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This document provides guidance on developing and using conceptual site models (CSMs) through the various phases of investigation, remediation (if required), and any subsequent construction or engineering works.
It describes what CSMs are, what they are used for and what their constituents are. It stresses the need for an iterative and dynamic approach to CSM development.
This document is intended to be used by all those involved in developing CSMs and by those who rely on using them such as regulators, landowners, developers, and the public (and other relevant parties). Ideally, this includes representatives from all phases of the investigative and remedial processes, for example, preliminary assessment, detailed investigation, baseline human health and environmental risk assessments, and feasibility study, and, any subsequent construction or engineering work.
NOTE 1 This document is applicable whenever the presence of "potentially harmful" or "hazardous" substances are present irrespective of whether they are naturally occurring or present due to human activity (i.e. are "contaminants").
NOTE 2 Although most of the principles described for developing CSMs in this document can apply to other domains, such as groundwater resources management, the present document is specifically written for the management of potentially contaminated sites or known contaminated sites.

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques. The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories. These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout. In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr. The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure. Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation. The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions. Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8]. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

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This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use. For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above. This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply. This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following: — define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement; — describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils; — define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples; — present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity; — identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil. This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases: — initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment; — routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory; — investigations of accident and incident situations; — planning and surveillance of remedial action; — decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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This document provides guidance on developing and using conceptual site models (CSMs) through the various phases of investigation, remediation (if required), and any subsequent construction or engineering works. It describes what CSMs are, what they are used for and what their constituents are. It stresses the need for an iterative and dynamic approach to CSM development. This document is intended to be used by all those involved in developing CSMs and by those who rely on using them such as regulators, landowners, developers, and the public (and other relevant parties). Ideally, this includes representatives from all phases of the investigative and remedial processes, for example, preliminary assessment, detailed investigation, baseline human health and environmental risk assessments, and feasibility study, and, any subsequent construction or engineering work. NOTE 1 This document is applicable whenever the presence of "potentially harmful" or "hazardous" substances are present irrespective of whether they are naturally occurring or present due to human activity (i.e. are "contaminants"). NOTE 2 Although most of the principles described for developing CSMs in this document can apply to other domains, such as groundwater resources management, the present document is specifically written for the management of potentially contaminated sites or known contaminated sites.

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This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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This document provides guidance on the description of soil in the field and its environmental context. It is applicable to natural, near-natural, urban and industrial sites. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer or horizon level and on specific soil constituents.
It also provides guidance on how to describe layers of anthropogenic (artificial) material or layers that were not modified by pedogenic processes in the strict sense and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin.
This document can be used in combination with other publications that provide guidance or requirements regarding specific aspects of soil observations and measurements.
NOTE 1 It might not be possible or necessary to record data under all the headings listed in Clauses 4 to 11.
NOTE 2 Overall guidance for presentation of information from soil surveys is given in ISO 15903.
NOTE 3 The guidance provided assumes that sampling will be done in accordance with ISO 18400.

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This document provides guidance on the description of soil in the field and its environmental context. It is applicable to natural, near-natural, urban and industrial sites. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer or horizon level and on specific soil constituents. It also provides guidance on how to describe layers of anthropogenic (artificial) material or layers that were not modified by pedogenic processes in the strict sense and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin. This document can be used in combination with other publications that provide guidance or requirements regarding specific aspects of soil observations and measurements. NOTE 1 It might not be possible or necessary to record data under all the headings listed in Clauses 4 to 11. NOTE 2 Overall guidance for presentation of information from soil surveys is given in ISO 15903. NOTE 3 The guidance provided assumes that sampling will be done in accordance with ISO 18400.

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ISO 14507:2003 specifies three methods for the pretreatment of soil samples in the laboratory prior to the determination of organic contaminants:
if volatile organic compounds are to be measured;
if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured, if the result of the subsequent analysis must be accurate and reproducible, and if the sample contains particles larger than 2 mm and/or the contaminant is heterogeneously distributed;
if non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field-moist sample, or if the largest particles of the sample are smaller than 2 mm and the contaminant is homogeneously distributed. This procedure is also applicable if reduced accuracy and repeatability are acceptable.
The pretreatment described in ISO 14507:2003 is used in combination with an extraction procedure in which the contaminant is available for the extraction liquid.
NOTE For the pretreatment of soil samples for the purposes of determining non-volatile inorganic compounds and physico-chemical soil characteristics, see ISO 11464.

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This document gives an overview and provides guidance on the main methods available to quantify the exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and ammonia (NH3) between soils and the atmosphere. It is intended to help users to select the measurement method or methods most suited to their purposes by setting out information on the application domain and the main advantages and limitations of each methods.

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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.
This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme.

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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes. This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme.

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ISO 18589-2:2015 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil.
ISO 18589-2:2015 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban, or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
ISO 18589-2:2015 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling, or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.

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ISO 18589-3:2015 specifies the identification and the measurement of the activity in soils of a large number of gamma-emitting radionuclides using gamma spectrometry. This non-destructive method, applicable to large-volume samples (up to about 3 000 cm3), covers the determination in a single measurement of all the γ-emitters present for which the photon energy is between 5 keV and 3 MeV.
ISO 18589-3:2015 can be applied by test laboratories performing routine radioactivity measurements as a majority of gamma-emitting radionuclides is characterized by gamma-ray emission between 40 keV and 2 MeV.
The method can be implemented using a germanium or other type of detector with a resolution better than 5 keV.
ISO 18589-3:2015 is addressed to people responsible for determining gamma-emitting radionuclides activity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection.

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ISO 11504:2017 gives guidelines with regard to the choice of fractions and individual compounds when carrying out analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, soil materials and related materials, including sediments, for the purpose of assessing risks to human health, the environment and other possible receptors. Since many products based on petroleum hydrocarbons often contain substances that are not hydrocarbons, the recommendations also encompass such compounds where relevant.
ISO 11504:2017 also includes relevant background information on which the recommendations are based together with guidance on the use of the fractions recommended in the assessment of risk.
ISO 11504:2017 does not set criteria or guidelines for use as assessment criteria, since this is typically a national or regional regulatory issue. This document also does not include recommendations as to the specific model for the exposure assessment or the specific parameter values to be used; with respect to guidance on this matter, reference is made to ISO 15800.

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ISO 11504:2017 gives guidelines with regard to the choice of fractions and individual compounds when carrying out analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils, soil materials and related materials, including sediments, for the purpose of assessing risks to human health, the environment and other possible receptors. Since many products based on petroleum hydrocarbons often contain substances that are not hydrocarbons, the recommendations also encompass such compounds where relevant. ISO 11504:2017 also includes relevant background information on which the recommendations are based together with guidance on the use of the fractions recommended in the assessment of risk. ISO 11504:2017 does not set criteria or guidelines for use as assessment criteria, since this is typically a national or regional regulatory issue. This document also does not include recommendations as to the specific model for the exposure assessment or the specific parameter values to be used; with respect to guidance on this matter, reference is made to ISO 15800.

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ISO 18504:2017 provides procedures on sustainable remediation. In particular, it provides: - standard methodology, terminology and information about the key components and aspects of sustainable remediation assessment; - informative advice on the assessment of the relative sustainability of alternative remediation strategies. ISO 18504:2017 is intended to inform practitioners about contemporary understanding of sustainable remediation. It is not intended to prescribe which methods of assessment, indicators or weights to use. Rather, it is intended to inform consideration of the concept of sustainable remediation in a local legal, policy, socio-economic and environmental context. The scope of ISO 18504:2017 is restricted to sustainable remediation ? that is demonstrably breaking the source-pathway-receptor linkages ? in a manner that has been shown on a site-specific basis under a specific legal context to be sustainable. The concepts of "green remediation" and "green and sustainable remediation" (so called GSR) that in some parts of the world are conflated with sustainable remediation are neither endorsed nor discussed in ISO 18504:2017.

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ISO 19204:2017 describes in a general way the application of the soil quality TRIAD approach for the site-specific ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. In detail, it presents in a transparent way three lines of evidence (chemistry, ecotoxicology and ecology) which together allow an efficient, ecologically robust but also practical risk assessment of contaminated soils. This procedure can also be applicable to other stress factors, such as acidification, soil compaction, salinization, loss of soil organic substance, and erosion. However, so far, no experience has been gained with these other applications. Therefore, this document focuses on soils contaminated by chemicals. NOTE 1 This document focuses on ecological risk assessment. Thus, it does not cover human health end points. In view of the nature of this document, the investigation procedure is described on a general level. It does not contain details of technical procedures for the actual assessment. However, this document includes references relating to technical standards (e.g. ISO 15799, ISO 17616) which are useful for the actual performance of the three lines of evidence. In ecological risk assessment, the effects of soil contamination on the ecosystem are related to the intended land use and the requirements that this use sets for properly functioning soil. This document describes the basic steps relating to a coherent tool for a site-specific risk assessment with opportunities to work out site-specific details. ISO 19204:2017 can also be used for the evaluation of clean-up operations, remediation processes or management measures (i.e. for the evaluation of the environmental quality after having performed such actions). NOTE 2 This document starts when it has already been decided that an ecological risk assessment at a given site needs to be performed. In other words, the practical performance of the soil quality TRIAD and the evaluation of the individual test results will be described. Thus, nothing will be said about decisions whether (and if yes, how) the results of the assessment are included in soil management measures or not. NOTE 3 The TRIAD approach can be used for different parts of the environment, but this document focuses mostly on the soil compartment. Comparable documents for other environmental compartments are intended to be prepared in addition (e.g. the terrestrial aboveground compartment) in order to perform a complete site assessment, based on the same principles and processes.

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ISO 18589-7:2013 specifies the identification of radionuclides and the measurement of their activity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry with portable systems equipped with germanium or scintillation detectors.
ISO 18589-7:2013 is suitable to rapidly assess the activity of artificial and natural radionuclides deposited on or present in soil layers of large areas of a site under investigation.
ISO 18589-7:2013 can be used in connection with radionuclide measurements of soil samples in the laboratory (ISO 18589‑3) in the following cases:
· routine surveillance of the impact of radioactivity released from nuclear installations or of the evolution of radioactivity in the region;
· investigations of accident and incident situations;
· planning and surveillance of remedial action;
· decommissioning of installations or the clearance of materials.
It can also be used for the identification of airborne artificial radionuclides, when assessing the exposure levels inside buildings or during waste disposal operations.
Following a nuclear accident, in situ gamma spectrometry is a powerful method for rapid evaluation of the gamma activity deposited onto the soil surface as well as the surficial contamination of flat objects.

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This International Standard defines a list of terms used in the field of soil quality. The terms are classified under several main headings: general terms - description of soil - sampling - terms related to the assessment of soils and remediation.

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ISO 11074:2015 defines a list of terms used in the preparation of the standards in the field of soil quality. The terms are classified under the following main headings:
- general terms (terms relating to soil, soil materials, land, and sites);
- description of soil (soil characteristics, soil water, properties of soils and substances, processes in soil, contamination, pollution, background content);
- sampling (general terms, sample types/sampling type, sampling stages, execution of sampling, quality control samples, sample pretreatment);
- terms relating to the assessment of soils (quality, assessment of soil and sites with respect to risk, hazard and exposure, soil protection);
- remediation (general terms, principal remediation types, engineering-based methods, process-based treatment methods);
- soil ecotoxicology.

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ISO 18589-3:2015 specifies the identification and the measurement of the activity in soils of a large number of gamma-emitting radionuclides using gamma spectrometry. This non-destructive method, applicable to large-volume samples (up to about 3 000 cm3), covers the determination in a single measurement of all the γ-emitters present for which the photon energy is between 5 keV and 3 MeV. ISO 18589-3:2015 can be applied by test laboratories performing routine radioactivity measurements as a majority of gamma-emitting radionuclides is characterized by gamma-ray emission between 40 keV and 2 MeV. The method can be implemented using a germanium or other type of detector with a resolution better than 5 keV. ISO 18589-3:2015 is addressed to people responsible for determining gamma-emitting radionuclides activity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection.

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ISO 18589-2:2015 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. ISO 18589-2:2015 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban, or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. ISO 18589-2:2015 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling, or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.

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This International Standard describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. This International Standard contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit georeferencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, this International Standard provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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ISO 28258:2013 describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way.
It contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit geo-referencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, ISO 28258:2013 provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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ISO 18589-7:2013 specifies the identification of radionuclides and the measurement of their activity in soil using in situ gamma spectrometry with portable systems equipped with germanium or scintillation detectors. ISO 18589-7:2013 is suitable to rapidly assess the activity of artificial and natural radionuclides deposited on or present in soil layers of large areas of a site under investigation. ISO 18589-7:2013 can be used in connection with radionuclide measurements of soil samples in the laboratory (ISO 18589‑3) in the following cases: · routine surveillance of the impact of radioactivity released from nuclear installations or of the evolution of radioactivity in the region; · investigations of accident and incident situations; · planning and surveillance of remedial action; · decommissioning of installations or the clearance of materials. It can also be used for the identification of airborne artificial radionuclides, when assessing the exposure levels inside buildings or during waste disposal operations. Following a nuclear accident, in situ gamma spectrometry is a powerful method for rapid evaluation of the gamma activity deposited onto the soil surface as well as the surficial contamination of flat objects.

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ISO 28258:2013 describes how to digitally exchange soil-related data. It aims to facilitate the exchange of valid, clearly described and specified soil-related data between individuals and organizations via digital systems, and enables any soil data producer, holder or user to find and transfer data in an unambiguous way. It contains definitions of features, several parameter specifications and encoding rules that allow consistent and retrievable data exchange. It also allows the explicit geo-referencing of soil data by building on other International Standards, thus facilitating the use of soil data within geographical information systems (GIS). Because soil data are of various origins and are obtained according to a huge variety of description and classification systems, ISO 28258:2013 provides no attribute catalogue, but a flexible approach to the unified encoding of soil data by implementing the provisions of ISO 19156 observations and measurements (OM) for use in soil science.

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ISO 17402:2008 provides guidance for the selection and application of methods to assess bioavailability for the characterisation of contaminated soil and soil materials. ISO 17402:2008 does not give a selection of the best applicable methods, but specifies boundary conditions and principles of methods to be used and gives the minimal requirements for the development of methods. The results obtained from such methods can be used as an estimate of bioavailability in a risk-assessment approach.
The contaminants considered in ISO 17402:2008 are metals, including metalloids, and organic contaminants, including organometal compounds. This International Standard is also applicable to metals originating from natural geological and pedological processes (natural pedo-geochemical content).
ISO 17402:2008 can also be applied to sediments.

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ISO 17402:2008 provides guidance for the selection and application of methods to assess bioavailability for the characterisation of contaminated soil and soil materials. ISO 17402:2008 does not give a selection of the best applicable methods, but specifies boundary conditions and principles of methods to be used and gives the minimal requirements for the development of methods. The results obtained from such methods can be used as an estimate of bioavailability in a risk-assessment approach. The contaminants considered in ISO 17402:2008 are metals, including metalloids, and organic contaminants, including organometal compounds. This International Standard is also applicable to metals originating from natural geological and pedological processes (natural pedo-geochemical content). ISO 17402:2008 can also be applied to sediments.

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This document provides guidance on developing and using conceptual site models (CSMs) through the various phases of investigation, remediation (if required), and any subsequent construction or engineering works.
It describes what CSMs are, what they are used for and what their constituents are. It stresses the need for an iterative and dynamic approach to CSM development.
This document is intended to be used by all those involved in developing CSMs and by those who rely on using them such as regulators, landowners, developers, and the public (and other relevant parties). Ideally, this includes representatives from all phases of the investigative and remedial processes, for example, preliminary assessment, detailed investigation, baseline human health and environmental risk assessments, and feasibility study, and, any subsequent construction or engineering work.
NOTE 1 This document is applicable whenever the presence of "potentially harmful" or "hazardous" substances are present irrespective of whether they are naturally occurring or present due to human activity (i.e. are "contaminants").
NOTE 2 Although most of the principles described for developing CSMs in this document can apply to other domains, such as groundwater resources management, the present document is specifically written for the management of potentially contaminated sites or known contaminated sites.

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The purpose of this International Standard is to achieve a high degree of harmonization in reporting results of on-site recording, sampling, on-site sample analyses and laboratory analyses of soil samples. To this end, it provides instructions for correctly specifying the quantities and units used to express results of analyses, the methods used and their precision. This International Standard also provides information to allow unique referencing of the sample, in both field and laboratory contexts, in order to ensure the traceability of the results.

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ISO 14507:2003 specifies three methods for the pretreatment of soil samples in the laboratory prior to the determination of organic contaminants: if volatile organic compounds are to be measured; if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured, if the result of the subsequent analysis must be accurate and reproducible, and if the sample contains particles larger than 2 mm and/or the contaminant is heterogeneously distributed; if non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field-moist sample, or if the largest particles of the sample are smaller than 2 mm and the contaminant is homogeneously distributed. This procedure is also applicable if reduced accuracy and repeatability are acceptable. The pretreatment described in ISO 14507:2003 is used in combination with an extraction procedure in which the contaminant is available for the extraction liquid. NOTE For the pretreatment of soil samples for the purposes of determining non-volatile inorganic compounds and physico-chemical soil characteristics, see ISO 11464.

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The purpose of this International Standard is to achieve a high degree of harmonization in reporting results of on-site recording, sampling, on-site sample analyses and laboratory analyses of soil samples. To this end, it provides instructions for correctly specifying the quantities and units used to express results of analyses, the methods used and their precision. This International Standard also provides information to allow unique referencing of the sample, in both field and laboratory contexts, in order to ensure the traceability of the results.

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): WI CREATED FOLLOWING THE SPLITTING OF WI 00019164 WHICH WAS ARCHIVED ++ 1996_01_23 ++ This item may be split later in two more parts in ISO (MAL 970702)

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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.
This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.
This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:
—   define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;
—   describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
—   define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
—   present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;
—   identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.
This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases:
—   initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;
—   routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;
—   investigations of accident and incident situations;
—   planning and surveillance of remedial action;
—   decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories.
These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout.
In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.
Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques.
The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation.
The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions.
Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation.
The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions.
Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

  • Draft
    18 pages
    English language
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    e-Library read for
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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.
This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.
This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:
—   define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;
—   describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
—   define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
—   present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;
—   identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.
This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases:
—   initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;
—   routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;
—   investigations of accident and incident situations;
—   planning and surveillance of remedial action;
—   decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

  • Draft
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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories.
These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout.
In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.
Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques.
The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides.
The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].
The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

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