Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 5: Strontium 90 - Test method using proportional counting or liquid scintillation counting (ISO 18589-5:2019)

This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories.
These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout.
In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.
Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Erdboden - Teil 5: Strontium-90 - Messverfahren mit Proportional- oder Flüssigszintillationszählung (ISO 18589-5:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren für die Messung der Aktivität von 90Sr im Gleichgewicht mit 90Y und von 89Sr, reine BetastrahlerN1, in Bodenproben fest. Erläutert werden verschiedene chemische Trennverfahren für die Herstellung von Strontium- und Yttriumquellen, deren Aktivität mit Hilfe eines Proportionalzählers (PC) oder eines Flüssigszintillationszählers (LSC) bestimmt wird. 90Sr kann von Prüfproben erhalten werden, wenn das radioaktive Gleichgewicht zwischen 90Sr und 90Y erreicht ist, oder direkt durch eine 90Y-Messung. Die Auswahl des Messverfahrens hängt von der Kontaminationsquelle, den Eigenschaften des zu analysierenden Bodens, der geforderten Mess¬ge¬nauigkeit und der Ausstattung der verfügbaren Labore ab.
Diese Verfahren dienen der Bodenüberwachung nach früheren oder aktuellen, unbeabsichtigten oder routi-nemäßigen flüssigen oder gasförmigen Freisetzungen. Sie decken auch die Überwachung der durch globalen Fallout entstehenden Kontamination ab.
Im Falle eines neueren Fallouts unmittelbar nach einem nuklearen Störfall ist die Freisetzung von 89Sr im Verhältnis zur Gesamtmenge der Strontium-Aktivität nicht vernachlässigbar. Diese Norm beschreibt auch ein Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Aktivität von 90Sr bei Vorhandensein von 89Sr.
Die in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Prüfverfahren können ebenfalls zur Messung von Radionukliden in Klärschlamm, Sediment, Baumaterialien und -produkten, die auf geeignete Probennahmeverfahren folgen, angewendet werden.
Werden eine Probengröße von 20 g und Messzeiten von 1 000 min verwendet, können Nachweisgrenzen für 90Sr von 0,1 Bq·kg–1 bis 0,5 Bq·kg–1 mit konventionellen und kommerziell erhältlichen Proportional- und Flüssigszintillationszählern erreicht werden, wenn die Gegenwart von 89Sr vernachlässigt werden kann. Ist 89Sr in der Prüfprobe vorhanden, können Nachweisgrenzen von 1 Bq·kg–1 bis 2 Bq·kg–1 für beide Radionuk-lide, 90Sr und 89Sr, erreicht werden, wenn dieselbe Probengröße, Messzeit und Proportionalzähler oder Flüs¬sigszintillationszähler wie im vorherigen Fall verwendet wird.

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Sol - Partie 5: Strontium 90 - Méthode d'essai par comptage proportionnel ou comptage par scintillation en milieu liquide (ISO 18589-5:2019)

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Tla - 5. del: Stroncij 90 - Preskusna metoda z uporabo proporcionalnega štetja ali tekočega scintilacijskega štetja (ISO 18589-5:2019)

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Due Date
04-Aug-2021
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
01-junij-2021

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Tla - 5. del: Stroncij 90 - Preskusna metoda z

uporabo proporcionalnega štetja ali tekočega scintilacijskega štetja (ISO 18589-
5:2019)

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 5: Strontium 90 - Test

method using proportional counting or liquid scintillation counting (ISO 18589-5:2019)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Sol - Partie 5: Strontium 90 -

Méthode d'essai par comptage proportionnel ou comptage par scintillation en milieu

liquide (ISO 18589-5:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 18589-5
ICS:
13.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo tal soil quality
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18589-5
Second edition
2019-12
Measurement of radioactivity in the
environment — Soil —
Part 5:
Strontium 90 — Test method using
proportional counting or liquid
scintillation counting
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement — Sol —
Partie 5: Strontium 90 — Méthode d'essai par comptage
proportionnel et scintillation liquide
Reference number
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Chemical separation ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Detection ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Source preparation for liquid scintillation counter ........................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Source preparation for proportional counter ......................................................................................... 4

4.3.4 Background determination ..................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Chemical reagents and equipment .................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Procedure of strontium desorption .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Technical resources ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2.1 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.2.2 Chemical reagents ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7 Chemical separation procedure by precipitation .............................................................................................................. 7

7.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Technical resources ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2.1 Equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2.2 Chemical reagents ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.1 Separation of alkaline metals and calcium ................................................................................................ 8

7.3.2 Separation of barium, radium and lead ........................................................................................................ 9

7.3.3 Separation of fission products and yttrium .............................................................................................. 9

7.3.4 Strontium purification ................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.3.5 Yttrium extraction .......................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.6 Determination of the chemical yields .........................................................................................................11

8 Chemical separation procedure by liquid-liquid extraction ...............................................................................11

8.1 Principle .....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.2 Technical resources ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2.1 Equipment ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2.2 Chemical reagents ........................................................................................................................................................12

8.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.3.2 Chemical separation of yttrium .......................................................................................................................13

8.3.3 Source preparation to be measured by PC .............................................................................................14

8.3.4 Source preparation to be measured by LSC ...........................................................................................14

8.3.5 Determination of the chemical yields .........................................................................................................14

9 Chemical separation procedure by chromatography (crown ether resin) ...........................................15

9.1 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2 Technical resources ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.1 Equipment ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

9.2.2 Chemical reagents ........................................................................................................................................................15

9.3 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................16

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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)

9.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

9.3.2 Chemical separation of the strontium ........................................................................................................16

9.3.3 Determination of chemical yield .....................................................................................................................17

10 Measurement ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.2 Liquid scintillation counter .......................................................................................................................................................17

10.3 Gas flow proportional counter ...............................................................................................................................................17

10.4 Calculation of counting efficiency ........................................................................................................................................18

11 Expression of results .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

90 90

11.2 Determination of Sr in equilibrium with Y ........................................................................................................18

11.2.1 Calculation of the activity per unit of mass ............................................................................................18

11.2.2 Standard uncertainty ................................................................................................................................................19

11.2.3 Decision threshold.......................................................................................................................................................19

11.2.4 Detection limit ................................................................................................................................................................19

90 90

11.3 Determination of Sr by the Y ..........................................................................................................................................19

11.3.1 Calculation of the activity per unit of mass ............................................................................................19

11.3.2 Standard uncertainty ................................................................................................................................................20

11.3.3 Decision threshold.......................................................................................................................................................20

11.3.4 Detection limit ................................................................................................................................................................21

90 89 90 90

11.4 Determination of Sr in presence of Sr when Sr is in equilibrium with Y .......................21

11.4.1 Calculation of the activity per unit of mass ............................................................................................21

11.4.2 Standard uncertainty ................................................................................................................................................22

11.4.3 Decision threshold.......................................................................................................................................................22

11.4.4 Detection limit ................................................................................................................................................................23

11.5 Confidence limits................................................................................................................................................................................23

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) Examples of evaluation models .................................................................................................................25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2,

Radiation protection.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18589-5:2009), which has been

technically revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— The introduction has been reviewed accordingly to the generic introduction adopted for the

standards published on the radioactivity measurement in the environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18589 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
Introduction

Everyone is exposed to natural radiation. The natural sources of radiation are cosmic rays and

naturally occurring radioactive substances which exist in the earth and flora and fauna, including the

human body. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive substances add to the

radiation exposure from this natural exposure. Some of those activities, such as the mining and use

of ores containing naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and the production of energy

by burning coal that contains such substances, simply enhance the exposure from natural radiation

sources. Nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations use radioactive materials and produce

radioactive effluent and waste during operation and decommissioning. The use of radioactive materials

in industry, agriculture and research is expanding around the globe.

All these human activities give rise to radiation exposures that are only a small fraction of the global

average level of natural exposure. The medical use of radiation is the largest and a growing man-made

source of radiation exposure in developed countries. It includes diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy,

nuclear medicine and interventional radiology.

Radiation exposure also occurs as a result of occupational activities. It is incurred by workers in

industry, medicine and research using radiation or radioactive substances, as well as by passengers

and crew during air travel. The average level of occupational exposures is generally below the global

average level of natural radiation exposure (see Reference [1]).

As uses of radiation increase, so do the potential health risk and the public's concerns. Thus, all these

exposures are regularly assessed in order to:

— improve the understanding of global levels and temporal trends of public and worker exposure;

— evaluate the components of exposure so as to provide a measure of their relative importance;

— identify emerging issues that may warrant more attention and study. While doses to workers are

mostly directly measured, doses to the public are usually assessed by indirect methods using the

results of radioactivity measurements of waste, effluent and/or environmental samples.

To ensure that the data obtained from radioactivity monitoring programs support their intended use, it

is essential that the stakeholders (for example nuclear site operators, regulatory and local authorities)

agree on appropriate methods and procedures for obtaining representative samples and for handling,

storing, preparing and measuring the test samples. An assessment of the overall measurement

uncertainty also needs to be carried out systematically. As reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’

data are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements,

international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for

the production of such measurement results. The application of standards serves also to guarantee

comparability of the test results over time and between different testing laboratories. Laboratories

apply them to demonstrate their technical competences and to complete proficiency tests successfully

during interlaboratory comparisons, two prerequisites for obtaining national accreditation.

Today, over a hundred International Standards are available to testing laboratories for measuring

radionuclides in different matrices.

Generic standards help testing laboratories to manage the measurement process by setting out the

general requirements and methods to calibrate equipment and validate techniques. These standards

underpin specific standards which describe the test methods to be performed by staff, for example, for

different types of sample. The specific standards cover test methods for:
40 3 14

— naturally-occurring radionuclides (including K, H, C and those originating from the thorium

226 228 234 238 210

and uranium decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U and Pb) which can be found in

materials from natural sources or can be released from technological processes involving naturally

occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate

fertilizer production and use);
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
ISO 18589-5:2019(E)

— human-made radionuclides, such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

3 14 90

and curium), H, C, Sr and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides found in waste, liquid and gaseous

effluent, in environmental matrices (water, air, soil and biota), in food and in animal feed as a result

of authorized releases into the environment, fallout from the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear

devices and fallout from accidents, such as those that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

The fraction of the background dose rate to man from environmental radiation, mainly gamma

radiation, is very variable and depends on factors such as the radioactivity of the local rock and soil, the

nature of building materials and the construction of buildings in which people live and work.

A reliable determination of the activity concentration of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in various

matrices is necessary to assess the potential human exposure, to verify compliance with radiation

protection and environmental protection regulations or to provide guidance on reducing health risks.

Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides are also used as tracers in biology, medicine, physics, chemistry, and

engineering. Accurate measurement of the activities of the radionuclides is also needed for homeland

security and in connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

This document describes the requirements to quantify the activity of Sr in soil samples after proper

sampling, sample handling and test sample preparation in a testing laboratory or in situ.

This document is to be used in the context of a quality assurance management system (ISO/IEC 17025).

This document is published in several parts for use jointly or separately according to needs. These parts

are complementary and are addressed to those responsible for determining the radioactivity present

in soil, bedrocks and ore (NORM or TENORM). The first two parts are general in nature describe the

setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the

laboratory (ISO 18589-1), the sampling strategy and the soil sampling technique, soil sample handling

and preparation (ISO 18589-2). ISO 18589-3 to ISO 18589-5 deal with nuclide-specific test methods

to quantify the activity concentration of gamma emitters radionuclides (ISO 18589-3 and ISO 20042),

plutonium isotopes (ISO 18589-4) and Sr (ISO 18589-5) of soil samples. ISO 18589-6 deals with

non-specific measurements to quantify rapidly gross alpha or gross beta activities and ISO 18589-7

describes in situ measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides.

The test methods described in ISO 18589-3 to ISO 18589-6 can also be used to measure the radionuclides

in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure.

This document is one of a set of International Standards on measurement of radioactivity in the

environment.

Additional parts can be added to ISO 18589 in the future if the standardization of the measurement of

other radionuclides becomes necessary.
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-5:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18589-5:2019(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Soil —
Part 5:
Strontium 90 — Test method using proportional counting
or liquid scintillation counting
1 Scope

This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of Sr in equilibrium with

90 89

Y and Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods

are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using

proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). Sr can be obtained from the test

90 90 90

samples when the equilibrium between Sr and Y is reached or through direct Y measurement.

The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics

of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available

laboratories.

These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental

or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear

fallout.

In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of Sr to the total

amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to

90 89
determine the activity of Sr in presence of Sr.

The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge,

sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.

Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg can

be achievable for Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid

89 89

scintillation counter when the presence of Sr can be neglected. If Sr is present in the test s

...

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