species: above 60 °C, for thermotolerant species: below 45 °C

(growth above 45 °C possible).
3.21
upwind concentration

by convention, the upwind concentration (Luv) in terms of this standard is determined by a

concentration measurement at a sufficient distance upwind of the plant performed simultaneously with

the downwind (Lee) ambient air measurements; any direct influences of other plants on the measured

upwind concentration shall be minimized
3.22
downwind concentration

by convention, the downwind concentration in terms of this standard is determined by concentration

measurements at distances downwind of the plant performed simultaneously with the upwind ambient

air measurements
4 Key principles of sampling and assessment

A variety of industrial (e.g. waste management) and agricultural (e.g. animal production) activities are

known to generate bioaerosols and release them into ambient air (Annex A). This document describes a

method for determining the contribution made by such activities to the concentration of bioaerosols in

ambient air.

) The psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic temperature regions do not have clear cut-off points and are

differently defined in the literature.

) The psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic temperature regions do not have clear cut-off points and are

differently defined in the literature.
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Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in ambient air. They are generated naturally (e.g. as a result of the air-borne

dissemination of fungal spores) and anthropogenically. A basic principle of this method is to compare

the concentration of bioaerosols in air unaffected by the activities of the plant (i.e. background air

sampled upwind of the plant) with the concentration of bioaerosols in air downwind of the bioaerosol

emission source of interest (the plant). It is this comparison that allows an assessment of the plant-

related contribution to be made.

Concentrations of bioaerosols in upwind and downwind air of an emission source are both subject to

temporal variation (see Clause 12). The rate of bioaerosol emissions from natural and anthropogenic

sources may vary diurnally or seasonally depending upon the source and the controlling factors

involved. Further temporal variation in air quality may be influenced by the prevailing meteorological

conditions which can influence the dispersion characteristics and viability/culturability of bioaerosols.

This method specifies the simultaneous measurement of upwind concentration and downwind air

quality to reduce the risk of invalid comparisons resulting from changing upwind concentration air

concentrations. Another important principle of this method is the requirement for repeated measures

to take into account day to day and seasonal variations in the processes governing bioaerosol emissions

and dispersion. In essence, the validity of the assessment of the plant-related contribution is enhanced

as the number of measurement days increases.

Spatial variation (see Clause 11) in the concentrations of bioaerosols in air is potentially a significant

factor influencing our ability to determine the impact of the bioaerosol emission source of interest (the

plant) on ambient air quality. Localized differences in air quality are driven by a number of factors

including: the spatial arrangement of sources of bioaerosol emissions; changes in wind direction and

meteorological conditions affecting dispersion; topographical features affecting dispersion; and

environmental factors influencing microbiological die-off processes [2]. The method described in this

document seeks to characterize and account for spatial variability in several ways. In simple terms, the

bioaerosol concentration is normally expected to decline with distance downwind from source (as a

result of dispersion, deposition and die-off processes), ultimately returning to a value approximating

the upwind value. This pattern can be characterized by sampling u
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