Ambient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection - Part 1: Grid method

This part of the European Standard describes the grid method for the determination of the level of odour exposure in ambient air. It provides a set of instructions for measurement of ambient odour exposure within a defined assessment area, using qualified human panel members, over a sufficiently long period of time to be representative for the meteorological conditions of that location, and hence determine the distribution of the frequency of exposure to odours within the assessment area. The sources of the odorant under study may be located within or outside the assessment area.
The primary application of this European Standard is to provide a common basis for evaluation of exposure to ambient odours in the member states of the European Union. The field of application of this type of measurement is to characterize the level of odour exposure within the study area, in order to assess whether the impact of that exposure on resident population could be a justified cause for annoyance, using exposure criteria. The unit of measurement of the method is the frequency of odour hours for an assessment square, defined by four measurement points as a representative value for odour exposure for local conditions, e.g. local odour sources and the meteorology of that location.
This European Standard does not include:
-   the measurement of intensity of ambient odours,
-   the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours,
-   the calculation of odour exposure in specific weather conditions in order to determine the frequency distribution of recognizable odour in an odorant plume,
-   the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling.
An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A, including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according to EN 13725.

Außenluft - Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen - Teil 1: Rastermessung

Dieser Teil der Europäischen Norm beschreibt die Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen mittels Rastermessung. Er stellt Anleitungen zur Messung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen innerhalb eines festgelegten Beurteilungsgebiets unter Einsatz qualifizierter menschlicher Prüfer über einen hinreichend langen Zeitraum zur Verfügung, um repräsentativ für die meteorologischen Verhältnisse an diesem Ort zu sein und folglich die Verteilung der Geruchsimmissionshäufigkeiten innerhalb des Beurteilungsgebietes zu bestimmen. Die Quellen der zu untersuchenden Geruchsstoffe können sich innerhalb oder außerhalb des Beurteilungsgebietes befinden.
Das Hauptziel dieser Norm ist die Schaffung einer gemeinsamen Grundlage zur Bewertung der Geruchsbelastung in den Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union. Der Anwendungsbereich dieser Art der Messung ist die Charakterisierung der Geruchsbelastung innerhalb des Untersuchungsgebietes, um unter Anwendung von expositionsbezogenen Kriterien zu beurteilen, ob die Auswirkung dieser Exposition auf die Wohnbevölkerung ein berechtigter Grund für eine Geruchsbelästigung sein könnte. Die Maßeinheit des Verfahrens ist die Häufigkeit von Geruchsstunden für eine Beurteilungsfläche, festgelegt durch vier Messpunkte, als repräsentativer Wert für die Geruchsbelastung bei den örtlichen Gegebenheiten, z. B. den örtlichen Geruchsquellen und der Meteorologie an diesem Ort.
Diese Europäische Norm umfasst nicht:
-   die Messung der Intensität von Geruchsstoffimmissionen;
-   die Messung der Hedonik von Geruchsstoffimmissionen;
-   die Berechnung der Geruchsbelastung bei bestimmten Wetterbedingungen zur Bestimmung der Häufigkeitsverteilung von erkennbarem Geruch in einer Geruchsfahne;
-   die Ermittlung der Quellstärke auf Basis von Geruchsfahnen unter Anwendung einer Rückrechnung mithilfe der Ausbreitungsmodellierung.
Ein Überblick über die Wechselbeziehung zwischen bestehenden Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Geruchsbelastung ist in Anhang A angeführt, einschließlich der Rastermessung (Teil 1), der Fahnenmessung (Teil 2) und der Olfaktometrie nach EN 13725.

Air ambiant - Détermination de la présence d'odeurs par mesures de terrain - Partie 1 : Méthode de la grille

LLa présente partie de la Norme européenne décrit la méthode de grille permettant de déterminer le niveau d'exposition à l'odeur dans l'air ambiant. Elle fournit un ensemble d'instructions pour mesurer l'exposition aux odeurs ambiantes dans une zone d'évaluation définie, en utilisant les membres qualifiés d'un jury humain, sur une période suffisamment longue pour être représentative des conditions météorologiques du lieu, et permettant donc de déterminer la distribution statistique d'exposition aux odeurs dans la zone d'évaluation. Les sources des substances odorantes étudiées peuvent être situées à l'intérieur ou à l'extérieur de la zone d'évaluation.
La principale application de la présente Norme européenne est de fournir une base commune pour l'évaluation de l'exposition aux odeurs ambiantes dans les États membres de l'Union européenne. Le champ d'application de ce type de mesure est la caractérisation du niveau d'exposition aux odeurs dans la zone d'étude, afin d'évaluer si l'impact de cette exposition sur la population résidente pourrait être une cause justifiée de nuisance, en utilisant des critères d'exposition. L'unité de mesure de la méthode est la fréquence d'heures odorantes pour un carré d'évaluation, définie par quatre points de mesure comme une valeur représentative de l'exposition aux odeurs dans les conditions locales, par exemple sources d'odeur locales et météorologie du lieu considéré.
La présente Norme européenne ne couvre pas :
   la mesure de l'intensité des odeurs ambiantes ;
   la mesure de la qualité hédonique des odeurs ambiantes ;
   le calcul de l'exposition aux odeurs dans des conditions météorologiques spécifiques afin de déterminer la distribution statistique d'une odeur identifiable dans un panache odorant ;
   le calcul du débit d'émission estimé de la source à partir d'une évaluation du panache en utilisant une modélisation de dispersion inverse.
Un aperçu de l'interaction entre les méthodes existantes d'évaluation de l'exposition aux odeurs est donné à l'Annexe A, ces méthodes comprenant la méthode de grille (Partie 1), la méthode du panache (Partie 2) et l'olfactométrie selon l'EN 13725.

Zunanji zrak - Določevanje vonja v zunanjem zraku s terenskim pregledom - 1. del: Rastrska metoda

Ta evropski standard opisuje rastrsko metodo za določanje ravni izpostavljenosti vonju v okolici na določenem področju študije z neposrednim terenskim opazovanjem vonjev, ki jih prepoznajo ljudje. Določa nabor navodil za merjenje izpostavljenosti vonju v okoliškem zraku znotraj določenega območja ocenjevanja s pomočjo usposobljenih oseb in v dovolj dolgem časovnem obdobju, da so rezultati reprezentativni za meteorološke razmere na tej lokaciji (ali v izjemnih primerih ustrezen nabor meteoroloških pogojev) in s tem določa porazdelitev pogostosti izpostavljenosti vonjem na območju ocenjevanja. Viri obravnavanega vonja se lahko nahajajo znotraj ali zunaj območja ocenjevanja. Glavni namen tega standarda je zagotoviti skupno podlago za oceno izpostavljenosti vonju v okoliškem zraku v državah članicah Evropske unije. Področje uporabe te vrste meritev je pogostost ur, ko je prisoten vonj v kvadratu ocenjevanja, ki ga določajo štiri merilne točke, kot reprezentativna vrednost za izpostavljenost vonju pri lokalnih pogojih, npr. lokalni viri vonja in meteorologija tega območja. Ta evropski standard ne zajema: – meritve intenzivnosti vonja v okoliškem zraku; – meritve hedonskega tona vonja v okoliškem zraku; – izračuna izpostavljenosti vonju pri določenih vremenskih pogojih za določitev razporeditve pogostosti izpostavljenosti vonju v oblaku izpustov; – izračun ocenjene stopnje emisij na podlagi ocene izpustov z metodo reverznega disperznega modeliranja. Pregled obstoječih metod ocenjevanja izpostavljenosti vonju je podan v dodatku A, vključno z rastrsko metodo (del 1), metodo z izpustom (del 2) in olfaktometrijo v skladu s standardom EN 13725.

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Außenluft - Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen - Teil 1: RastermessungAir ambiant - Détermination de l'exposition aux odeurs par mesures de terrain - Partie 1 : Méthode de la grilleAmbient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection - Part 1: Grid method13.040.20Kakovost okoljskega zrakaAmbient atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16841-1:2016SIST EN 16841-1:2017en,fr,de01-julij-2017SIST EN 16841-1:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16841-1:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16841-1
November
t r s x ICS
s uä r v rä t r English Version

Ambient air æ Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection æ Part

sã Grid method Air ambiant æ Dßtermination de la prßsence d 5odeurs par mesures de terrain æ Partie

s ã Mßthode de la grille Außenluft æ Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen æ Teil

sã Rastermessung This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s r September
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x z v sæ sã t r s x ESIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5 4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 9 5 Principle of measurement ........................................................................................................................ 10 6 Coordinator, assessors and panel members ...................................................................................... 14 6.1 Measurement leader and field observations coordinator ............................................................ 14 6.2 Assessors and panel members ................................................................................................................ 14 6.3 Panel instruction .......................................................................................................................................... 15 7 Planning of measurements and measurement procedure ............................................................ 16 7.1 Health and safety .......................................................................................................................................... 16 7.2 Planning and performance of the field survey .................................................................................. 16 8 Data recording and calculation ............................................................................................................... 25 8.1 Data recording and calculating the percentage odour time ......................................................... 25 8.2 Criterion for positive single measurement (odour hour) ............................................................. 25 8.3 Calculation of the odour hour frequency ............................................................................................. 25 9 Measurement uncertainty ........................................................................................................................ 27 9.1 General aspects ............................................................................................................................................. 27 9.2 Calculation of the uncertainty of the odour hour frequency in an assessment square ...... 28 10 Reporting of results ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Annex A (informative)

Overview and interaction of existing odour measurement methods ....... 31 Annex B (informative)

Training of assessors and instructions prior to grid measurements ....... 32 Annex C (informative)

Examples for instructions and sheets .................................................................. 35 Annex D (informative)

Example of the planning and evaluation of a grid measurement .............. 38 Annex E (informative)

Example for check of temporal representativeness ........................................ 43 Annex F (informative)

Example for check of spatial meteorological representativeness.............. 45 Annex G (informative)

Evaluation of odour hours and odour frequencies per assessment square ............................................................................................................................................................... 47 Annex H (informative)

Calculation of the uncertainty of a grid measurement .................................. 51 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 57

SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16841-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. EN 16841, Ambient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection consists of the following parts: — Part 1: Grid method — Part 2: Plume method According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 4 Introduction Part 1 (grid method) and Part 2 (plume method) of this European Standard describe methods for direct assessment of odours in ambient air. This European Standard supplements the dynamic olfactometry method described in EN 13725 which is generally only suitable for measurement of odour emissions at source. As the practical lower detection limit is typically

10 ouE/m3, EN 13725 cannot be applied to directly determine odour exposure in the field (i.e. measure faint odours at the concentration where they can just be recognized). The methods for measuring odour presented in this European Standard make direct use of odour perception, the effect of odorants on the human sense of smell. The standard involves the use of qualified human panel members in the field to directly assess the presence of recognizable odour in ambient air, and provide data that can be used to characterize odour exposure in a defined assessment area. The standard presents two key approaches summarized as follows: — Part 1 (presented in this document) describes a grid method which uses direct assessment of ambient air by panel members to characterize odour exposure in a defined assessment area. — Part 2 describes a plume method to characterize the presence of odour by determining the extent of the downwind odour plume of a source. Although the ultimate application of this method is in monitoring the risk of exposure to odours and the resulting odour annoyance, there is no direct relation between the presence of recognizable odours and the occurrence of odour annoyance. The process leading to odour annoyance being experienced by an individual or a community is highly complex. Additional investigations are necessary to establish a link between odour exposure and the risk of odour annoyance, which is profoundly influenced by odour exposure frequency, by the type and hedonic tone of the odour perceived, and by the characteristics of those exposed to the odour (the receptor). The relationship between odour exposure and annoyance is not within the scope of this European Standard. The sensory methods described here are only suitable for the assessment of odour in ambient air. They are not suitable for the assessment of substances that cannot be detected by sensory methods, in particular when these substances may cause health effects not directly related to their perceived smell. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 5 1 Scope This part of the European Standard describes the grid method for the determination of the level of odour exposure in ambient air. It provides a set of instructions for measurement of ambient odour exposure within a defined assessment area, using qualified human panel members, over a sufficiently long period of time to be representative for the meteorological conditions of that location, and hence determine the distribution of the frequency of exposure to odours within the assessment area. The sources of the odorant under study may be located within or outside the assessment area. The primary application of this European Standard is to provide a common basis for evaluation of exposure to ambient odours in the member states of the European Union. The field of application of this type of measurement is to characterize the level of odour exposure within the study area, in order to assess whether the impact of that exposure on resident population could be a justified cause for annoyance, using exposure criteria. The unit of measurement of the method is the frequency of odour hours for an assessment square, defined by four measurement points as a representative value for odour exposure for local conditions, e.g. local odour sources and the meteorology of that location. This European Standard does not include: — the measurement of intensity of ambient odours, — the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours, — the calculation of odour exposure in specific weather conditions in order to determine the frequency distribution of recognizable odour in an odorant plume, — the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling. An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A, including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according to EN 13725. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13725:2003, Air quality - Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 assessment area area which covers all assessment squares of a grid Note 1 to entry: The size and shape depend on the objective of the assessment and on the number and type of odorant sources that have an influence on the odour exposure in the area of study. 3.2 assessment square element of the assessment area, defined by four adjoining measurement points on the grid Note 1 to entry: Assessment squares are only necessary at locations where an odour assessment is required. These are generally residential areas or stand-alone houses. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 6 3.3 assessor somebody who participates in odour testing [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.5] 3.4 field inspection measuring odours in ambient air using panel members 3.5 field observations coordinator individual responsible for the correct execution of the field measurement procedure 3.6 field survey total of single measurements required to characterize an exposure level in an assessment area affected by one or more sources or emitting installations 3.7 grid all assessment squares of the assessment area 3.8 hedonic tone (of an odour) degree to which an odour is perceived as pleasant or unpleasant 3.9 measurement duration time required to conduct a single measurement Note 1 to entry: The measurement duration for a single measurement is 10 min. 3.10 measurement leader individual responsible for the quality assurance of the measurement Note 1 to entry: The measurement leader can be the same person as the field observations coordinator. 3.11 measurement point location where single measurements are carried out Note 1 to entry: Measurements points are only necessary at locations where an odour assessment is required. These are generally residential areas or stand-alone houses. 3.12 measurement round measurement points to be inspected by one panel member during one measurement day constitute a measurement round SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 7 3.13 observation assessment of the presence or absence of recognizable odour during a single measurement once. One single measurement consists of 60 observations Note 1 to entry: A positive observation is given when a recognizable odour is detected. 3.14 odorant substance whose volatiles can be perceived by the olfactory organ (including nerves) [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 1.35] 3.15 odour sensation perceived by means of the olfactory organ in sniffing certain volatile substances [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 3.18] 3.16 odour detection to become aware of the sensation resulting from adequate stimulation of the olfactory system [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.47] 3.17 odour exposure contact of a human with a defined recognizable odour type, quantified as the amount of odorant(s) available for inhalation at any particular moment Note 1 to entry: As odours have no effect below the detection limit of the human subject, exposure to recognizable odours may be characterized as the frequency of occurrence of concentrations above a certain odorant concentration (the recognition limit). 3.18 odour exposure indicator characteristic of the environment assessed to provide evidence of the occurrence and/or magnitude of human exposure to a specific odour type Note 1 to entry: It is related to assessment squares and given by the odour hour frequency. 3.19 odour hour odour hour is obtained by a single measurement when the percentage odour time reaches or exceeds 10 % by convention Note 1 to entry: A test result of one single measurement can be positive for more than one distinct odour types. 3.20 odour hour frequency ratio of positive test results (number of odour hours) to the total number of test results for an assessment square (or in special cases for a measurement point) SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 8 3.21 intensity magnitude of the perceived sensation [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 2.8] 3.22 intensity magnitude of the stimulus causing the perceived sensation [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 2.9] 3.23 odour recognition (in ambient air) odour sensation in ambient air that allows positive identification of the odour type 3.24 odour type odour that can be recognized and assigned to a certain installation or source Note 1 to entry: Odour types are defined specifically for one survey. One installation can emit more than one odour type. Several installations can emit the same odour type 3.25 olfactory pertaining to the sense of smell [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.54] 3.26 panel group of panel members [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.59] 3.27 panel member assessor who is qualified to perform field inspections according to subclause 6.2 of this standard 3.28 panel selection procedure to determine which assessors are qualified as panel members [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.62] 3.29 percentage odour time fraction, expressed as a percentage, of positive observations for one or more odour types made for one single measurement Note 1 to entry: One single measurement consists of 60 observations. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 9 3.30 quality assurance all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product, process or service will satisfy given requirements for quality 3.31 single measurement procedure to obtain recorded observations at a given moment at a given measurement point necessary to determine absence or presence of recognizable odour Note 1 to entry: One single measurement results in the test result ‘odour hour’ or ‘non-odour hour’. 3.32 survey duration time (six or twelve months) over which all single measurements are carried out 3.33 survey scale number of single measurements (52 or 104) conducted during the survey duration 3.34 test result value of a characteristic obtained by completely carrying out a specific measurement, once [SOURCE: ISO 5725-1:1994, 3.2, modified] Note 1 to entry: In this standard a positive test result is an odour hour obtained by a single measurement. 4 Symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply. Fod,rel,A,i Odour exposure indicator as the relative odour hour frequency per assessment square, specified according to odour type Fod Odour exposure indicator as the percentage of the odour hour frequency per assessment square of odour hours, specified according to odour type L+ Number of positive observations per single measurement nA Number of odour hours per assessment square nA,i Number of odour hours per assessment square, specified according to odour type i nMP Number of odour hours per measurement point N Survey scale (number of measurements per assessment square) Pod Percentage odour time Indices

SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 10 xA Running index of assessment squares xi Running index of surveyed odour type xlimit Limit value xlo Lower limit xMP Measurement point xod Odour xrel Relative frequency xup Upper limit 5 Principle of measurement The grid method is a statistical survey method which is applied over a sufficiently long period of time, to provide a representative map of the exposure to recognizable odour, spatially distributed over the assessment area. These grid measurements are used to determine the distribution of the odour hour frequency for recognizable odours in ambient air in an assessment area under meteorological conditions that are assumed to be representative for the local meteorology (e.g. the last ten years). The odour hour frequency is an odour exposure indicator, and can be used to assess the exposure to recognizable odour originating from one or many specific odorant source(s) emitting in a particular area of study. The odour hour frequency is determined for one or more assessment squares, configured as a grid of measurement points. An example is given in Figure 1. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 11

Figure 1 — Example for an assessment area in the surrounding of an odorant source with assessment squares and measurement points The odour hour frequency for an assessment square is determined by making repeated single measurements by human panel members at the measurement points that define the corners of the assessment square. Each measurement point is measured repeatedly, for example 26 times at regular intervals over a one-year field survey duration. One single measurement results in the test result ‘odour hour’ or ‘non-odour hour’. By summing up the total number of odour hour test results for the four points defining an assessment square, divided by the total number of single measurements conducted at these four measurement points, the odour hour frequency for the assessment square is calculated. This principle is shown in schematic form in Figure 2.

Figure 2 — Schematic representation of the calculation of the odour hour frequency for an assessment square from the combined results obtained for the measurement points at the corners SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 12 One single measurement is conducted to determine whether the test result is an ‘odour hour’ or not. The measurement is conducted by having a human panel member inhale ambient air and smell its odour at 10 s timed intervals, for a total measurement duration of 10 min. In this way 60 individual observations are obtained. Each observation provides an indication of: — the presence or absence of odour and, — if an odour is recognized, the odour type. If a particular odour type reaches or exceeds a percentage odour time of 10 % (i.e. the presence of odour is detected in six or more out of 60 observations), the result is classified as ‘odour hour’. This implies that in theory the measurement can result in an ‘odour hour’ for more than one odour type, although this is rare. The limit of six positive observations to determine the ‘odour hour’ classification is set by convention. This provides a map of exposure to a recognizable odour, expressed as odour hour frequency, for a grid of assessment squares. A typical representation of the result for the assessments squares is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 — Example of results of a grid measurement: odour exposure expressed as odour hour frequency in % The measurements are planned in such a way that in each measurement round only one measurement point of each assessment square is measured. The points are rotated so that after four measurement rounds, all measurement points of an assessment square are covered. The measurements are planned so that the single measurements are distributed evenly over the survey duration, at almost regular intervals. To ensure that the odour hour frequency map obtained is representative of the typical meteorological conditions at the location (see 7.2.7), the meteorological conditions for the survey duration are compared to a five to ten year period as recorded at a suitable meteorological station. The typical survey duration is one year. The meteorological observations obtained for the chosen months have to be comparable with the average conditions over a five to ten year period at a suitable SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 13 meteorological station. This is to ensure that the dispersion conditions in the survey duration are representative of the entire year especially if a shorter period of the year is surveyed. Possible fluctuations or patterns in source emission rates also have to be considered in the measurement planning if possible and/or in the interpretation of the obtained odour exposure. During the survey duration a dedicated meteorological station is used to record local wind direction and wind speed, which is used to verify the plausibility of the test results at the measurement points. NOTE 1 In some countries grid measurements are used to assess compliance with air quality criteria for the odour exposure indicator 'odour hour frequency'. This odour exposure indicator can also be used for planning purposes. NOTE 2 The objective of grid measurements is to measure the odour hour frequency as an odour exposure indicator, but annoyance of residents is not measured. The number of single measurements per assessment square (sample size) is relatively small in a temporal sense but has been demonstrated to be sufficient to map the influence of locally important meteorological factors on the distribution of the odour hour frequency. The results of grid measurements can therefore be used as a reasonable and representative environmental indicator for nuisance potential. The most important meteorological factors driving dispersion are wind direction, wind speed and atmospheric turbulence/stability. NOTE 3 If there are situations where particular meteorological or emission conditions occur relatively infrequently or where particular meteorological conditions are causing unforeseen annoyance reactions, special consideration should be given to the question whether the result of odour hour frequency obtained is a good and representative environmental indicator for nuisance potential. Some examples of situations where an expert assessment of representativeness would be required are as follows: a) When regular wind patterns during the day exist, as can be the case in coastal land sea breezes, the situation can arise that a particular location is exposed predictably and with higher probability at a certain time of the day (typically in the early morning or evening, when the wind direction reverses). These exposure events are therefore more likely to correlate with periods when people return home from work and would like to enjoy leisure time. The exposure indicator 'odour hour frequency' may therefore underestimate the potential for nuisance impact on residents at that location in that case. b) If a source produces short-term peaks in odorant emissions at a particular time of the day (for example because of loading/unloading or cleaning operations), this may lead to a significantly higher odour exposure that occurs only during that limited period of the day at specific locations. It is therefore possible that the odour hour frequency measured by the grid method will not include these events and hence the method will provide an unreliable indication of nuisance potential at that location. If such short-term peaks are known in advance they can be covered by additional measurements (e.g. plume measurements (see Part 2), instrumental measurements of relevant compounds). c) Under defined terrain and meteorological conditions, ‘cold air’ flows could occur in the field. It is known that cold air flows may transport odorant emissions over relatively long distances without significant dilution. If these cold air flows occur infrequently, it is possible that they will not be captured by the odour hour frequency measured by the grid method and hence the method will provide an unreliable indication of nuisance potential at that location. If it is known in advance that cold air flows will occur they can be covered by additional measurements (e.g. plume measurements (see Part 2), instrumental measurements of relevant compounds). d) In very special cases, odour problems could occur if an odour type well-known to the public is replaced by a new odour type because of a change of use of an installation or building. If this new odour type is subjectively associated by the public with stronger impacts it could happen that the annoyance degree increases without an increase of the measured odour exposure. SIST EN 16841-1:2017

EN 16841-1:2016 (E) 14 6 Coordinator, assessors and panel members 6.1 Measurement leader and field observations coordinator The measurements shall be conducted under the responsibility of a measurement leader, who is responsible for the quality assurance. The measurement leader shall have experience with conducting field surveys and detailed knowledge of the contents of this standard. The measurement leader is responsible for the planning of the field inspections, and ensuring that all related measurements are conducted according to this standard. The measurement leader shall also ensure that the measurements and their results are recorded according to the requirements of this standard. A field observations coordinator shall be responsible for correct execution and all practical aspects of the field inspections, including: — instructing the panel members (see 6.3), — organizing a general instruction with all panel members on site (see 6.3), — surveying and defining the assessment area, — maintaining health and safety precautions (see 7.1), — maintaining and checking the data record sheets for completeness and plausibility, — recording source emission characteristics, if accessible. The field observations coordinator can be the same person as the measurement leader. The field observations coordinator or measurement leader can also participate as a panel member. The measurement leader or other suitably qualified personal shall check the records of the single measurements and their plausibility (according to 7.2). If there are any indicati

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