Ambient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection - Part 2: Plume method

This part of the European Standard describes the plume method for determining the extent of recognizable odours from a specific source using direct observation in the field by human panel members under specific meteorological conditions.
The plume method involves the determination of the presence or absence (YES/NO) of recognizable odours in and around the plume originating from a specific odorant emission source, for a specific emission situation and under specific meteorological conditions (specific wind direction, wind speed and boundary layer turbulence). The unit of measurement is the presence or absence of recognizable odours at a particular location downwind of a source. The extent of the plume is assessed as the transition of absence to presence of recognizable odour.
The primary application of this standard is to provide a common basis for the determination of the odour plume extent in the member states of the European Union.
The results are typically used to determine a plausible extent of potential exposure to recognizable odours, or to estimate the total emission rate based on the plume extent, using reverse dispersion modelling.
The field of application of this European Standard includes the determination of the extent of the recognizable odour plume downwind from a source, under specific meteorological conditions (e.g. wind direction, wind speed, turbulence, etc. (see 7.3.2).
This European Standard does not include:
-   the measurement of intensity of ambient odours;
-   the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours;
-   the measurement of the odour exposure in ambient air over a longer time period in an assessment area;
-   the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling.
An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according EN 13725.

Außenluft - Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen - Teil 2: Fahnenmessung

DDieser Teil der Europäischen Norm beschreibt die Methode der Fahnenmessung zur Bestimmung der Ausdehnung von erkennbaren Gerüchen von einer bestimmten Quelle, unter Anwendung der direkten Beurteilung im Feld durch menschliche Prüfer unter speziellen meteorologischen Bedingungen.
Die Fahnenmessung umfasst die Bestimmung des Vorhandenseins oder Nichtvorhandenseins (JA/NEIN) von erkennbaren Gerüchen einer bestimmten Geruchsemissionsquelle am Rand der Fahne für eine bestimmte Emissionssituation unter speziellen meteorologischen Bedingungen (bestimmte Windrichtung, Windgeschwindigkeit und Grenzschichtturbulenz). Die Maßeinheit ist das Vorhandensein oder Nichtvorhandensein von erkennbaren Gerüchen an einem bestimmten Ort in Lee einer Quelle. Die Ausdehnung der Fahne wird anhand des Übergangs von Nichtvorhandensein zu Vorhandensein von erkennbarem Geruch bestimmt.
Die hauptsächliche Anwendung dieser Norm ist die Schaffung einer gemeinsamen Grundlage zur Bestimmung der Fahnenausdehnung in Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union.
Die Ergebnisse werden üblicherweise zur Bestimmung eines plausiblen Ausmaßes der möglichen Geruchsbelastung oder zur Schätzung der Gesamtemissionsrate auf der Grundlage der Fahnenausdehnung unter Anwendung einer Rückrechnung mithilfe der Ausbreitungsmodellierung genutzt.
Der Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm umfasst die Bestimmung der Ausdehnung einer erkennbaren Geruchsfahne in Lee einer Quelle unter speziellen meteorologischen Bedingungen (z. B. Windrichtung, Windgeschwindigkeit, Turbulenz usw.) (siehe7.3.2).
Diese Europäische Norm umfasst nicht:
-   die Messung der Intensität von Geruchsstoffimmissionen;
-   die Messung der Hedonik von Geruchsstoffimmissionen;
-   die Messung einer Geruchsimmission in Außenluft über eine längere Zeitdauer in einer Bewertungsfläche;
-   die Ermittlung der Quellstärke auf Basis von Geruchsfahnen unter Anwendung einer Rückrechnung mithilfe der Ausbreitungsmodellierung.
Ein Überblick über die Wechselbeziehung zwischen bestehenden Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Geruchsbelastung ist in Anhang A angeführt, einschließlich der Rastermessung (Teil 1), der Fahnenmessung (Teil 2) und der Olfaktometrie nach EN 13725.

Air ambiant - Détermination de la présence d'odeurs par mesures de terrain - Partie 2 : Méthode du panache

La présente partie de la Norme européenne décrit la méthode du panache permettant de déterminer l'étendue des odeurs identifiables émises par une source spécifique à l'aide d'une observation directe sur le terrain réalisée par les membres d'un jury humain dans des conditions météorologiques spécifiques.
La méthode du panache consiste à déterminer la présence ou l'absence (OUI/NON) d'odeurs identifiables dans et autour du panache émis par une source spécifique d'émissions odorantes, pour une situation d'émission spécifique et dans des conditions météorologiques spécifiques (direction du vent spécifique, vitesse du vent spécifique et turbulence spécifique dans la couche limite). L'unité de mesure est la présence ou l'absence d'odeurs identifiables à un emplacement particulier sous le vent d'une source. L'étendue du panache est évaluée comme la transition entre absence et présence d'une odeur identifiable.
La principale application de la présente norme est de fournir une base commune pour la détermination de l'étendue du panache odorant dans les États membres de l'Union européenne.
Les résultats sont généralement utilisés pour déterminer une étendue plausible d'exposition potentielle à des odeurs identifiables, ou pour estimer le taux d'émission totale sur la base de l'étendue du panache, en utilisant une modélisation de dispersion inverse.
Le champ d'application de la présente Norme européenne inclut la détermination de l'étendue du panache odorant identifiable sous le vent par rapport à une source, dans des conditions météorologiques spécifiques (par exemple direction du vent, vitesse du vent, turbulence, etc. (voir 7.3.2).
La présente Norme européenne ne couvre pas :
   la mesure de l'intensité des odeurs ambiantes ;
   la mesure de la qualité hédonique des odeurs ambiantes ;
   la mesure de l'exposition aux odeurs dans l'air ambiant sur une période plus longue dans une zone d'évaluation ;
   le calcul du débit d'émission estimé de la source à partir d'une évaluation du panache en utilisant une modélisation de dispersion inverse.
Un aperçu de l'interaction entre les méthodes existantes d'évaluation de l'exposition aux odeurs est donné dans l'Annexe A, ces méthodes comprenant la méthode de grille (Partie 1), la méthode du panache (Partie 2) et l'olfactométrie selon l'EN 13725.

Zunanji zrak - Določevanje vonja v zunanjem zraku s terenskim pregledom - 2. del: Metoda z izpustom

Ta evropski standard opisuje metodo z izpustom za določevanje zaznavnega in prepoznavnega vonja iz določenega vira z neposrednim opazovanjem na terenu, ki ga izvajajo ljudje, pri določenih meteoroloških pogojih. Z metodo z izpustom se določa prisotnost ali odsotnost (DA/NE) prepoznavnih vonjev iz določenega emisijskega vira vonja v določeni emisijski situaciji in pri določenih meteoroloških pogojih (določena smer vetra, hitrost vetra in turbulenca v mejni plasti). Merska enota je prisotnost ali odsotnost prepoznavnih vonjev na določeni lokaciji z vetrom v hrbet. Obseg izpusta se ocenjuje kot prehod med odsotnostjo in prisotnostjo prepoznavnega vonja. Glavni namen uporabe tega standarda je zagotoviti skupno podlago za določanje obsega izpusta v državah članicah Evropske unije. Rezultati se običajno uporabijo za določanje verjetnega obsega morebitne izpostavljenosti prepoznavnim vonjem ali za oceno skupne stopnje emisij z metodo reverznega disperznega modeliranja. Področje uporabe tega evropskega standarda vključuje določanje obsega prepoznavnega vonja izpuha iz vira z vetrom v hrbet pri določenih meteoroloških pogojih (npr. smer vetra, hitrost vetra, turbulenca itd.). Ta evropski standard ne zajema: – meritve pogostosti ur, ko je prisoten vonj, kot reprezentativne vrednosti pri povprečnih meteoroloških pogojih na neki lokaciji; – meritve intenzivnosti vonja v okoliškem zraku; – meritve hedonskega tona vonja v okoliškem zraku; – izračuna ocenjene stopnje emisij na podlagi izpustov z metodo reverznega disperznega modeliranja. Pregled obstoječih metod ocenjevanja izpostavljenosti vonju je podan v dodatku A, vključno z rastrsko metodo (del 1), metodo z izpustom (del 2) in olfaktometrijo v skladu s standardom EN 13725.

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Außenluft - Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen - Teil 2: FahnenmessungAir ambiant - Détermination de l'exposition aux odeurs par mesures de terrain - Partie 2 : Méthode du panacheAmbient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection - Part 2: Plume method13.040.20Kakovost okoljskega zrakaAmbient atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16841-2:2016SIST EN 16841-2:2017en,fr,de01-julij-2017SIST EN 16841-2:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16841-2:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16841-2
November
t r s x ICS
s uä r v rä t r English Version

Ambient air æ Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection æ Part

tã Plume method Air ambiant æ Dßtermination de la prßsence d 5odeurs par mesures de terrain æ Partie

t ã Mßthode du panache Außenluft æ Bestimmung von Geruchsstoffimmissionen durch Begehungen æ Teil

tã Fahnenmessung This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s r September
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x z v sæ tã t r s x ESIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5 4 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 11 5 Principle of plume extent measurement ............................................................................................. 11 6 Coordinator, assessors and panel members ...................................................................................... 14 7 Planning of measurements ....................................................................................................................... 16 8 Measurement procedure ........................................................................................................................... 19 9 Quality requirements ................................................................................................................................. 22 10 Data recording, calculation and reporting .......................................................................................... 24 Annex A (informative)

Overview and interaction of existing odour measurement methods ....... 27 Annex B (informative)

Uncertainty of the plume method .......................................................................... 28 Annex C (informative)

Turbulence conditions ............................................................................................... 30 Annex D (informative)

Example stationary plume measurement .......................................................... 33 Annex E (informative)

Example dynamic plume measurement .............................................................. 35 Annex F (informative)

Calculation of the odour emission rate by reverse modelling – stationary plume measurement (example) ........................................................................................ 38 Annex G (informative)

Calculation of the odour emission rate by reverse modelling – dynamic plume measurement (example) ........................................................................................... 40 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 43

SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16841-2:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights EN 16841, Ambient air - Determination of odour in ambient air by using field inspection consists of the following parts: — Part 1: Grid method — Part 2: Plume method According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 4 Introduction Part 1 (grid method) and Part 2 (plume method) of this European Standard describe methods for direct assessment of odours in ambient air. This European Standard supplements the dynamic olfactometry method described in EN 13725 which is generally only suitable for measurement of odour emissions ‘at source’. As the practical lower detection limit is typically

· 10 ouE/m3, EN 13725 cannot be applied to directly determine odour exposure in the field (i.e. measure faint odours at the concentration where they can just be recognized). The methods for measuring odour presented in this European Standard make direct use of odour perception, the effect of odorants on the human sense of smell. The standard involves the use of qualified human panel members in the field to directly assess the presence of recognizable odours in ambient air, and provide data that can be used to characterize odour exposure in a defined assessment area. The standard presents two key approaches as summarized as follows: — Part 1 describes a grid method which uses direct assessment of ambient air by panel members to characterize odour exposure in a defined assessment area. — Part 2 (presented in this document) describes a plume method to characterize the presence of odour by determining the extent of the downwind odour plume of a source. Although the ultimate application of this method is in monitoring the risk of exposure to odours and the resulting odour annoyance, there is no direct relation between the presence of recognizable odours and the occurrence of odour annoyance. The process leading to odour annoyance being experienced by an individual or a community is highly complex. Additional investigations are necessary to establish a link between odour exposure and the risk of odour annoyance, which is profoundly influenced by odour exposure frequency, by the type and hedonic tone of the odour perceived, and by the characteristics of those exposed to the odour (the receptor). The relationship between odour exposure and annoyance is not within the scope of this European Standard. The sensory methods described are only suitable for the assessment of odour in ambient air. They are not suitable for the assessment of substances that cannot be detected by sensory methods, in particular when these substances may cause health effects not directly related to their perceived smell. SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 5 1 Scope This part of the European Standard describes the plume method for determining the extent of recognizable odours from a specific source using direct observation in the field by human panel members under specific meteorological conditions. The plume method involves the determination of the presence or absence (YES/NO) of recognizable odours in and around the plume originating from a specific odorant emission source, for a specific emission situation and under specific meteorological conditions (specific wind direction, wind speed and boundary layer turbulence). The unit of measurement is the presence or absence of recognizable odours at a particular location downwind of a source. The extent of the plume is assessed as the transition of absence to presence of recognizable odour. The primary application of this standard is to provide a common basis for the determination of the odour plume extent in the member states of the European Union. The results are typically used to determine a plausible extent of potential exposure to recognizable odours, or to estimate the total emission rate based on the plume extent, using reverse dispersion modelling. The field of application of this European Standard includes the determination of the extent of the recognizable odour plume downwind from a source, under specific meteorological conditions (e.g. wind direction, wind speed, turbulence, etc. (see 7.3.2). This European Standard does not include: — the measurement of intensity of ambient odours; — the measurement of hedonic tone of ambient odours; — the measurement of the odour exposure in ambient air over a longer time period in an assessment area; — the calculation of estimated source emission rate from plume assessment using reverse dispersion modelling. An overview of the interaction between existing odour exposure assessment methods is given in Annex A including grid method (Part 1), plume method (Part 2) and olfactometry according EN 13725. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13725:2003, Air quality - Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 sensory adaptation temporary modification of the sensitivity of a sense organ due to continued and/or repeated stimulation Note 1 to entry Adaptation can also occur as a result of a gradually increasing stimulation. [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 2.6, modified – Added Note 1 to entry.] SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 6 3.2 assessor somebody who participates in odour testing [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.5] 3.3 crossing (for the dynamic plume method) series of single measurements by a panel member starting at an odour absence point, crossing the plume direction more or less at a right angle towards an odour absence point on the other side of the plume direction Note 1 to entry: The crossing shall cover similar distances at each side of the plume direction. Note 2 to entry: When a crossing does not yield odour presence points it shall start at a distance similar to the estimated maximum plume width. 3.4 experienced panel member panel member with the necessary experience to make valid observations for the dynamic method according to 6.2.2 Note 1 to entry: To become an experienced panel member a panel member shall participate at least five times in a measurement cycle with at least three different odour types. 3.5 European odour unit amount of odorant(s) that, when evaporated into 1 cubic metre of neutral gas at standard conditions, elicits a physiological response from a panel (detection threshold) equivalent to that elicited by one European Reference Odour Mass (EROM), evaporated in one cubic metre of neutral gas at standard conditions [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.19] 3.6 field inspection measuring odours in ambient air using panel members 3.7 field observations coordinator individual responsible for the correct execution of the field measurement procedure 3.8 field survey total of measurement sessions required to characterize an exposure level (see part 1 grid method) or plume extent (see part 2 plume method) in an area under study affected by one or more sources or emitting facilities 3.9 hedonic tone (of an odour) degree to which an odour is perceived as pleasant or unpleasant SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 7 3.10 intensity magnitude of the perceived sensation [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 2.8] 3.11 intensity magnitude of the stimulus causing the perceived sensation [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 2.9] 3.12 intersection line intersection line is a line perpendicular to the plume direction along which panel members are placed for the stationary plume method 3.13 maximum plume reach maximum distance downwind where an odour type can be perceived and recognized (under defined meteorological conditions) 3.14 maximum plume reach estimate distance along the plume direction between the source and the point halfway from the furthest intersection line or crossing where odour presence points were recorded and the first intersection line or crossing where only odour absence points were recorded 3.15 measurement cycle procedure of consecutive field observations required to determine the odour plume extent once, conducted by a panel under defined meteorological conditions 3.16 measurement leader individual responsible for the quality assurance of the measurement Note 1 to entry: The measurement leader can be the same person as the field observations coordinator. 3.17 measurement point location where single measurement(s) are carried out 3.18 measurement session set of consecutive measurement cycles conducted with one panel on the same day 3.19 odorant substance whose volatiles can be perceived by the olfactory organ (including nerves) [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 1.35] SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 8 3.20 odour sensation perceived by means of the olfactory organ in sniffing certain volatile substances [SOURCE: ISO 5492:2008, 3.18] 3.21 odour absence point measurement point at which the odour under study is not perceived and recognized as a result of a single measurement Note 1 to entry: See also: odour presence point. 3.22 odour detection to become aware of the sensation resulting from adequate stimulation of the olfactory system [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.47] 3.23 odour exposure contact of a human with a defined odour type, quantified as the amount of odorant(s) available for inhalation at any particular moment Note 1 to entry: As odorants have no effect below the detection limit of the human subject, exposure to recognizable odours may be characterized as the frequency of occurrence of concentrations above a certain odour concentration (the recognition limit). 3.24 odour hour odour hour is obtained by a single measurement when the percentage odour time reaches or exceeds 10 % by convention Note 1 to entry: Only relevant for the stationary method. Note 2 to entry: A test result of one single measurement can be positive for more than one distinct odour type. 3.25 odour presence point measurement point at which the odour under study is perceived and recognized as a result of a single measurement Note 1 to entry: See also: odour absence point. 3.26 odour recognition (in ambient air) odour sensation in ambient air that allows positive identification of the odour type 3.27 odour type odour that can be recognized and assigned to a certain installation or source Note 1 to entry: Odour types are defined specifically for one survey. One installation can emit more than one odour type. Several facilities can emit the same odour type. SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 9 3.28 olfactory pertaining to the sense of smell [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.54] 3.29 panel group of panel members [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.59] 3.30 panel member assessor who is qualified to perform field inspections according to 6.2 Note 1 to entry: See also: experienced panel member. 3.31 panel selection procedure to determine which assessors are qualified as panel members [SOURCE: EN 13725:2003, 3.1.62] 3.32 percentage odour time quotient, expressed as a percentage, of positive observations for one or more odour types made for one single measurement Note 1 to entry: One single measurement consists of 60 observations. Note 2 to entry: Only relevant for the stationary method. 3.33 observation assessment of the presence or absence of recognizable odour during a single measurement 3.34 plume direction line from the source in the mean direction of dispersion projected to ground level Note 1 to entry: The plume direction is typically derived from the wind direction. 3.35 plume extent shape of the plume delineated by a smoothed interpolation polyline through the transition points, the source location and the location determined by the maximum plume reach estimate 3.36 plume extent area surface area enclosed by a smoothed interpolation polyline through the transition points, the source location and the location determined by the maximum plume reach estimate SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 10 3.37 plume width distance between two transition points perpendicular to the plume direction 3.38 quality assurance all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product, process or service will satisfy given requirements for quality 3.39 single measurement procedure to obtain recorded observations at a given moment at a given measurement point necessary to determine absence or presence of recognizable odour Note 1 to entry: For the stationary plume method one single measurement results in the test result ‘odour hour’ or ‘non-odour hour’. Note 2 to entry: For the stationary plume method the absence or presence is determined based on the observed percentage odour time over a defined single measurement duration. For the dynamic plume method the absence or presence is based on the direct and instantaneous observation of recognizable odour or the lack of it. 3.40 single measurement duration time required to conduct a single measurement Note 1 to entry: The single measurement duration is 10 min (60 observations) for a stationary plume method. A single measurement duration of at least ten minutes is required in order to obtain a representative statement with at least 80 % certainty on the odour situation within an hour [1]. The single measurement duration for the dynamic plume method is the duration of one inhalation (one observation). 3.41 sniffing unit minimal amount of odorant(s), present into 1 cubic meter of air, that generates a response of recognition of a certain odour type by an experienced panel member, under field conditions 3.42 test result value of a characteristic obtained by carrying out a specific test method [SOURCE: ISO 5725-1] Note 1 to entry: In this European Standard the test result for a single measurement is the presence or absence of recognizable odour. 3.43 transition point point halfway between the last absence point and the first presence point at the limit of the recognizable odour plume under investigation SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 11 4 Symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply. L+ Number of positive observations per measurement cycle and measurement point LM Monin-Obukhov Length in m ouE European odour unit Pod Percentage odour time R Total number of assessments per measurement cycle su Sniffing unit (see Annex G) z0 roughness length in m 5 Principle of plume extent measurement The plume method is used to determine the extent of the area where the odour plume originating from a specific odorant source or an odorant emitting installation can be perceived and recognized, under specific meteorological and specific operating conditions. The odour plume extent is described by points where a transition from absence to presence of the recognizable odour under investigation, occurs. The results are typically used to determine a plausible extent of potential exposure to recognizable odours, or to estimate the total emission rate using reverse dispersion modelling. The plume extent measurement is particularly useful as a starting point for estimating emission rates for diffuse odorant sources where sampling at source is impracticable. Panel members are used to determine the presence or absence of the specific odour under investigation at different points downwind of a source under well-defined meteorological conditions. These conditions are chosen to ensure that the extent of the plume is well defined. The meteorological conditions during the field observations are measured and recorded. Typically, the measurement is repeated to reduce uncertainty to an acceptable level. In this way variability due to random variations in meteorological conditions, panel member performance and odorant emission is averaged out. There are two versions of observation methods for plume measurement in this standard: — stationary plume method (see 8.2), — dynamic plume method (see 8.3). Using the stationary method, the panel members are located at specific intervals along intersection lines perpendicular to the plume direction. Several panel members are positioned at intervals along each intersection line to cover the estimated width of the recognizable plume. Each panel member determines the percentage odour time in the course of one single measurement. If the result of a single measurement reaches a percentage odour time < 10 %, the odour is considered as being absent; at higher values the odour is present. Single measurements at one intersection line are conducted simultaneously; intersection lines at different distances from the source are assessed subsequently SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 12 assuming that the relevant meteorological conditions remain the same. At least one intersection line has to be at sufficient distance to ensure that no recognizable odour is present at any measurement point to be able to determine the maximum plume reach estimate.

Key
single measurement: odour presence point
single measurement: odour absence point
transition point
intersection lines

plume extent 1 wind direction 2 source 3 plume direction 4 maximum odour plume reach estimate 5 equal distance between the last intersection line with and the one without recognizable odour Figure 1 — Schematic diagram of an example of stationary plume measurement SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 13
Key
single measurement: odour presence point
single measurement: odour absence point
transition point
Crossings

plume extent 1 wind direction 2 source 3 plume direction 4 maximum odour plume reach estimate 5 equal distance between the furthest crossing with and the one without recognizable odour 6 start of measurement Figure 2 — Schematic diagrams of an example of dynamic plume measurement; in the first drawing the measurement commences moving towards the source; in the second drawing the measurement commences from the source SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 14 Using the dynamic method, the panel members cross the plume, while conducting single measurements at frequent intervals. By successively entering and exiting the plume and in this way determining the transition between absence and presence of recognizable odour, the extent of the plume is defined. This approach helps to avoid adaptation. The plume direction is crossed at different distances from the source. This includes crossings at distances where no recognizable odour is detected. The maximum plume reach estimate is defined as the distance along the plume direction between the source and the point halfway from the furthest intersection line or crossing where odour presence points were recorded, and the first intersection line or crossing where only odour absence points were recorded. This equal distance between the two intersection lines/crossings is indicated as point 5 on the schematic Figure 2. For both the stationary and the dynamic method the plume extent is defined by the transition points. A transition point is the point halfway between adjacent odour absence point and odour presence point for the odour type under study. In order to prevent possible adaptation effects causing incorrect observations, the transition points in the dynamic plume method are only determined whilst entering the plume, and not while exiting. The field of application and results (in terms of plume extent) for the dynamic and stationary plume method are considered to be equivalent. 6 Coordinator, assessors and panel members 6.1 Measurement leader and field observations coordinator The measurements shall be conducted under the responsibility of a measurement leader, who is responsible for quality assurance. The measurement leader shall have experience conducting scientific field surveys and detailed knowledge of the contents of this standard. The measurement leader is responsible for the planning of the field inspections, and ensuring that all related measurements are conducted according to this standard. The measurement leader shall also ensure that the measurements and their results are recorded according to the requirements of this standard. A field observations coordinator shall be responsible for correct execution and all practical aspects of the field inspections, including: — instructing the panel members (see 6.3), — organizing a general instruction on site for each measurement cycle with all panel members participate on that measurement cycle (see 6.3), — surveying the study area, — maintaining health and safety precautions (see 7.1), — maintaining and checking the data record sheets for completeness and plausibility, — recording source emissions characteristics, if accessible. The field observations coordinator can be the same person as the measurement leader. In the dynamic method the field observations coordinator or measurement leader can also participate as a panel member in the observations for the current measurement. The field observations coordinator has to be experienced in carrying out plume measurements. The field observations coordinator is viewed as sufficiently experienced if he/she has participated at least 10 times in field inspections (e.g. as panel member or coordinator assistant). SIST EN 16841-2:2017

EN 16841-2:2016 (E) 15 The measurement leader or other suitably qualified personal shall check the records of the observations and their plausibility. If there are any indications that one or more panel members are not performing in compliance to the criteria set out in this standard, the measurement leader shall exclude them from further participation. 6.2 Assessors and panel members 6.2.1 Code of conduct for assessors and panel members When recruiting panel members the following conditions shall be met: — panel members shall be at least 16 years of age and willing and able to follow instructions. To qualify as a panel member, assessors shall observe the following code of conduct: — the panel member shall be motivated to carry out his/her job conscientiously; — the panel member shall be available for the complete measurement session (series of measurements on a day, interrupted by short breaks only); — from 30 min before and during measurement panel members shall not smoke, eat, drink (except water) or use chewing gum or sweets; — panel members shall take great care to ensure there is no interference with their ability to perceive odours as a result of personal hygiene or the (inappropriate) use of perfumes, deodorants, body lotions or cosmetics; — panel members shall not enter the installation under investigation prior to the field inspection in order not to be contaminated with the odorants; — panel members suffering from a cold or any other affliction affecting their perception of smell (e.g. allergic reactions, sinusitis) shall be excluded from participating in measurements; — during measurements panel members shall not communicate about their observations. The measurement leader shall ensure that all panel members are aware of and understand the code of conduct. Enforcement of the code of conduct has a direct influence on the test results, and is therefore of great importance. The measurement leader shall ensure that the motivation of panel members is maintained throughout the measurements, and corrective action shall be taken when require

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