Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser

This document is applicable to the marking of aerospace vehicle electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV) lasers.
This document specifies the process requirements for the implementation of UV laser marking of aerospace electrical wire and cable and fibre optic cable to achieve an acceptable quality mark using equipment designed for UV laser wire marking of identification codes on aircraft wire and cable subject to EN 3475-100, Aerospace series - Cables, electrical, aircraft use - Test methods - Part 100: General. Wiring specified as UV laser markable and which has been marked in accordance with this document will conform to the requirements of EN 3838.
This document is applicable to the marking of airframe electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV) lasers. The laser process practices defined in this document are mandatory.

Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV-Laser

Dieses Dokument ist anwendbar auf das Kennzeichnen von elektrischen Leitungen und Kabeln von Luft- und Raumfahrtzeugen unter Anwendung von Ultraviolett(UV)-Lasern.
Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen an das Verfahren zur Einführung des Kennzeichnens von elektrischen Leitungen, Kabeln und Lichtwellenleiterkabeln mit UV-Laser fest, um mit für die Kennzeichnung von Leitungen mit UV-Laser konstruierten Geräten eine Kennzeichnung von annehmbarer Qualität auf für die Luft- und Raumfahrt vorgesehenen Leitungen und Kabeln zu erzeugen, die den Anforderungen der EN 3475 100, Luft- und Raumfahrt — Elektrische Leitungen für Luftfahrt, Verwendung — Prüfverfahren — Teil 100: Allgemeines, unterliegen. Leitungen, die entsprechend den Festlegungen mit UV-Laser gekennzeichnet werden können und die entsprechend diesem Dokument gekennzeichnet wurden, erfüllen die Anforderungen von EN 3838.
Dieses Dokument ist anwendbar auf die Kennzeichnung von elektrischen Leitungen und Kabeln für Flugwerke unter Anwendung von Ultraviolett(UV)-Lasern. Die in dieser Norm festgelegten Praktiken hinsichtlich des Laserverfahrens sind zwingend vorgeschrieben.

Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles par laser UV

Le présent document est applicable au marquage des fils et des câbles électriques de véhicules aérospatiaux par lasers ultraviolets (UV).
Ce document spécifie les exigences relatives au procédé de mise en oeuvre du marquage au laser UV des fils et câbles électriques ainsi que des câbles de fibres optiques pour l’aérospatiale, en vue d’obtenir une marque de qualité acceptable en utilisant des équipements conçus pour le marquage au laser UV de codes d'identification sur les fils et câbles à usage aéronautique relevant de l’EN 3475-100, Série aérospatiale - Câbles électriques à usage aéronautique - Méthodes d'essais - Partie 100 : Généralités. Les câblages spécifiés comme marquables au laser UV et qui ont été marqués conformément au présent document seront conformes aux exigences de l'EN 3838.
Le présent document est applicable au marquage des fils et câbles électriques de cellules par lasers ultraviolets (UV). Les pratiques liées au procédé laser définies dans le présent document sont obligatoires.

Aeronavtika - Postopek označevanja žic in kablov z UV-laserjem

Ta dokument se uporablja za označevanje električnih žic in kablov aeronavtičnih plovil z ultravijoličnimi (UV) laserji.
Ta dokument določa procesne zahteve za izvedbo ultravijoličnega laserskega označevanja električnih žic in kablov in kablov in optičnih vlaken aeronavtičnih plovil, da se doseže sprejemljiva oznaka kakovosti z opremo, zasnovano za ultravijolično lasersko označevanje identifikacijskih kod žic in kablov na aeronavtičnih plovilih v skladu s standardom EN 3475-100, Aeronavtika – kabli, električni elementi, uporaba v letalih – preskusne metode – 100. del: Splošno. Ožičenje, ki ga je mogoče označiti z ultravijoličnim laserjem in je označeno v skladu s tem dokumentom, bo izpolnjevalo zahteve standarda EN 3838.
Ta dokument se uporablja za označevanje električnih žic in kablov v ogrodjih letal z ultravijoličnimi (UV) laserji. Prakse laserske obdelave, ki so določene v tem dokumentu, so obvezne.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Feb-2023
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
01-Mar-2023
Completion Date
01-Mar-2023

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 4650:2023
01-maj-2023
Aeronavtika - Postopek označevanja žic in kablov z UV-laserjem
Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser
Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV-Laser
Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles au laser UV
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 4650:2023
ICS:
49.060 Letalska in vesoljska Aerospace electric
električna oprema in sistemi equipment and systems
SIST EN 4650:2023 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 4650:2023

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SIST EN 4650:2023


EN 4650
EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

March 2023
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 49.060 Supersedes EN 4650:2010
English Version

Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV
Laser
Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und
câbles au laser UV Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV-Laser
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 2 October 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this
European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references
concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN
member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and
United Kingdom.





EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2023 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 4650:2023 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 4
Introduction . 6
1 Scope . 7
2 Normative references . 7
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations . 7
3.1 Terms and definitions . 7
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations . 12
4 Requirements . 12
4.1 UV laser wire marking requirements . 12
4.2 Design construction file . 12
4.3 Process requirements . 12
4.3.1 Laser wavelength . 12
4.3.2 Mask based laser marking systems (see Clause 8) . 12
4.3.3 Scanning laser marking systems (see Clause 8) . 13
4.3.4 IR radiation . 14
4.4 System requirements . 15
4.4.1 Laser type . 15
4.4.2 Laser output control . 15
4.5 Quality requirements — General . 15
4.5.1 Insulation damage . 15
4.5.2 Legibility and permanence . 15
4.5.3 Mark contrast . 15
5 Quality assurance provisions . 15
5.1 Responsibility for inspection. 15
5.1.1 General. 15
5.1.2 Test equipment and inspection facilities . 15
5.2 Quality conformance inspection . 16
5.2.1 General. 16
5.2.2 Inspection conditions . 16
5.3 Verification inspection . 16
5.4 Quality conformance inspection . 17
6 Test methods . 17
6.1 Design construction file . 17
6.2 Laser wavelength (see Clause 8) . 17
6.3 Laser pulse length (see Clause 8) . 17
6.4 Applied laser fluence . 17
6.4.1 Mask Based Marking System . 17
6.4.2 Scanning Laser Marking System . 18
6.5 Laser dot overlap in scanning laser marking systems . 19
6.6 IR radiation . 19
6.7 Laser type . 19
6.8 Laser output control . 19
6.9 Insulation damage . 19
6.10 Legibility and permanence . 19
2

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
6.11 Mark contrast measurements . 19
7 Packaging . 19
8 Notes . 20
8.1 Principle of the marking process . 20
8.1.1 General . 20
8.1.2 Mask-based laser marking systems . 20
8.1.3 Scanning laser marking systems . 20
8.2 Markability of wire constructions . 21
8.3 Properties of UV laser-marked insulation materials . 21
8.3.1 General . 21
8.3.2 Mark depth . 21
8.3.3 Mark permanence . 22
8.3.4 Mark colour. 22
8.3.5 Polymer insulation background colour . 22
8.3.6 Fungus . 22
8.4 Laser wavelength . 22
8.5 Pulse length . 23
8.6 Pulse repetition rate . 23
8.7 Laser type . 23
Annex A (normative) Information for dot overlap measurement methods for laser scanning
marking and laser beam distribution profiles . 24

3

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN 4650:2023) has been prepared by the Aerospace and Defence Industries
Association of Europe — Standardization (ASD-STAN).
After enquiries and votes carried out in accordance with the rules of this Association, this
document has received the approval of the National Associations and the Official Services of the
member countries of ASD, prior to its presentation to CEN.
This document shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2023, and conflicting national standards shall
be withdrawn at the latest by September 2023.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject
of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such
patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 4650:2010.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Türkiye and the United Kingdom.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed in the following table.
Table 1 — Main changes to previous edition (1 of 2)
prEN/EN Edition Publication Modification Reason and validation
Number Date
prEN 4650 P1 2008–08–30 3 – Terms and definitions: Addition of new definitions
relating to laser parameters
Clause updated
and scanning laser marking
4 – Requirements: Expanded and updated,
including new detailed
Major revision of the Clause
requirements for laser
scanning marking systems
5 - Quality assurance provisions: Table 2 updated to reflect
changes in Clause 4
Clause updated
6 - Test methods Addition and updates
regarding laser scanning
Clause updated
marking systems
8 – Notes: Updated for scanning laser
systems, note added on fungus
Clause updated
testing, Table 3 updated with
new laser types

4

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
Table 1 — Main changes to previous edition (2 of 2)
prEN/EN Edition Publication Modification Reason and validation
Number Date
prEN 4650 P1 2008–08–30 Annex A added Addition of information for dot
overlap measurement methods
for laser scanning marking and
laser beam distribution
profiles

5

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
Introduction
Ultraviolet (UV) laser wire marking was developed in 1987 to provide a safe, permanent means of
marking thin wall insulations; it is now the aerospace industry standard method for marking wire
identification codes on to the surface of electrical wires and cables. It provides a simple, convenient,
environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of marking and identifying wires and jacketed cables.
While a few larger airframe manufacturers have developed process standards and specifications for
their own use during the introduction of this technology, there has been variability in the issues
covered within these specifications and there has been no comprehensive standard process document
developed for general use. The intended use of this document is to serve directly as a process standard
for use by laser wire marking concerns. It can also serve as a model set of comprehensive requirements
for use by organizations who intend to develop in-house laser marking process specifications or serve
as a means for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of such specifications by procuring activities.
6

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
1 Scope
This document is applicable to the marking of aerospace vehicle electrical wires and cables using
ultraviolet (UV) lasers.
This document specifies the process requirements for the implementation of UV laser marking of
aerospace electrical wires and cables and fibre optic cables to achieve an acceptable quality mark using
equipment designed for UV laser wire marking of identification codes on aircraft wire and cable subject
to EN 3475-100, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 100: General.
Wiring specified as UV laser markable and which has been marked in accordance with this document
will conform to the requirements of EN 3838.
This document is applicable to the marking of airframe electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV)
lasers. The laser process practices defined in this standard are mandatory.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 3475-100, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 100: General
EN 3475-705, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 705: Contrast
measurement
EN 3475-706, Aerospace series — Cables, electrical, aircraft use — Test methods — Part 706: Laser
markability
EN 3838, Aerospace series — Requirements and tests on user-applied markings on aircraft electrical
cables
EN ISO 10012, Measurement management systems — Requirements for measurement processes and
measuring equipment (ISO 10012)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
cable
electrical cable, unless noted as a fibre optic cable. Two or more insulated conductors, solid or stranded,
contained in a common covering, or two or more insulated conductors twisted or molded together
without common covering, or one insulated conductor with a metallic covering shield or outer
conductor
7

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
3.1.2
component
for the purposes of this document this shall be an electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic
cable
3.1.3
contrast
measurement relating to the difference in luminance of the mark and its associated background
according to a precise formula
3.1.4
damage
for the purpose of this document, with reference to wire and cable, damage is defined as an
unacceptable reduction in the mechanical or electrical properties of the insulation (i.e., specifically a
measurable reduction in the performance of the wire or cable that is outside of its defined specification
or is otherwise unacceptable)
3.1.5
dot overlap
dot overlap for scanning laser systems is defined in relation to the diameter, D, of the laser beam/dot at
the surface of the wire, and the distance, d, between the centres of the adjacent dots
Note 1 to entry: the percentage overlap = (1-(d/D)) x 100 %
3.1.6
excimer
gas laser deriving its name from the term “excited dimer”
Note 1 to entry: the laser is energized by means of an electrical discharge in a specialized mixture of rare gases
and halogens. Excimer lasers are available operating at a number of discrete wavelengths throughout the UV, the
most common of which are 193 nm, 248 nm, 308 nm and 351 nm. The wavelength is dependant only on the gas
mix used; 308 nm is commonly used for UV laser wire marking.
3.1.7
fibre optic cable
cable that is designed to transmit light waves between a light transmission source and a receiver
Note 1 to entry: in signal applications, the transmitter and receiver include devices that are used to convert
between optical and electronic pulses. Typical cables include a glass or plastic core, a layer of cladding having a
lower refractive index to refract or totally reflect light inward at the core/cladding boundary, a buffer, strength
members and jacketing to protect the inner cable from environmental damage.
3.1.8
fluence
2
energy density, measured in joules per square centimeter (J/cm ), of a single pulse of the laser beam,
which is at the surface of the wire insulation or cable jacket
3.1.9
font
defining shape and style of a character set for printing or marking
3.1.10
gauge
wire size specified for a wire in a wire harness assembly by the wire harness assembly drawing
8

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
3.1.11
harmonic generation
use of non-linear optical processes to change the wavelength of a laser, enabling the output of an
infrared laser to be converted to shorter wavelengths
Note 1 to entry: in the case of neodymium (Nd) lasers this results in a frequency doubled output at 532 nm in the
green and a frequency tripled output at 355 nm in the UV, which is used for wire marking.
3.1.12
harness
assembly of any number of wires, electrical/optical cables and/or groups and their terminations which
is designed and fabricated so as to allow for installation and removal as a unit
Note 1 to entry: a harness may be an open harness or a protected harness.
3.1.13
infrared
IR
electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 700 nm to in excess
of 10 000 nm
3.1.14
insulation
outer polymer covering of an electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic cable
3.1.15
IR laser
laser that produces a beam of radiation in the IR range
3.1.16
jacket
outer protective covering for a cable
3.1.17
laser
laser is an acronym for light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation. Lasers are a source of
intense monochromatic light in the ultraviolet, visible or infrared region of the spectrum. The “active”
or lasing medium may be a solid, liquid or gas. The laser beam is generated by energizing the active
medium using an external power source, which is most commonly electrical or optical
3.1.18
laser average power
optical power, measured in Watts (W), delivered by the laser source
3.1.19
laser pulse energy
optical energy, measured in Joules (J) contained in each laser pulse
3.1.20
laser pulse length
time interval between the laser energy crossing half the maximum energy on the rising and the falling
edges of the pulse; referred to as FWHM – full width half maximum
−9
Note 1 to entry: pulse lengths are measured in nanoseconds (ns). 1 ns = 10 s.
9

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
3.1.21
laser pulse rate
number of laser pulses delivered per second, measured in Hertz (Hz). Also referred to as the laser pulse
frequency or repetition rate
3.1.22
legibility
properties of a mark that enable it to be easily and correctly read
3.1.23
luminance
quantitative measurement of the visible light reflected from a surface, in this case the wire or cable
insulation
3.1.24
mark
meaningful alphanumeric or machine-readable mark applied to the surface of a wire or cable jacket
3.1.25
markability
ability of a wire construction to be marked to provide legible identification marks of a specified contrast
when marked in accordance with this document
3.1.26
neodymium Nd
elemental metal that forms the active laser material in the most common type of solid-state laser
Note 1 to entry: the neodymium is held in an optically transparent solid “host” material, and is energized by
optical input, either from a flash lamp or from the optical output from a diode laser. The host material does not
play a direct role but can slightly influence the laser wavelength. Typical host materials are specialized crystal
materials, such as yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), yttrium lithium fluoride (YLF) and yttrium vanadate (YVO ).
4
These lasers are commonly referred to as Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:YVO4 respectively. The primary wavelength of
Nd solid state lasers is in the infrared (IR) at a wavelength of approximately 1 064 nm. The IR output of such
lasers can be conveniently reduced to lower wavelengths suitable for wire marking by use of harmonic
generation.
3.1.27
purchaser
activity that can issue a purchase order or contract
3.1.28
q-switched laser
laser that retains and circulates the laser energy internally within the laser until a signal is sent to open
the “Q-switch”, usually an electro-optic component. The Q-switch acts like a gate that when opened
allows the trapped laser beam to exit on a nanosecond timescale. This technique is routinely used on
long pulse solid state lasers to create short laser pulses such as those required for UV laser wire
marking
3.1.29
quality conformance
tests performed on production samples at a specified frequency to ensure that the requirements of this
document are met
10

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
3.1.30
quality conformance inspection
process that includes measurements, non-destructive tests, analysis, and associated data that will
provide verification that a particular individual component continually conforms to the requirements
defined in the standard
3.1.31
supplier
original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or value-added manufacturer which has design and
production control of the processes used to produce the final product in accordance with the standard
3.1.32
ultraviolet
UV
electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 200 nm to 400 nm
3.1.33
UV laser
laser that produces a beam of radiation in the UV range
3.1.34
verification inspection
process that demonstrates that a product is capable of fully conforming to all the requirements defined
in a standard
Note 1 to entry: verification inspection includes definition of the measurements, tests, analysis, and associated
data that provides consistent rationale for acceptance of a particular supplier's design as meeting the standard
requirements typically prior to acquisition by the purchaser.
3.1.35
wavelength λ
distance between repeating units of a wave pattern
EXAMPLE The distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of an adjacent wave.
Note 1 to entry: laser wavelength is typically measured in nanometers (nm).
Note 2 to entry: λ = c/f
where
c is the velocity of light;
f is the frequency.
3.1.36
wire
single metallic conductor of solid, stranded or tinsel construction, designed to carry current in an
electric circuit, but not having a metallic covering, sheath or shield
Note 1 to entry: for the purpose of this specification, “wire” refers to “insulated electric wire”.
3.1.37
wire code
wire circuit identification number or code assigned to a specific wire in a wire harness assembly and
marked on the insulation surface
11

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SIST EN 4650:2023
EN 4650:2023 (E)
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations
−9
nm: nanometer, 10 m;
−9
ns: nanosecond, 10 s;
ETFE: ethylenetetrafluoroethylene;
PFA: perfluoroalkoxy fluoropolymer;
PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene;
PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride/polyvinylidene fluoride.
4 Requirements
4.1 UV laser wire marking requirements
The laser requirements for marking aerospace wire and cable are grouped under:
a) process requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the marking process in terms of the mark
characteristics and quality; and
b) system requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the performance of equipment in terms of
its operational use.
4.2 Design construction file
The equipment supplier shall create a design construction file that records the relevant design details of
the equipment and demonstrates clearly how all the requirements of Clause 4 are met. A copy of this
design construction file shall be maintained and made available to purchasers as required.
4.3 Process requirements
4.3.1 Laser wavelength
Short wavelength UV laser light, in the range 240 nm to 380 nm only shall be used for
marking (see Clause 8). Long wavelength infrared (IR) laser radiation shall not be used for the direct
marking of aerospace electrical or fibre optic wire and cable.
4.3.2 Mask based laser marking systems (see Clause 8)
4.3.2.1 General
Laser marks generated by mask-based processes shall be formed by a single pulse of the laser and shall
not overlap.
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 4650:2020
01-oktober-2020
Aeronavtika - Postopek označevanja žic in kablov z UV-laserjem
Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV Laser
Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV-Laser
Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et câbles par laser UV
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 4650
ICS:
49.060 Letalska in vesoljska Aerospace electric
električna oprema in sistemi equipment and systems
oSIST prEN 4650:2020 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 4650:2020

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oSIST prEN 4650:2020


DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 4650
NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

August 2020
ICS Will supersede EN 4650:2010
English Version

Aerospace series - Wire and cable marking process, UV
Laser
Série aérospatiale - Procédé de marquage des fils et Luft- und Raumfahrt - Leitungs- und
câbles par laser UV Kabelkennzeichnungsverfahren durch UV-Laser
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee ASD-
STAN.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other
language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC
Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and
United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are
aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without
notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.


EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 4650:2020 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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oSIST prEN 4650:2020
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Contents Page

European foreword . 4
Introduction . 5
1 Scope . 6
2 Normative references . 6
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations . 6
3.1 Terms and definitions . 6
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations . 11
4 Requirements . 11
4.1 UV laser wire marking requirements . 11
4.2 Design construction file . 11
4.3 Process requirements . 11
4.3.1 Laser wavelength . 11
4.3.2 Mask based laser marking systems (see Clause 8) . 11
4.3.3 Scanner laser marking systems (see Clause 8) . 12
4.3.4 IR radiation . 13
4.4 System requirements . 13
4.4.1 Laser type . 13
4.4.2 Laser output control . 13
4.5 Quality requirements – General . 14
4.5.1 Insulation Damage . 14
4.5.2 Legibility and permanence . 14
4.5.3 Mark contrast . 14
5 Quality assurance provisions . 14
5.1 Responsibility for inspection . 14
5.1.1 General . 14
5.1.2 Test equipment and inspection facilities . 14
5.2 Quality conformance inspection . 14
5.2.1 General . 14
5.2.2 Inspection conditions . 14
5.3 Verification insection . 15
5.4 Quality conformance inspection . 15
6 Test methods . 15
6.1 Design construction file . 15
6.2 Laser wavelength (see Clause 8) . 15
6.3 Laser pule length (see Clause 8) . 15
6.4 Applied laser fluence . 16
6.4.1 Mask Based Marking System . 16
6.4.2 Scanning Laser Marking System . 16
6.5 Laser dot overlap in Scanning Laser Marking Systems . 17
6.6 IR radiation . 17
6.7 Laser type . 18
6.8 Laser output control . 18
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6.9 Insulation damage . 18
6.10 Legibility and permanence . 18
6.11 Mark contrast measurements . 18
7 Packaging . 18
8 Notes . 18
8.1 Principle of the marking process . 18
8.1.1 General . 18
8.1.2 Mask-based laser marking systems . 18
8.1.3 Scanning laser marking systems . 18
8.2 Markability of wire constructions . 19
8.3 Properties of UV laser-marked insulation materials. 19
8.3.1 General . 19
8.3.2 Mark depth . 20
8.3.3 Mark permanence. 20
8.3.4 Mark colour . 20
8.3.5 Polymer insulation background colour . 20
8.3.6 Fungus . 21
8.4 Laser wavelength . 21
8.5 Pulse length . 21
8.6 Pulse repetition rate . 21
8.7 Laser type . 22


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European foreword
This document (prEN 4650:2020) has been prepared by the Aerospace and Defence Industries
Association of Europe — Standardization (ASD-STAN).
After enquiries and votes carried out in accordance with the rules of this Association, this Standard has
received the approval of the National Associations and the Official Services of the member countries of
ASD-STAN, prior to its presentation to CEN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 4650:2010.
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Introduction
Ultraviolet (UV) laser wire marking was developed in 1987 to provide a safe, permanent means of
marking thin wall insulations; it is now the aerospace industry standard method for marking wire
identification codes on to the surface of electrical wires and cables. It provides a simple, convenient,
environmentally friendly, cost effective means of marking and identifying wires and jacketed cables.
While a few larger airframe manufacturers have developed process standards and specifications for their
own use during the introduction of this technology, there has been variability in the issues covered within
these specifications and there has been no comprehensive standard process document developed for
general use. The intended use of this document is to serve directly as a process standard for use by laser
wire marking concerns. It can also serve as a model set of comprehensive requirements for use by
organizations who intend to develop in-house laser marking process specifications or serve as a means
for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of such specifications by procuring activities.
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1 Scope
This document is applicable to the marking of aerospace vehicle electrical wires and cables using
ultraviolet (UV) lasers.
This document specifies the process requirements for the implementation of UV laser marking of
aerospace electrical wire and cable and fibre optic cable to achieve an acceptable quality mark using
equipment designed for UV laser wire marking of identification codes on aircraft wire and cable subject
to EN 3475-100, Aerospace series ― Cables, electrical, aircraft use ― Test methods ― Part 100: General.
Wiring specified as UV laser markable and which has been marked in accordance with this document will
conform to the requirements of EN 3838.
This document is applicable to the marking of airframe electrical wires and cables using ultraviolet (UV)
lasers. The laser process practices defined in this standard are mandatory.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 3475-100, Aerospace series - Cables, electrical, aircraft use - Test methods - Part 100: General
EN 3475-705, Aerospace series - Cables, electrical, aircraft use - Test methods - Part 705: Contrast
measurement
EN 3475-706, Aerospace series - Cables, electrical, aircraft use - Test methods - Part 706: Laser markability
)
1s
EN 3838, Aerospace series - Requirements and tests on user-applied markings on aircraft electrical cable
EN ISO 10012, Measurement management systems - Requirements for measurement processes and
measuring equipment (ISO 10012)
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
cable
electrical cable, unless noted as a fibre optic cable. 2 (two) or more insulated conductors, solid or
stranded, contained in a common covering, or 2 (two) or more insulated conductors twisted or molded
together without common covering, or one insulated conductor with a metallic covering shield or outer
conductor

1)
Published as ASD-STAN Standard at the date of publication of this document by AeroSpace and Defence
industries Association of Europe — Standardization (ASD-STAN), http://www.asd-stan.org/
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3.1.2
component
for the purposes of this document this shall be an electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic
cable
3.1.3
contrast
measurement relating to the difference in luminance of the mark and its associated background according
to a precise formula
3.1.4
damage
for the purpose of this document, with reference to wire and cable, damage is defined as an unacceptable
reduction in the mechanical or electrical properties of the insulation (i.e., specifically a measurable
reduction in the performance of the wire or cable that is outside of its defined specification or is otherwise
unacceptable)
3.1.5
dot overlap
dot overlap for scanning laser systems is defined in relation to the diameter, D, of the laser beam at the
2
surface of the wire at the 1/e point, and the distance, d, between the centres of the adjacent dots
Note 1 to entry: The percentage overlap = (1-(d/D)) x 100 %
3.1.6
excimer
gas laser deriving its name from the term “excited dimer”
Note 1 to entry: The laser is energized by means of an electrical discharge in a specialized mixture of rare gases
and halogens. Excimer lasers are available operating at a number of discrete wavelengths throughout the UV, the
most common of which are 193 nm, 248 nm, 308 nm and 351 nm. The wavelength is dependant only on the gas mix
used; 308 nm is commonly used for UV laser wire marking.
3.1.7
fibre optic cable
cable that is designed to transmit light waves between a light transmission source and a receiver
Note 1 to entry: In signal applications, the transmitter and receiver include devices that are used to convert
between optical and electronic pulses. Typical cables include a glass or plastic core, a layer of cladding having a
lower refractive index to refract or totally reflect light inward at the core/cladding boundary, a buffer, strength
members and jacketing to protect the inner cable from environmental damage.
3.1.8
fluence
2
energy density, measured in joules per square centimetre (J/cm ), of a single pulse of the laser beam,
which is at the surface of the wire insulation or cable jacket
3.1.9
font
defining shape and style of a character set for printing or marking
3.1.10
gauge
wire size specified for a wire in a wire harness assembly by the wire harness assembly drawing
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3.1.11
harmonic generation
use of non-linear optical processes to change the wavelength of a laser, enabling the output of an infrared
laser to be converted to shorter wavelengths
Note 1 to entry: In the case of Neodymium (Nd) lasers this results in a frequency doubled output at 532 nm in the
green and a frequency tripled output at 355 nm in the UV, which is used for wire marking.
3.1.12
harness
assembly of any number of wires, electrical/optical cables and/or groups and their terminations which
is designed and fabricated so as to allow for installation and removal as a unit
Note 1 to entry: A harness may be an open harness or a protected harness.
3.1.13
infrared
IR electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 700 nm to in excess of
10 000 nm
3.1.14
insulation
outer polymer covering of an electrical wire or multi-conductor cable or fibre optic cable
3.1.15
IR laser
laser that produces a beam of radiation in the IR range
3.1.16
jacket
outer protective covering for a cable
3.1.17
laser
laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers are a source
of intense monochromatic light in the ultraviolet, visible or infrared region of the spectrum. The “active”
or lasing medium may be a solid, liquid or gas. The laser beam is generated by energizing the active
medium using an external power source, which is most commonly electrical or optical
3.1.18
laser average power
optical power, measured in Watts (W), delivered by the laser source
3.1.19
laser pulse energy
optical energy, measured in Joules (J) contained in each laser pulse
3.1.20
laser pulse length
time interval between the laser energy crossing half the maximum energy on the rising and the falling
edges of the pulse; referred to as FWHM – full width half maximum
−9
Note 1 to entry: Pulse lengths are measured in nanoseconds (ns). 1 ns = 10 s.
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3.1.21
laser pulse rate
number of laser pulses delivered per second, measured in Hertz (Hz). Also referred to as the laser pulse
frequency or repetition rate
3.1.22
legibility
properties of a mark that enable it to be easily and correctly read
3.1.23
luminance
quantitative measurement of the visible light reflected from a surface, in this case the wire or cable
insulation
3.1.24
mark
meaningful alphanumeric or machine readable mark applied to the surface of a wire or cable jacket
3.1.25
markability
markability of a wire construction to be marked to provide legible identification marks of a specified
contrast when marked in accordance with this document
3.1.26
neodymium Nd
elemental metal that forms the active laser material in the most common type of solid-state laser
Note 1 to entry: The neodymium is held in an optically transparent solid “host” material, and is energized by
optical input, either from a flash lamp or from the optical output from a diode laser. The host material does not play
a direct role but can slightly influence the laser wavelength. Typical host materials are specialized crystal materials,
such as Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG), Yttrium Lithium Fluoride (YLF) and Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4). These
lasers are commonly referred to as Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF and Nd:YVO4 respectively. The primary wavelength of Nd solid
state lasers is in the infrared (IR) at a wavelength of approximately 1 064 nm. The IR output of such lasers can be
conveniently reduced to lower wavelengths suitable for wire marking by use of harmonic generation.
3.1.27
purchaser
activity that can issue a purchase order or contract
3.1.28
q-switched laser
laser that retains and circulates the laser energy internally within the laser until a signal is sent to open
the “Q-switch”, usually an electro-optic component. The Q-switch acts like a gate that when opened allows
the trapped laser beam to exit on a nanosecond timescale. This technique is routinely used on long pulse
solid state lasers to create short laser pulses such as those required for UV laser wire marking
3.1.29
quality conformance
tests performed on production samples at a specified frequency to ensure that the requirements of this
document are met
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3.1.30
quality conformance inspection
process that includes measurements, non-destructive tests, analysis, and associated data that will
provide verification that a particular individual component continually conforms to the requirements
defined in the standard
3.1.31
supplier
original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or a value-added manufacturer which has design and
production control of the processes used to produce the final product in accordance with the standard
3.1.32
ultraviolet
UV
electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range from approximately 200 nm to 400 nm
3.1.33
UV laser
laser that produces a beam of radiation in the UV range
3.1.34
verification inspection
process that demonstrates that a product is capable of fully conforming to all the requirements defined
in a standard
Note 1 to entry: Verification Inspection includes definition of the measurements, tests, analysis, and associated
data that provides consistent rationale for acceptance of a particular supplier's design as meeting the standard
requirements typically prior to acquisition by the purchaser.
3.1.35
wavelength λ
distance between repeating units of a wave pattern, e.g. the distance between the crest of 1 (one) wave
and the crest of an adjacent wave
Note 1 to entry: Laser wavelength is typically measured in nanometres (nm).
Note 2 to entry: λ = c/f
where
c is the velocity of light;
f is the frequency.
3.1.36
wire
single metallic conductor of solid, stranded or tinsel construction, designed to carry current in an electric
circuit, but not having a metallic covering, sheath or shield
Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of this specification, “wire” refers to “insulated electric wire”.
3.1.37
wire code
wire circuit identification number or code assigned to a specific wire in a wire harness assembly and
marked on the insulation surface
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3.2 Symbols and abbreviations
−9
nm: nanometre, 10 m;
−9
ns: nanosecond 10 s;
ETFE: ethylenetetrafluoroethylene;
PFA: perfluoroalkoxy fluoropolymer;
PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene;
PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride / polyvinylidene fluoride.
4 Requirements
4.1 UV laser wire marking requirements
The laser requirements for marking aerospace wire and cable are grouped under:
a) Process Requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the marking process in terms of the mark
characteristics and quality; and
b) System Requirements, i.e. those characteristics that affect the performance of equipment in terms of
its operational use.
4.2 Design construction file
The equipment supplier shall create a Design Construction File that records the relevant design details of
the equipment and demonstrates clearly how all the requirements of Clause 4 are met. A copy of this
Design Construction File shall be maintained and made available to purchasers as required.
4.3 Process requirements
4.3.1 Laser wavelength
Short wavelength UV laser light, in the range 240 nm to 380 nm only shall be used for marking
(see Clause 8). Long wavelength infrared (IR) laser radiation shall not be used for the direct marking of
aerospace electrical or fibre optic wire and cable.
4.3.2 Mask based laser marking systems (see Clause 8)
4.3.2.1 General
Laser marks generated by mask-based processes shall be formed by a single pulse of the laser and shall
not overlap. Only laser beams with a uniform top hat profile shall be employed for mask marking.
WARNING — Multiple overlapping marks may cause wire insulation damage, particularly on
extruded ETFE and PVDF materials.
4.3.2.2 Laser pulse length (see Clause 8)
Lasers with pulse lengths between 3 ns and 35 ns shall be used for marking.
4.3.2.3 Applied laser fluence (see Clause 8)
The equipment supplier shall be responsible for designing the system to ensure that the equipment
delivers the required fluence to achieve the optimum mark contrast and quality without impairing the
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wire characteristics. The user shall be responsible for ensuring that the equipment is maintained and
calibrated to continue to deliver the required fluence.
The fluence shall be taken as the average value across the mark. The equipment shall be set to mark at a
−2 −2
fluence in the range 0,8 J/cm to 1,3 J/cm . The specified fluence shall be the fluence measured at the
top centre of the wire surface, as marked. These marking fluences shall be used unless the wire type under
test is specified for marking at a different fluence.
The laser fluence delivered to the wire shall remain within the specified range under all standard
operating conditions at all times during the entirety of the marking process and for all different font sizes;
this shall be inclusive of any pulse to pulse variations in laser energy.
In ensuring that the equipment delivers and operates within the required fluence at all times the supplier
shall design the equipment taking into account:
a) the laser shot to shot pulse energy variation;
b) short to long term drift in laser power output;
c) the laser beam intensity profile, ensuring that that part of the beam used for marking the wires shall
be of sufficiently uniform intensity and without any hot spots that would result in the maximum
fluence being exceeded within the beam profile when projected on to a flat surface at the focal point
of the beam delivery system.
Laser markers set to operate in the specified fluence range will produce the maximum mark contrast on
any given aerospace wire or cable. It is NOT possible to increase the mark contrast by increasing the
fluence above t
...

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