This document specifies the method for assessing overall exposure from all fixed radio frequency sources at a broadcast site. This assessment can be applied at any time but is carried out when the exposure situation changes in or around the aforementioned site.
This document plays an essential role in the coordination of different stakeholders, with respect to ensuring EMF exposure compliance in and around a broadcast site especially for equipment installed within the site.

  • Standard
    18 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day
  • Draft
    18 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Pb in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample is necessary. Lead‑210 activity concentration in the environment can vary and usually ranges from 2 mBq l-1 to 300 mBq l-1 [27][28]. Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, the limit of detection of this method for 210Pb is generally of the order of 20 mBq l-1 to 50 mBq l-1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 mBq l−1).[4][6] These values can be achieved with a counting time between 180 min and 720 min for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both. The method presented in this document is not intended for the determination of an ultra-trace amount of 210Pb. The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency). The method described in this document is applicable to an emergency situation. The analysis of Pb adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    22 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    23 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This standard specifies a method for the measurement of iron-55 and nickel-63 (55Fe and 63Ni)in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The test method described in this standard is based on currently available LSC counters.

  • Standard
    30 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day
  • Draft
    26 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the physical pre-treatment and conditioning of water samples and the determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with energies between 40 keV and 2 MeV, by gamma‑ray spectrometry according to the generic test method described in ISO 20042. The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of dissolved material in the water). This method is only applicable to homogeneous samples or samples which are homogeneous via timely filtration. The lowest limit that can be measured without concentration of the sample or by using only passive shield of the detection system is about 5·10-2 Bq/l for e.g. 137Cs.1 The upper limit of the activity corresponds to a dead time of 10 %. Higher dead times may be used but evidence of the accuracy of the dead-time correction is required. Depending on different factors, such as the energy of the gamma-rays, the emission probability per nuclear disintegration, the size and geometry of the sample and the detector, the shielding, the counting time and other experimental parameters, the sample may require to be concentrated by evaporation if activities below 5·10-2 Bq/l need to be measured. However, volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation. This method is suitable for application in emergency situations.  1The sample geometry: 3l Marinelli beaker; detector: GE HP N relative efficiency 55 % ; counting time: 18h.

  • Standard
    27 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    28 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    27 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    28 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies a method for the measurement of 14C activity concentration in all types of water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) either directly on the test sample or following a chemical separation. The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater. The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical recovery. The method described in this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical conditions, has a detection limit as low as 1 Bq∙l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l-1). 14C activity concentrations can be measured up to 106 Bq∙l-1 without any sample dilution. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    23 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    25 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    23 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    28 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies a test method for the determination of iron-55 (55Fe) activity concentration in samples of all types of water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, this test method can measure the 55Fe activity concentrations in the range from the limit of detection up to 120 mBq l-1. These values can be achieved with a counting time between 7 200 s and 10 800 s for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both. NOTE     These performance indicators are wholly dependent on the measurement regimes in individual laboratories; in particular, the detection limits are influenced by amount of stable iron present. The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency). It is the laboratory’s responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    21 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    21 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies the method intended for assessing the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproofing materials such as bitumen or polymeric membranes, coatings or paints, as well as assumptions and boundary conditions which will be met during the test.
The test method described in this document allows to estimate the radon diffusion coefficient in the range of 10-5 m2/s to 10-12 m2/s[8][9] with an associated uncertainty from 10 % to 40 %.

  • Technical specification
    36 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day
  • Technical specification
    33 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

TThe scope of this European Standard is to provide a general procedure for the assessment of workers’ exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in a workplace in order to determine compliance with exposure limit values and/or action levels as stated in European Directive 2013/35/EU
The purpose of this European Standard is to
-   specify how to perform an initial assessment of the levels of workers' exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), if necessary including specific exposure assessment of such levels by measurements and/or calculations,
-   determine whether it is necessary to carry out a detailed risk assessment of EMF exposure.
This European Standard can be used by employers for the risk assessment and, where required, measurement and/or calculation of the exposure of workers. Based on specific workplace and other standards, it can be determined whether preventive measures/actions have to be taken to comply with the provisions of the Directive.
The frequencies covered are from 0 Hz to 300 GHz.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is written under Mandate M/351 and relates to the exposure limits as specified in the Directive 2013/35/EU. It is intended to protect workers from risks to their health and safety arising or likely to arise from exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) during their work. However, this and other Directives can include additional measures for the protection of specific groups of workers and/or specific work places for which the employer is required to investigate other protective measures as a part of the overall risk assessment. See Annex A.
NOTE 2    Directive 2013/35/EU has been transposed into national legislation in all the EU member countries. It is intended that users of this standard consult the national legislation related to this transposition in order to identify the national regulations and requirements. These national regulations and requirements can have additional requirements that are not covered by this standard.

  • Standard
    38 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document describes radon-222 integrated measurement techniques with passive sampling. It gives indications for determining the average activity concentration of the radon-222 in the air from measurements based on easy-to-use and low-cost passive sampling, and the conditions of use for the sensors. This document covers samples taken without interruption over periods varying from a few days to one year. This measurement method is applicable to air samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 5 Bq/m3.

  • Standard
    31 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    31 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    31 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    31 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies the format of binary list-mode data at the output of digital data acquisition devices used for the detection and measurement of radiation. Such data acquisition devices may employ digital signal processors (DSP) and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in combination with memory and a communication interface with a computer.

  • Standard
    113 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

IEC 60675-3 applies to electric direct-acting room heaters.This document defines performance characteristics related to the radiant effect and specifiesmethods for measuring the radiation efficiency for the information of users.This document is used to measure the radiation efficiency of direct-acting room heaters.

  • Standard
    46 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations and on the procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This document concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10), H*(10), Hp(3) and H'(3) and for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described.

  • Standard
    26 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies additional procedures and data for the calibration of dosemeters and doserate meters used for individual and area monitoring in radiation protection. The general procedure for the calibration and the determination of the response of radiation protection dose(rate)meters is described in ISO 29661 and is followed as far as possible. For this purpose, the photon reference radiation fields with mean energies between 8 keV and 9 MeV, as specified in ISO 4037-1, are used. In Annex D some additional information on reference conditions, required standard test conditions and effects associated with electron ranges are given. For individual monitoring, both whole body and extremity dosemeters are covered and for area monitoring, both portable and installed dose(rate)meters are covered.
Charged particle equilibrium is needed for the reference fields although this is not always established in the workplace fields for which the dosemeter should be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths. This document also deals with the determination of the response as a function of photon energy and angle of radiation incidence. Such measurements can represent part of a type test in the course of which the effect of further influence quantities on the response is examined.
This document is only applicable for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h.
This document does not cover the in-situ calibration of fixed installed area dosemeters.
The procedures to be followed for the different types of dosemeters are described. Recommendations are given on the phantom to be used and on the conversion coefficients to be applied. Recommended conversion coefficients are only given for matched reference radiation fields, which are specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Clauses 4 to 6. ISO 4037‑1:2019, Annexes A and B, both informative, include fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, for which detailed published information is not available. ISO 4037-1:2019, Annex C, gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index. For all these radiation qualities, conversion coefficients are given in Annexes A to C, but only as a rough estimate as the overall uncertainty of these conversion coefficients in practical reference radiation fields is not known.
NOTE The term dosemeter is used as a generic term denoting any dose or doserate meter for individual or area monitoring.

  • Standard
    77 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the procedures for the dosimetry of X and gamma reference radiation for the calibration of radiation protection instruments over the energy range from approximately 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and from 4 MeV to 9 MeV and for air kerma rates above 1 µGy/h. The considered measuring quantities are the air kerma free-in-air, Ka, and the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[2], H*(10), Hp(10), H'(3), Hp(3), H'(0,07) and Hp(0,07), together with the respective dose rates. The methods of production are given in ISO 4037-1.
This document can also be used for the radiation qualities specified in ISO 4037-1:2019, Annexes A, B and C, but this does not mean that a calibration certificate for radiation qualities described in these annexes is in conformity with the requirements of ISO 4037.
The requirements and methods given in this document are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods of the reference fields are proposed in ISO 4037-1.
The first is to produce "matched reference fields", which follow the requirements so closely that recommended conversion coefficients can be used. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in this document. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037-3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used.
The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields". Either this is done by determining the conversion coefficients using spectrometry, or the required value is measured directly using secondary standard dosimeters. This method applies to any radiation quality, for any measuring quantity and, if applicable, for any phantom and angle of radiation incidence. The conversion coefficients can be determined for any distance, provided the air kerma rate is not below 1 µGy/h.
Both methods require charged particle equilibrium for the reference field. However this is not always established in the workplace field for which the dosemeter shall be calibrated. This is especially true at photon energies without inherent charged particle equilibrium at the reference depth d, which depends on the actual combination of energy and reference depth d. Electrons of energies above 65 keV, 0,75 MeV and 2,1 MeV can just penetrate 0,07 mm, 3 mm and 10 mm of ICRU tissue, respectively, and the radiation qualities with photon energies above these values are considered as radiation qualities without inherent charged particle equilibrium for the quantities defined at these depths.
This document is not applicable for the dosimetry of pulsed reference fields.

  • Standard
    36 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This clause of IEC 60675:1994 is applicable, with the following modification:
Replace the first paragraph with the following content:
This document applies to electric direct-acting room heaters .
This document defines performance characteristics related to the radiant effect and specifies
methods for measuring the radiant factor for the information of users.
This document is used to measure the radiant factor of direct-acting room heaters.

  • Standard
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies the characteristics and production methods of X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating protection-level dosemeters and doserate meters with respect to the phantom related operational quantities of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)[5]. The lowest air kerma rate for which this standard is applicable is 1 µGy h?1. Below this air kerma rate the (natural) background radiation needs special consideration and this is not included in this document.
For the radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6, sufficient published information is available to specify the requirements for all relevant parameters of the matched or characterized reference fields in order to achieve the targeted overall uncertainty (k = 2) of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities. The X ray radiation fields described in the informative Annexes A to C are not designated as reference X-radiation fields.
NOTE The first edition of ISO 4037-1, issued in 1996, included some additional radiation qualities for which such published information is not available. These are fluorescent radiations, the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, and the high energy photon radiations R-Ti and R-Ni, which have been removed from the main part of this document. The most widely used radiations, the fluorescent radiations and the gamma radiation of the radionuclide 241Am, S-Am, are included nearly unchanged in the informative Annexes A and B. The informative Annex C gives additional X radiation fields, which are specified by the quality index.
The methods for producing a group of reference radiations for a particular photon-energy range are described in Clauses 4 to 6, which define the characteristics of these radiations. The three groups of reference radiation are:
a) in the energy range from about 8 keV to 330 keV, continuous filtered X radiation;
b) in the energy range 600 keV to 1,3 MeV, gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides;
c) in the energy range 4 MeV to 9 MeV, photon radiation produced by accelerators.
The reference radiation field most suitable for the intended application can be selected from Table 1, which gives an overview of all reference radiation qualities specified in Clauses 4 to 6. It does not include the radiations specified in the Annexes A, B and C.
The requirements and methods given in Clauses 4 to 6 are targeted at an overall uncertainty (k = 2) of the dose(rate) value of about 6 % to 10 % for the phantom related operational quantities in the reference fields. To achieve this, two production methods are proposed:
The first one is to produce "matched reference fields", whose properties are sufficiently well-characterized so as to allow the use of the conversion coefficients recommended in ISO 4037-3. The existence of only a small difference in the spectral distribution of the "matched reference field" compared to the nominal reference field is validated by procedures, which are given and described in detail in ISO 4037‑2. For matched reference radiation fields, recommended conversion coefficients are given in ISO 4037‑3 only for specified distances between source and dosemeter, e.g., 1,0 m and 2,5 m. For other distances, the user has to decide if these conversion coefficients can be used. If both values are very similar, e.g., differ only by 2 % or less, then a linear interpolation may be used.
The second method is to produce "characterized reference fields

  • Standard
    56 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors.
ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in this document, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4.
ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters, are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019.
ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements.
This document deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances.
ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples.
ISO 11929 Standard also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[7], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[1], ISO 28218[8], and ISO 11665[6].
NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929- 1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[35][36] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

  • Standard
    48 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors.
ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the GUM Supplement 1 in this document, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4.
ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A of ISO 11929-1:2019 the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B of ISO 11929-1:2019.
This document extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. It also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements.
ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances.
ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[30,31].
ISO 11929 also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11885[8].
NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 119291 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[27][28] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/en/fi/fields-of-activity/marine-environment/coordination-centre-of-radioactivity/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available. . Another tool is the package ?metRology'[32] which is available for programming in R. It contains the two R functions ?uncert' and ?uncertMC' which perform the GUM conform uncertainty propagation, either analytically or by the Monte Carlo method, respective

  • Standard
    49 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

The ISO 11929 series specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non-negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors.
ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in this document, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 3-1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4.
This document covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In Annex A, the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences is covered, while measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered in Annex B.
ISO 11929-2 extends the former ISO 11929:2010 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3-1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and on Bayesian statistics in measurements.
ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, for alpha- and gamma‑spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice on how to deal with correlations and covariances.
ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of the ISO 11929 series, summarizes shortly the general procedure and then presents a wide range of numerical examples. Information on the statistical roots of ISO 11929 and on its current development may be found elsewhere[33][34].
The ISO 11929 series also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind especially if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found, for example, in ISO 18589[1], ISO 9696[2], ISO 9697[3], ISO 9698[4], ISO 10703[5], ISO 7503[6], ISO 28218[7], and ISO 11665[8].
NOTE A code system, named UncertRadio, is available for calculations according to ISO 11929-1 to ISO 11929-3. UncertRadio[31][32] can be downloaded for free from https://www.thuenen.de/de/fi/arbeitsbereiche/meeresumwelt/leitstelle-umweltradioaktivitaet-in-fisch/uncertradio/. The download contains a setup installation file which copies all files and folders into a folder specified by the user. After installation one has to add information to the PATH of Windows as indicated by a pop‑up window during installation. English language can be chosen and extensive "help" information is available.

  • Standard
    50 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document describes the method of measuring, evaluating and specifying the UV irradiation
characteristics of fluorescent ultraviolet lamps that are used in appliances for tanning purposes.
It includes specific requirements regarding the marking of such lamps.
These requirements relate only to type testing.
Lamps complying with the requirements of this document comply with the electrical and
mechanical safety requirements of IEC 61195 and IEC 61199 with the exception of the
requirements for maximum limits of UV radiation.

  • Standard
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

These international guidelines are based on the assumption that monitoring of environmental components (atmosphere, water, soil and biota) as well as food quality ensure the protection of human health[2][4][5][6][7][8]. The guidelines constitute a basis for the setting of national regulations and standards, inter alia, for monitoring air, water and food in support of public health, specifically to protect the public from ionizing radiation. This document provides — guidance to collect data needed for the assessment of human exposure to radionuclides naturally present or discharged by anthropogenic activities in the different environmental compartments (atmosphere, waters, soils, biological components) and food; — guidance on the environmental characterization needed for the prospective and/or retrospective dose assessment methods of public exposure; — guidance for staff in nuclear installations responsible for the preparation of radiological assessments in support of permit or authorization applications and national authorities' officers in charge of the assessment of doses to the public for the purposes of determining gaseous or liquid effluent radioactive discharge authorizations; — information for the public on the parameters used to conduct a dose assessment for any exposure situations to a representative person/population. It is important that the dose assessment process be transparent, and that assumptions are clearly understood by stakeholders who can participate in, for example, the selection of habits of the representative person to be considered. Generic mathematical models used for the assessment of radiological human exposure are presented to identify the parameters to monitor, in order to select, from the set of measurement results, the "best estimates" of these parameter values. More complex models are often used that require the knowledge of supplementary parameters. The reference and limit values are not included in this document.

  • Standard
    30 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    30 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This standard describes the requirements for rapid testing of water samples under emergency situations in laboratories:
- taking into account a special context for analyses, e.g. an unknown and unusual contamination;
- using or adapting if possible radioactivity measurements methods used in routine to get a result
rapidly or applying specific rapid methods previously tested by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination ;
- preparing the laboratory to analyse a large number of potentially contaminated samples.
The focus thereby is on cases where rapid radioactivity test methods are applied for all kind of waters. The first steps of the analytical strategy is often based on gross alpha and gross beta as screening methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 10703). Then if necessary, specific radionuclides standards are adapted and applied (for example, Strontium 90 measurement following ISO 13160).
This guideline refers to a number of ISO standards. If appropriate, it will also refer to national or other
publically available standards.
Screening techniques that can be carried out on site are not part of this guide.

  • Standard
    29 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Po in all types of waters by alpha
spectrometry.
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground
water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater
after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample may be
required.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the counting time, the
background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in
this document, using currently available alpha spectrometry apparatus, has a detection limit of
approximately 5 mBq l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water
(100 mBq l−1). This value can be achieved with a counting time of 24 h for a sample volume of 500 ml.
The method described in this document is also applicable in an emergency situation.
The analysis of 210Po adsorbed to suspended matter in the sample is not covered by this method.
If suspended material has to be removed or analysed, filtration using a 0,45 μm filter is recommended.
The analysis of the insoluble fraction requires a mineralization step that is not covered by this document
[13]. In this case, the measurement is made on the different phases obtained. The final activity is the
sum of all the measured activity concentrations.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    28 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

IEC 61228:2020 is available as IEC 61228:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61228:2020 describes the method of measuring, evaluating and specifying the UV irradiation characteristics of fluorescent ultraviolet lamps that are used in appliances for tanning purposes. It includes specific requirements regarding the marking of such lamps. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2008. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- maintenance code: description of the depreciation of the UV irradiance lamp during operation;
- operating position: information added for single capped lamps;
- spectroradiometric measuring system: new information about distance between sensor and lamp axis;
- measurement and evaluation procedure: separated detailed information for double capped fluorescent UV lamps and single capped fluorescent UV lamps;
- Annex C (normative), Method of test for irradiance maintenance: new information added;
- Annex D (normative), Reflector gauge: new information added;
- Annex E (normative), Lamp datasheets for measurement: complementary information added.

  • Standard
    38 pages
    English and French language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies a procedure, in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, for the calculation of the "decision threshold", the "detection limit" and the "limits of the coverage interval" for a non‑negative ionizing radiation measurand when counting measurements with preselection of time or counts are carried out. The measurand results from a gross count rate and a background count rate as well as from further quantities on the basis of a model of the evaluation. In particular, the measurand can be the net count rate as the difference of the gross count rate and the background count rate, or the net activity of a sample. It can also be influenced by calibration of the measuring system, by sample treatment and by other factors. ISO 11929 has been divided into four parts covering elementary applications in ISO 11929-1, advanced applications on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1 in ISO 11929-2, applications to unfolding methods in ISO 11929-3, and guidance to the application in ISO 11929-4. ISO 11929-1 covers basic applications of counting measurements frequently used in the field of ionizing radiation metrology. It is restricted to applications for which the uncertainties can be evaluated on the basis of the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 (JCGM 2008). In ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex A the special case of repeated counting measurements with random influences and in ISO 11929-1:2019, Annex B, measurements with linear analogous ratemeters are covered. ISO 11929-2 extends ISO 11929-1 to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008/Suppl.1. ISO 11929-2 also presents some explanatory notes regarding general aspects of counting measurements and Bayesian statistics in measurements. ISO 11929-3 deals with the evaluation of measurements using unfolding methods and counting spectrometric multi-channel measurements if evaluated by unfolding methods, in particular, alpha- and gamma-spectrometric measurements. Further, it provides some advice how to deal with correlations and covariances. ISO 11929-4 gives guidance to the application of ISO 11929 (all parts), summarizing shortly the general procedure and then presenting a wide range of numerical examples. The examples cover elementary applications according to ISO 11929-1 and ISO 11929-2. The ISO 11929 (all parts) also applies analogously to other measurements of any kind if a similar model of the evaluation is involved. Further practical examples can be found in other International Standards, for example, see References [1 to 20].

  • Standard
    97 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    99 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    97 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    99 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off

This document provides guidelines for testing laboratories wanting to use rapid test methods on water samples that may be contaminated following a nuclear or radiological emergency incident. In an emergency situation, consideration should be given to: — taking into account the specific context for the tests to be performed, e.g. a potentially high level of contamination; — using or adjusting, when possible, radioactivity test methods implemented during routine situations to obtain a result rapidly or, for tests not performed routinely, applying specific rapid test methods previously validated by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination; — preparing the test laboratory to measure a large number of potentially contaminated samples. The aim of this document is to ensure decision makers have reliable results needed to take actions quickly and minimize the radiation dose to the public. Measurements are performed in order to minimize the risk to the public by checking the quality of water supplies. For emergency situations, test results are often compared to operational intervention levels. NOTE Operational intervention levels (OILs) are derived from IAEA Safety Standards[8] or national authorities[9]. A key element of rapid analysis can be the use of routine methods but with a reduced turnaround time. The goal of these rapid measurements is often to check for unusual radioactivity levels in the test sample, to identify the radionuclides present and their activity concentration levels and to establish compliance of the water with intervention levels[10][11][12]. It should be noted that in such circumstances, validation parameters evaluated for routine use (e.g. reproducibility, precision, etc.) may not be applicable to the modified rapid method. However, due to the circumstances arising after an emergency, the modified method may still be fit-for-purpose although uncertainties associated with the test results need to be evaluated and may increase from routine analyses. The first steps of the analytical approach are usually screening methods based on gross alpha and gross beta test methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 20042, ISO 10703 and ISO 19581). Then, if required[13], test method standards for specific radionuclides (see Clause 2) are adapted and applied (for example, 90Sr measurement according to ISO 13160) as proposed in Annex A. This document refers to published ISO documents. When appropriate, this document also refers to national standards or other publicly available documents. Screening techniques that can be carried out directly in the field are not part of this document.

  • Standard
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    22 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies methods and procedures for characterizing the responses of devices used
for the determination of ambient dose equivalent for the evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation in
civilian aircraft. The methods and procedures are intended to be understood as minimum requirements.

  • Standard
    45 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Po in all types of waters by alpha spectrometry. The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample may be required. The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in this document, using currently available alpha spectrometry apparatus, has a detection limit of approximately 5 mBq l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 mBq l−1). This value can be achieved with a counting time of 24 h for a sample volume of 500 ml. The method described in this document is also applicable in an emergency situation. The analysis of 210Po adsorbed to suspended matter in the sample is not covered by this method. If suspended material has to be removed or analysed, filtration using a 0,45 μm filter is recommended. The analysis of the insoluble fraction requires a mineralization step that is not covered by this document [13]. In this case, the measurement is made on the different phases obtained. The final activity is the sum of all the measured activity concentrations. It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    19 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    20 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    19 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

The purpose of this document is to provide minimum criteria required for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories applying ex vivo X-band EPR spectroscopy with human tooth enamel. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in tooth enamel (hydroxyapatite). It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. This document addresses: a) responsibilities of the customer and laboratory; b) confidentiality and ethical considerations; c) laboratory safety requirements; d) the measurement apparatus; e) preparation of samples; f) measurement of samples and EPR signal evaluation; g) calibration of EPR dose response; h) dose uncertainty and performance test; i) quality assurance and control.

  • Standard
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

The primary purpose of this document is to provide minimum acceptable criteria required to establish a procedure for retrospective dosimetry by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and to report the results. The second purpose is to facilitate the comparison of measurements related to absorbed dose estimation obtained in different laboratories. This document covers the determination of absorbed dose in the measured material. It does not cover the calculation of dose to organs or to the body. It covers measurements in both biological and inanimate samples, and specifically: a) based on inanimate environmental materials like glass, plastics, clothing fabrics, saccharides, etc., usually made at X-band microwave frequencies (8 GHz to 12 GHz); b) in vitro tooth enamel using concentrated enamel in a sample tube, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered; c) in vivo tooth dosimetry, currently using L-band (1 GHz to 2 GHz), but higher frequencies are also being considered; d) in vitro nail dosimetry using nail clippings measured principally at X-band, but higher frequencies are also being considered; e) in vivo nail dosimetry with the measurements made at X-band on the intact finger or toe; f) in vitro measurements of bone, usually employing X-band frequency, but higher frequencies are also being considered. For biological samples, in vitro measurements are carried out in samples after their removal from the person or animal and under laboratory conditions, whereas the measurements in vivo are carried out without sample removal and may take place under field conditions. NOTE The dose referred to in this document is the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in the measured materials.

  • Standard
    19 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    21 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    19 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This practice covers dosimetric procedures to be followed in installation qualification, operational qualification and performance qualification (IQ, OQ, PQ), and routine processing at electron beam facilities to ensure that the product has been treated with an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to IQ, OQ, PQ, and routine product processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. The electron beam energy range covered in this practice is between 80 and 300 keV, generally referred to as low energy. Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance program for an irradiation facility. Other measures may be required for specific applications such as medical device sterilization and food preservation. Other specific ISO and ASTM standards exist for the irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137-1. In those areas covered by ISO 11137-1, that standard takes precedence. For food irradiation, see ISO 14470. Information about effective or regulatory dose limits for food products is not within the scope of this practice (see ASTM F1355 and F1356). This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing dosimetry in radiation processing, and describes a means of achieving compliance with the requirements of ISO/ASTM 52628. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM 52628. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

  • Standard
    13 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    13 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

This document specifies the characteristics of reference measurement standards of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This document relates to alpha-emitters, beta-emitters, and photon emitters of maximum photon energy not greater than 1,5 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference measurement standards for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC 60325[6], IEC 62363[7], and other documents. NOTE Since some of the proposed photon standards include filters, the photon standards are to be regarded as reference measurement standards of photons of a particular energy range and not as reference measurement standards of a particular radionuclide. For example, a 241Am source with the recommended filtration does not emit from the surface the alpha particles or characteristic low-energy L X-ray photons associated with the decay of the nuclide. It is designed to be a reference measurement standard that emits photons with an average energy of approximately 60 keV. This document also specifies preferred reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. These reference radiations are realized in the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of surface emission rate and activity which are traceable to national standards.

  • Standard
    13 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off
  • Standard
    14 pages
    French language
    sale 15% off
  • Draft
    13 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

EN-IEC 60580 specifies the performance and testing of DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS intended to measure DOSE AREA PRODUCT and/or DOSE AREA PRODUCT RATE to which the PATIENT is exposed during MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS. This document is applicable to the following types of DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS: a) FIELD-CLASS DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS normally used for the measurement of DOSE AREA PRODUCTS during MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS; b) REFERENCE-CLASS DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS normally used for the CALIBRATION of FIELDCLASS DOSIMETERS. The object of this document is 1) to establish requirements for a satisfactory level of performance for DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS, and 2) to standardize the methods for the determination of compliance with this level of performance. Two levels of performance are specified: - a lower level of performance applying to FIELD-CLASS DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS; - a higher level of performance applying to REFERENCE-CLASS DOSE AREA PRODUCT METERS.

  • Standard
    38 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This procedure specifies a method for the determination of 228Ra activity in drinking waters by radium
extraction, purification and liquid scintillation counting.

  • Standard
    37 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13164-2:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following the measurement of its short-lived decay products by direct gamma-spectrometry of the water sample.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available gamma-ray instruments, range from a few becquerels per litre to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 1 l test sample.
This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
An annex gives indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring.

  • Standard
    21 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13165-3:2016 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by coprecipitation followed by gamma-spectrometry (see ISO 18589‑3).
The method described is suitable for determination of soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1 using a sample volume of 1 l to 100 l of any water type.
For water samples smaller than a volume of 1 l, direct gamma-spectrometry can be performed following ISO 10703 with a higher detection limit.
NOTE This test method also allows other isotopes of radium, 223Ra, 224Ra, and 228Ra, to be determined.

  • Standard
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13164-3:2013 specifies a test method for the determination of radon-222 activity concentration in a sample of water following its transfer from the aqueous phase to the air phase by degassing and its detection. It gives recommendations for rapid measurements performed within less than 1 h.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, range from 0,1 Bq l−1 to several hundred thousand becquerels per litre for a 100 ml test sample.
This test method is used successfully with drinking water samples. The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
This test method can be applied on field sites or in the laboratory.
Annexes A and B give indications on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required sensitivity for drinking water monitoring

  • Standard
    31 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13165-2:2014 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in all types of water by emanometry. The method specified is suitable for the determination of the soluble, suspended, and total 226Ra activity concentration in all types of water with soluble 226Ra activity concentrations greater than 0,02 Bq l−1. In water containing high activity concentrations of 228Th, interference from 220Rn decay products can lead to overestimation of measured levels.

  • Standard
    23 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13165-1:2013 specifies the determination of radium-226 (226Ra) activity concentration in non-saline water samples by extraction of its daughter radon-222 (222Rn) and its measurement using liquid scintillation counting.
Radium-226 activity concentrations which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available liquid scintillation counters goes down to 50 mBq l−1. This method is not applicable to the measurement of other radium isotopes.

  • Standard
    22 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13164-1:2013 gives general guidelines for sampling, packaging, and transporting of all kinds of water samples, for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon-222.
The test methods fall into two categories: a) direct measurement of the water sample without any transfer of phase (see ISO 13164‑2); b) indirect measurement involving the transfer of the radon-222 from the aqueous phase to another phase (see ISO 13164‑3).
The test methods can be applied either in the laboratory or on site.
The laboratory is responsible for ensuring the suitability of the test method for the water samples tested.

  • Standard
    33 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 13164-4:2015 describes a test method for the determination of radon-222 (222Rn) activity concentration in non-saline waters by extraction and liquid scintillation counting.
The radon-222 activity concentrations, which can be measured by this test method utilizing currently available instruments, are at least above 0,5 Bq l−1 for a 10 ml test sample and a measuring time of 1 h.
This test method can be used successfully with drinking water samples and it is the responsibility of the laboratory to ensure the validity of this test method for water samples of untested matrices.
Annex A gives indication on the necessary counting conditions to meet the required detection limits for drinking water monitoring.

  • Standard
    20 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 19581 specifies a screening test method to quantify rapidly the activity concentration of gamma-emitting radionuclides, such as 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs, in solid or liquid test samples using gamma-ray spectrometry with lower resolution scintillation detectors as compared with the HPGe detectors (see IEC 61563).
This test method can be used for the measurement of any potentially contaminated environmental matrices (including soil), food and feed samples as well as industrial materials or products that have been properly conditioned. Sample preparation techniques used in the screening method are not specified in ISO 19581, since special sample preparation techniques other than simple machining (cutting, grinding, etc.) should not be required. Although the sampling procedure is of utmost importance in the case of the measurement of radioactivity in samples, it is out of scope of ISO 19581; other international standards for sampling procedures that can be used in combination with ISO 19581 are available (see References [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]).
The test method applies to the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. Using sample sizes of 0,5 l to 1,0 l in a Marinelli beaker and a counting time of 5 min to 20 min, decision threshold of 10 Bq·kg−1 can be achievable using a commercially available scintillation spectrometer [e.g. thallium activated sodium iodine (NaI(Tl)) spectrometer 2" ϕ × 2" detector size, 7 % resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV, 30 mm lead shield thickness].
This test method also can be performed in a "makeshift" laboratory or even outside a testing laboratory on samples directly measured in the field where they were collected.
During a nuclear or radiological emergency, this test method enables a rapid measurement of the sample activity concentration of potentially contaminated samples to check against operational intervention levels (OILs) set up by decision makers that would trigger a predetermined emergency response to reduce existing radiation risks[12].
Due to the uncertainty associated with the results obtained with this test method, test samples requiring more accurate test results can be measured using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors gamma-ray spectrometry in a testing laboratory, following appropriate preparation of the test samples[7][8].
ISO 19581 does not contain criteria to establish the activity concentration of OILs.

  • Standard
    27 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by mixing the test sample and a scintillation cocktail. The test sample can be liquid (aqueous or organic), or solid (particles or filter or planchet).
ISO 19361:2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15].
The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other beta emitter radionuclides in the test sample. In this case, a specific sample treatment by separation or extraction is implemented to isolate the radionuclide of interest in order to avoid any interference with other beta-, alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides during the counting phase.
ISO 19361:2017 is applicable to all types of liquid samples having an activity concentration ranging from a few Bq·l−1 to 106 Bq·l−1. For a liquid test sample, it is possible to dilute liquid test samples in order to obtain a solution having an activity compatible with the measuring instrument. For solid samples, the activity of the prepared scintillation source shall be compatible with the measuring instrument.
The measurement range is related to the test method used: nature of test portion, preparation of the scintillator - test portion mixture, measuring assembly as well as to the presence of the co-existing activities due to interfering radionuclides.
Test portion preparations (such as distillation for 3H measurement, or benzene synthesis for 14C measurement, etc.) are outside the scope of this document and are described in specific test methods using liquid scintillation[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9].

  • Standard
    29 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This practice describes the basic requirements that apply when making absorbed dose measurements in accordance with the ASTM E61 series of dosimetry standards. In addition, it provides guidance on the selection of dosimetry systems and directs the user to other standards that provide specific information on individual dosimetry systems, calibration methods, uncertainty estimation and radiation processing applications. This practice applies to dosimetry for radiation processing applications using electrons or photons (gamma- or X-radiation). This practice addresses the minimum requirements of a measurement management system, but does not include general quality system requirements. This practice does not address personnel dosimetry or medical dosimetry. This practice does not apply to primary standard dosimetry systems. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  • Standard
    13 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off

ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by mixing the test sample and a scintillation cocktail. The test sample can be liquid (aqueous or organic), or solid (particles or filter or planchet).
ISO 19361:2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15].
The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other beta emitter radionuclides in the test sample. In this case, a specific sample treatment by separation or extraction is implemented to isolate the radionuclide of interest in order to avoid any interference with other beta-, alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides during the counting phase.
ISO 19361:2017 is applicable to all types of liquid samples having an activity concentration ranging from a few Bq·l−1 to 106 Bq·l−1. For a liquid test sample, it is possible to dilute liquid test samples in order to obtain a solution having an activity compatible with the measuring instrument. For solid samples, the activity of the prepared scintillation source shall be compatible with the measuring instrument.
The measurement range is related to the test method used: nature of test portion, preparation of the scintillator - test portion mixture, measuring assembly as well as to the presence of the co-existing activities due to interfering radionuclides.
Test portion preparations (such as distillation for 3H measurement, or benzene synthesis for 14C measurement, etc.) are outside the scope of this document and are described in specific test methods using liquid scintillation[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9].

  • Standard
    29 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

ISO 19581 specifies a screening test method to quantify rapidly the activity concentration of gamma-emitting radionuclides, such as 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs, in solid or liquid test samples using gamma-ray spectrometry with lower resolution scintillation detectors as compared with the HPGe detectors (see IEC 61563).
This test method can be used for the measurement of any potentially contaminated environmental matrices (including soil), food and feed samples as well as industrial materials or products that have been properly conditioned. Sample preparation techniques used in the screening method are not specified in ISO 19581, since special sample preparation techniques other than simple machining (cutting, grinding, etc.) should not be required. Although the sampling procedure is of utmost importance in the case of the measurement of radioactivity in samples, it is out of scope of ISO 19581; other international standards for sampling procedures that can be used in combination with ISO 19581 are available (see References [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]).
The test method applies to the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. Using sample sizes of 0,5 l to 1,0 l in a Marinelli beaker and a counting time of 5 min to 20 min, decision threshold of 10 Bq·kg−1 can be achievable using a commercially available scintillation spectrometer [e.g. thallium activated sodium iodine (NaI(Tl)) spectrometer 2" ϕ × 2" detector size, 7 % resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV, 30 mm lead shield thickness].
This test method also can be performed in a "makeshift" laboratory or even outside a testing laboratory on samples directly measured in the field where they were collected.
During a nuclear or radiological emergency, this test method enables a rapid measurement of the sample activity concentration of potentially contaminated samples to check against operational intervention levels (OILs) set up by decision makers that would trigger a predetermined emergency response to reduce existing radiation risks[12].
Due to the uncertainty associated with the results obtained with this test method, test samples requiring more accurate test results can be measured using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors gamma-ray spectrometry in a testing laboratory, following appropriate preparation of the test samples[7][8].
ISO 19581 does not contain criteria to establish the activity concentration of OILs.

  • Standard
    27 pages
    English language
    sale 10% off
    e-Library read for
    1 day

This practice covers the preparation and use of semiadiabatic calorimetric dosimetry systems for measurement of absorbed dose and for calibration of routine dosimetry systems when irradiated with electrons for radiation processing applications. The calorimeters are either transported by a conveyor past a scanned electron beam or are stationary in a broadened beam. This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing dosimetry in radiation processing, and describes a means of achieving compliance with the requirements of ISO/ASTM Practice 52628 for a calorimetric dosimetry system. It is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM Practice 52628. The calorimeters described in this practice are classified as Type II dosimeters on the basis of the complex effect of influence quantities. See ISO/ASTM Practice 52628. This practice applies to electron beams in the energy range from 1.5 to 12 MeV. The absorbed dose range depends on the calorimetric absorbing material and the irradiation and measurement conditions. Minimum dose is approximately 100 Gy and maximum dose is approximately 50 kGy. The average absorbed-dose rate range shall generally be greater than 10 Gy·s-1. The temperature range for use of these calorimetric dosimetry systems depends on the thermal resistance of the calorimetric materials, on the calibration range of the temperature sensor, and on the sensitivity of the measurement device. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

  • Standard
    9 pages
    English language
    sale 15% off