Lasers and laser-related equipment - Test methods for laser beam parameters - Polarization (ISO 12005:2022)

This document specifies a method, which is a relatively quick and simple method with minimum equipment, for determining the polarization status and, whenever possible, the degree of polarization of the beam from a continuous wave (cw) laser. It can also be applied to repetitively pulsed lasers, if their electric field vector orientation does not change from pulse to pulse.
This document also specifies the method for determining the direction of the electric-field vector oscillation in the case of (completely or partially) linearly polarized laser beams. It is assumed that the laser radiation is quasimonochromatic and sufficiently stable for the purpose of the measurement. This document is applicable to radiation that has uniform polarization over its cross-sectional area.
The knowledge of the polarization status can be very important for some applications of lasers with a high divergence angle, for instance when the beam of such a laser shall be coupled with polarization dependent devices (e.g. polarization maintaining fibres). This document is applicable not only for a narrow and almost collimated laser beam but also for highly divergent beams as well as for beams with large apertures.

Laser und Laseranlagen - Prüfverfahren für Laserstrahlparameter - Polarisation (ISO 12005:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt ein verhältnismäßig einfaches und schnelles Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Polarisa¬tionszustandes und, soweit möglich, des Polarisationsgrades für den Strahl eines Dauerstrich-Lasers (cw, en: continuous wave) fest, das lediglich ein Mindestmaß an Ausrüstung erfordert. Es kann auch auf repetitiv gepulste Laser angewandt werden, wenn sich die Ausrichtung des elektrischen Feldvektors von Puls zu Puls nicht ändert.
Dieses Dokument definiert ebenfalls das Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Richtung der Schwingung des elek¬trischen Feldvektors für den Fall (vollständig oder teilweise) linear polarisierter Laserstrahlen. Es wird angenommen, dass die Laserstrahlung quasi-monochromatisch und für den Messzweck hinreichend stabil ist. Dieses Dokument ist anwendbar für Strahlung die eine einheitliche Polarisation über ihre gesamte Quer¬schnittsfläche aufweist.
Die Kenntnis des Polarisationszustandes kann für einige Anwendungen von Lasern mit hohem Divergenz¬winkel sehr wichtig sein, zum Beispiel, wenn der Strahl eines solchen Lasers mit polarisationsabhängigen Vor¬richtungen (wie polarisationserhaltenden Fasern) gekoppelt wird. Dieses Dokument ist nicht nur für schmale und nahezu kollimierte Strahlen anwendbar, sondern auch für hochdivergente Strahlen sowie für Strahlen mit großen Aperturen.

Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers - Méthodes d'essai des paramètres du faisceau laser - Polarisation (ISO 12005:2022)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode, relativement rapide et simple, nécessitant un équipement minimal pour la détermination de l'état et, chaque fois que cela est possible, du degré de polarisation d'un laser continu (cw). Elle peut également être appliquée aux lasers impulsionnels répétitifs, à condition que l'orientation du vecteur champ électrique ne change pas d'une impulsion à l'autre.
Le présent document spécifie également la méthode permettant de déterminer la direction du vecteur champ électrique pour les faisceaux lasers à polarisation linéaire (totale ou partielle). Le rayon laser est supposé être quasi monochromatique et suffisamment stable pour pouvoir être mesuré. Le présent document s'applique aux rayonnements qui ont une polarisation uniforme sur leur section transversale.
La connaissance de l'état de polarisation peut être très importante pour certaines applications de lasers hautement divergents, par exemple lorsque le rayon d'un tel laser doit être couplé avec des dispositifs dépendant de la polarisation (par exemple fibres de maintien de polarisation). Le présent document spécifie également une méthode pour la détermination de l'état de polarisation des faisceaux lasers hautement divergents, ainsi qu'une méthode pour la mesure des faisceaux de large ouverture. Le présent document est applicable non seulement pour un faisceau laser étroit et presque collimaté mais aussi pour des faisceaux fortement divergents ainsi que pour des faisceaux à grande ouverture.

Laserji in laserska oprema - Preskusne metode za parametre laserskega žarka - Polarizacija (ISO 12005:2022)

Ta dokument določa razmeroma hitro in preprosto metodo, ob uporabi minimalne opreme, za določanje stanja polarizacije in, kadar je to mogoče, stopnje polarizacije žarka laserja s trajnim valovanjem (cw). Uporabiti ga je mogoče tudi za pulzne laserje, če se med posameznimi pulzi ne spremeni usmerjenost vektorja njihovega električnega polja.
Ta dokument določa tudi metodo za ugotavljanje smeri nihanja vektorja električnega polja pri (popolnoma ali delno) linearno polariziranih laserskih žarkih. Predpostavlja se, da je lasersko sevanje kvazi-monokromatsko in dovolj stabilno za merjenje. Ta dokument se uporablja za sevanje s polarizacijo, ki je enotna po celotnem preseku.
Poznavanje stanja polarizacije je lahko zelo pomembno pri nekaterih načinih uporabe laserjev z velikim divergentnim kotom, na primer, kadar je treba žarek iz takega laserja spojiti z napravami, ki so odvisne od polarizacije (npr. vlakna, ki ohranjajo polarizacijo). Ta dokument se ne uporablja le za ozke in skoraj kolimirane laserske žarke, temveč tudi za močno divergentne žarke in žarke z
velikimi odprtinami.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2022
Withdrawal Date
30-Dec-2022
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
15-Jun-2022
Completion Date
15-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
01-september-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 12005:2003
Laserji in laserska oprema - Preskusne metode za parametre laserskega žarka -
Polarizacija (ISO 12005:2022)
Lasers and laser-related equipment - Test methods for laser beam parameters -
Polarization (ISO 12005:2022)
Laser und Laseranlagen - Prüfverfahren für Laserstrahlparameter - Polarisation (ISO
12005:2022)
Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers - Méthodes d'essai des paramètres du
faisceau laser - Polarisation (ISO 12005:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12005:2022
ICS:
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
SIST EN ISO 12005:2022 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12005:2022

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022


EN ISO 12005
EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

June 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 31.260 Supersedes EN ISO 12005:2003
English Version

Lasers and laser-related equipment - Test methods for
laser beam parameters - Polarization (ISO 12005:2022)
Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers - Méthodes Laser und Laseranlagen - Prüfverfahren für
d'essai des paramètres du faisceau laser - Polarisation Laserstrahlparameter - Polarisation (ISO 12005:2022)
(ISO 12005:2022)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 May 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this
European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references
concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN
member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and
United Kingdom.





EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12005:2022 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
EN ISO 12005:2022 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 3

2

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
EN ISO 12005:2022 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN ISO 12005:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 "Optics
and photonics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 123 “Lasers and photonics” the
secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2022, and conflicting national standards
shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2022.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 12005:2003.
Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards
body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the
United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice
The text of ISO 12005:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12005:2022 without any modification.

3

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12005
Third edition
2022-05
Lasers and laser-related equipment —
Test methods for laser beam
parameters — Polarization
Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers — Méthodes d'essai des
paramètres du faisceau laser — Polarisation
Reference number
ISO 12005:2022(E)
© ISO 2022

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on
the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below
or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Test method for state of polarization .3
4.1 Principle of measurement . 3
4.2 Equipment arrangement . 4
4.2.1 General . 4
4.2.2 Special arrangement for the testing of beams with large divergence angles . 4
4.2.3 Special arrangement for the testing of beams with large apertures . 5
4.3 Components . 5
4.3.1 Radiation detector . 5
4.3.2 Linear polarizer . . 6
4.3.3 Quarter-wave plate . 6
4.3.4 Optical attenuator . 6
4.4 Test procedure . 6
4.4.1 General . 6
4.4.2 Measurement 1 . 6
4.4.3 Measurement 2 . 7
4.5 Analysis of the results . 7
5 Test report . 9
Annex A (informative) Complete description of the polarization status of a monochromatic
laser beam .12
Bibliography .15
iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to
the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see
www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and Photonics, Subcommittee
SC 9, Laser and electro-optical systems, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization
(CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 123, Lasers and photonics, in accordance with the agreement on
technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12005:2003), which has been technically
revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— Description errors in 4.5 (Analysis of the results) were corrected.
— Definitions of the “degree of polarization” and the “degree of linear polarization” were made clear.
— Definition of extinction ratio was changed.
— Previous 3.3 (direction of polarization), 3.4 (plane of polarization), and 3.5 (ellipticity) were deleted,
because these terms are confusing due to the different definitions, and they are not necessarily
required for this document. Previous 3.11 (Stokes parameters) was deleted and moved to Annex A,
because they are not used in the measurement and analysis.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
iv
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
Introduction
This document deals with a method for determining the polarization state of a laser beam.
This document is applicable for well-polarized laser beams, including those emitted by lasers with a
high divergence angle. However, if more completeness in the determination of the polarization status
is required, the use of a more sophisticated analysing device is necessary. Although not within the
scope of this document, the principle of operation of such devices is given in Annex A, together with a
description of the Stokes parameters which are needed in that case.
v
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12005:2022(E)
Lasers and laser-related equipment — Test methods for
laser beam parameters — Polarization
1 Scope
This document specifies a method, which is a relatively quick and simple method with minimum
equipment, for determining the polarization status and, whenever possible, the degree of polarization
of the beam from a continuous wave (cw) laser. It can also be applied to repetitively pulsed lasers, if
their electric field vector orientation does not change from pulse to pulse.
This document also specifies the method for determining the direction of the electric-field vector
oscillation in the case of (completely or partially) linearly polarized laser beams. It is assumed that the
laser radiation is quasimonochromatic and sufficiently stable for the purpose of the measurement. This
document is applicable to radiation that has uniform polarization over its cross-sectional area.
The knowledge of the polarization status can be very important for some applications of lasers with a
high divergence angle, for instance when the beam of such a laser shall be coupled with polarization
dependent devices (e.g. polarization maintaining fibres). This document is applicable not only for a
narrow and almost collimated laser beam but also for highly divergent beams as well as for beams with
large apertures.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 11145, Optics and photonics — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Vocabulary and symbols
ISO 11554, Optics and photonics — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Test methods for laser beam
power, energy and temporal characteristics
CIE 059-1984, Definitions and Nomenclature, Instrument Polarization
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11145, CIE 059-1984 and the
following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
polarization
restriction of oscillations of the electric field vector to certain directions
Note 1 to entry: This is a fundamental phenomenon which can be explained by the concept that electromagnetic
radiation is a transverse wave motion, i.e. the oscillations are at right angles to the direction of propagation. It is
customary to consider these oscillations as being those of the electric field vector.
1
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
3.2
state of polarization
classification of polarization (3.1) as linear, circular, elliptical or unpolarized
3.3
ellipticity angle
ε
angle whose tangent is the signed ratio of the minor semiaxis b to
the major semiaxis a of the polarization (3.1) ellipse where its positive or negative sign designating the
right-handed or left-handed elliptical polarization (3.1), respectively; i.e. tan ε = ±b/a
Note 1 to entry: The polarization ellipse is described by the motion of the terminal point of the electric field
vector in a transverse plane to the direction of radiation propagation (see Annex A).
Note 2 to entry: The ellipticity angle is constrained to - 45° ≤ ε ≤ + 45°. When ε = ± 45° the polarization is circular
and when ε = 0° the polarization is linear (see Annex A).
3.4
azimuth
Φ
angle between the major semiaxis of the polarization (3.1) ellipse and a reference axis perpendicular to
the direction of propagation
Note 1 to entry: The azimuth is constrained to - 90° ≤ Φ ≤ + 90° (see Annex A).
3.5
linear polarizer
optical device whose output is linearly polarized, without regard to the status and degree of polarization
(3.9) of the incident radiation
3.6
extinction ratio
r
e
measure of the quality of the linear polarizer (3.5)
Note 1 to entry: If perfectly linearly polarized radiation is incident on a polarizer, then the extinction ratio of the
polarizer is given by
τ ρ
max max
r = or (1)
e
τ ρ
min min
where
τ (ρ ) is the maximum transmittance (reflectance)
max max
τ (ρ ) is the minimum transmittance (reflectance)
min min
of radiant power (energy) through (from) the linear polarizer.
Note 2 to entry: The extinction ratio is often described in the following form:
τ ρ
max max
r = :1 or :1 (2)
e
τ ρ
min min
2
  © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved

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SIST EN ISO 12005:2022
ISO 12005:2022(E)
3.7
r
p
polarization ratio
measure of the degree of linear polarization (3.10) for completely or partially polarized
laser beams
P Q
max max
r = or (3)
p
P Q
min min
where, P (Q ) and P (Q ) are the maximum radiant power (energy) and minimum radiant
max max min min
power (energy) passing a linear polarizer (3.5), when varying the angle of the rotatable polarizer
Note 1 to entry: The measured beam powers P and P and measured beam energies Q and Q are
max min max min
specified in 4.4.2.
3.8
quarter-wave plate
optical device which resolves a completely polariz
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
01-junij-2021
Laserji in laserska oprema - Preskusne metode za parametre laserskega žarka -
Polarizacija (ISO/DIS 12005:2021)
Lasers and laser-related equipment - Test methods for laser beam parameters -
Polarization (ISO/DIS 12005:2021)
Laser und Laseranlagen - Prüfverfahren für Laserstrahlparameter - Polarisation (ISO/DIS
12005:2021)
Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers - Méthodes d'essai des paramètres du
faisceau laser - Polarisation (ISO/DIS 12005:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 12005
ICS:
31.260 Optoelektronika, laserska Optoelectronics. Laser
oprema equipment
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12005
ISO/TC 172/SC 9 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-04-08 2021-07-01
Lasers and laser-related equipment — Test methods for
laser beam parameters — Polarization
Lasers et équipements associés aux lasers — Méthodes d'essai des paramètres du faisceau laser —
Polarisation
ICS: 31.260
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
©
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting
on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address
below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Test method for state of polarization . 3
4.1 Principle of measurement . 3
4.2 Equipment arrangement . 4
4.2.1 General. 4
4.2.2 Special arrangement for the testing of beams with large divergence angles . 4
4.2.3 Special arrangement for the testing of beams with large apertures . 5
4.3 Components . 5
4.3.1 Radiation detector . 5
4.3.2 Linear polarizer . 5
4.3.3 Quarter-wave plate . 6
4.3.4 Optical attenuator . 6
4.4 Test procedure . 6
4.4.1 General. 6
4.4.2 Measurement 1 (see Figure 1) . 6
4.4.3 Measurement 2 (see Figure 2) . 7
4.5 Analysis of the results . 7
5 Test report . 8
Annex A (informative) Complete description of the polarization status of a monochromatic
laser beam .10
Bibliography .13
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii

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oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical
committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of
electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
constitute an endorsement.
For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/
iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 172, Optics and Photonics, Subcommittee
SC 9, Laser and electro-optical systems.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12005:2003), which has been technically
revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Description errors in subclause 4.5 (Analysis of the results) were corrected.
— Definitions of the “degree of polarization” and the “degree of linear polarization” were made clear.
— Definition of extinction ratio was changed.
— Previous subclause 3.3 (direction of polarization) and subclause 3.4 (plane of polarization) were
deleted, because these terms are confusing due to the different definitions, and they are not
necessarily required for this document.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved

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oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

Introduction
This document specifies a relatively quick and simple method, requiring minimum equipment, for
determining the state of polarization of a laser beam.
This method is for well-polarized laser beams, including those emitted by lasers with a high divergence
angle. However, if more completeness in the determination of the polarization status is required, the use
of a more sophisticated analysing device is necessary. Although not within the scope of this document,
the principle of operation of such devices is given in Annex A, together with a description of the Stokes
parameters which are needed in that case.
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oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)
Lasers and laser-related equipment — Test methods for
laser beam parameters — Polarization
1 Scope
This document specifies a method for determining the polarization status and, whenever possible,
the degree of polarization of the beam from a continuous wave (cw) laser. It can also be applied to
repetitively pulsed lasers, if their electric field vector orientation does not change from pulse to pulse.
This document also specifies the method for determining the direction of the electric-field vector
oscillation in the case of linearly polarized (completely or partially) laser beams. It is assumed that the
laser radiation is quasimonochromatic and sufficiently stable for the purpose of the measurement. This
document is applicable to radiation that has uniform polarization over its cross-sectional area.
The knowledge of the polarization status can be very important for some applications of lasers with a
high divergence angle, for instance when the beam of such a laser shall be coupled with polarization
dependent devices (e.g. polarization maintaining fibres). This document also specifies a method
for the determination of the state of polarization of highly divergent laser beams, as well as for the
measurement of beams with large apertures.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 11145, Optics and photonics — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Vocabulary and symbols
ISO 11554, Optics and photonics — Lasers and laser-related equipment — Test methods for laser beam
power, energy and temporal characteristics
IEC 61315, Calibration of fibre-optic power meters
CIE 059-1984, Definitions and Nomenclature, Instrument Polarization
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11145, ISO 11554, IEC 61315,
CIE 059-1984 and the following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
polarization
restriction of oscillations of the electric field vector to certain directions
Note 1 to entry: This is a fundamental phenomenon which can be explained by the concept that electromagnetic
radiation is a transverse wave motion, i.e. the oscillations are at right angles to the direction of propagation. It is
customary to consider these oscillations as being those of the electric field vector.
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oSIST prEN ISO 12005:2021
ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

3.2
state of polarization
classification of polarization as linear, random, circular, elliptical or unpolarized
3.3
ellipticity
b/a
ratio of the minor semiaxis b to the major semiaxis a of the ellipse
Note 1 to entry: The ellipse is described by the motion of the terminal point of the electric field vector in a
transverse plane to the direction of radiation propagation (see Annex A).
3.4
ellipticity angle
ε
angle whose tangent is the ellipticity; i.e. tanε = b/a
Note 1 to entry: The ellipticity angle is constrained to - 45° ≤ ε ≤ + 45°. When ε = ± 45° the polarization is circular
and when ε = 0° the polarization is linear (see Annex A).
3.5
azimuth
Φ
angle between the major axis of the instantaneous ellipse and a reference axis perpendicular to the
direction of propagation
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
3.6
linear polarizer
optical device whose output is linearly polarized, without regard to the status and degree of polarization
of the incident radiation
3.7
extinction ratio
r
e
measure of the quality of the linear polarizer
Note 1 to entry: If perfectly linearly polarized radiation is incident on a polarizer, then the extinction ratio of the
polarizer is given by
τ ρ
max max
r = or
e
τ ρ
min min
where
τ (ρ ) is the maximum transmittance (reflectance)
max max
τ (ρ ) is the minimum transmittance (reflectance)
min min
of power (energy) through (from) the linear polarizer.
Note 2 to entry: The extinction ratio is often described in the following form:
τ ρ
max max
r = :1 or :1
e
τ ρ
min min
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ISO/DIS 12005:2021(E)

3.8
polarization ratio
< laser beam > measure of the linear polarization for completely or partially polarized laser beams
Note 1 to entry: See 4.4.2.
3.9
quarter-wave plate
optical device which resolves a completely polarized incident beam of radiation into two orthogonally
polarized components and introduces a 90° phase shift between them
3.10
Stokes parameters
set of four real quantities, which completely describe the polarization state of monochromatic or
quasimonochromatic radiation
Note 1 to entry: The parameters are, collectively, known as the Stokes vector, a 4 × 1 vector (see Annex A for a
complete description and formulae for Stokes parameters).
3.11
degree of polarization
p
ratio of the beam power (or energy) of the completely polarized component to the total beam power
(or energy)
3.12
degree of linear polarization
p
L
ratio of the difference to the sum of beam powers P (energies Q) in the direction x of maximum
transmission and the direction y of minimum transmission through the linear polarizer
PP− QQ−
xy xy
p = or
L
PP+ QQ+
xy xy
Note 1 to entry: The measured beam powers P and P and measured beam energies Q and Q are defined in 4.4.2.
x y x y
4 Test method for state of polarization
4.1 Principle of measurement
The first test for laser beam pola
...

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