Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 11: Test method for soil gas with sampling at depth (ISO 11665-11:2016)

ISO 11665-11:2016 describes radon-222 test methods for soil gas using passive and active in-situ sampling at depth comprised between surface and 2 m.
ISO 11665-11:2016 gives general requirements for the sampling techniques, either passive or active and grab or continuous, for in-situ radon-222 activity concentrations measurement in soil gas.
The radon-222 activity concentration in the soil can be measured by spot or continuous measurement methods (see ISO 11665‑1). In case of spot measurement methods (ISO 11665‑6), the soil gas sampling is active only. On the other hand, the continuous methods (ISO 11665‑5) are typically associated with passive soil gas sampling.
The measurement methods are applicable to all types of soil and are determined according to the end use of the measurement results (phenomenological observation, definition or verification of mitigation techniques, etc.) taking into account the expected level of the radon-222 activity concentration.
These measurement methods are applicable to soil gas samples with radon activity concentrations greater than 100 Bq/m3.
NOTE          This part of ISO 11665 is complementary with ISO 11665‑7 for characterization of the radon soil potential.

Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Luft: Radon-222 - Teil 11: Verfahren zur Probenahme und Prüfung von Bodenluft (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Dieser Teil von ISO 11665 beschreibt Prüfverfahren für Radon-222 in der Bodenluft mittels passiver und akti-ver In-situ-Probenahme in Tiefen im Bereich zwischen der Erdoberfläche und 2 m.
Dieser Teil von ISO 11665 enthält allgemeine Anforderungen an die Probenahmetechniken, die entweder passiv oder aktiv sind und kurzzeitig oder kontinuierlich für die In-situ-Messung der Radon-222-Aktivitätskon-zentration in der Bodenluft erfolgen.
Die Radon-222-Aktivitätskonzentration im Erdboden kann durch Punktmessung oder kontinuierliche Mess-verfahren ermittelt werden (siehe ISO 11665-1). Im Falle von Punktmessungen (ISO 11665-6) sind die Pro-benahmen der Bodenluft aktiv. Im Gegensatz dazu beruhen die kontinuierlichen Verfahren (ISO 11665-5) in der Regel auf passiven Probenahmen.
Die Messverfahren sind anwendbar auf alle Bodentypen und sind durch die Verwendung der Messergebnisse bei Berücksichtigung des zu erwartenden Wertes der Radon-222-Aktivitätskonzentration festgelegt (phäno-menologische Beobachtung, Festlegung und Verifikation von Reduzierungsmaßnahmen usw.).
Diese Messverfahren sind anwendbar auf Bodenluftproben mit Radon-Aktivitätskonzentrationen größer als 100 Bq·m–3.
ANMERKUNG Dieser Teil von ISO 11665 ergänzt ISO 11665-7 hinsichtlich der Charakterisierung des Radonpotenzials im Erdboden.

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Air: radon 222 - Partie 11: Méthode d'essai pour le gaz du sol avec un prélèvement en profondeur (ISO 11665-11:2016)

L'ISO 11665-11:2016 décrit les méthodes d'essai permettant de mesurer le radon 222 dans le gaz du sol avec un prélèvement in situ passif ou actif à une profondeur comprise entre la surface et 2 m.
L'ISO 11665-11:2016 spécifie les exigences générales relatives aux techniques de prélèvement, passif ou actif et ponctuel ou en continu, en vue du mesurage in situ de l'activité volumique du radon 222 dans le gaz du sol.
L'activité volumique du radon 222 dans le sol peut être mesurée par des méthodes de mesure ponctuelle ou en continu (voir l'ISO 11665‑1). Dans le cas des méthodes de mesure ponctuelle (ISO 11665‑6), le prélèvement de gaz du sol est uniquement actif. En revanche, les méthodes en continu (ISO 11665‑5) sont généralement associées à un prélèvement passif du gaz du sol.
Les méthodes de mesure s'appliquent à tous les types de sol et sont déterminées selon l'objectif final des résultats de mesure (observation phénoménologique, détermination ou vérification de techniques d'atténuation, etc.) en tenant compte du niveau attendu de l'activité volumique du radon 222.
Ces méthodes de mesure s'appliquent aux échantillons de gaz du sol ayant des valeurs d'activité volumique du radon supérieures à 100 Bq/m3.
NOTE          L'ISO 11665-11:2016 est complémentaire à l'ISO 11665‑7 pour la caractérisation du potentiel radon des sols.

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Zrak: radon Rn-222 - 11. del: Preskusna metoda za vzorčenje plinov iz tal (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Standard ISO 11665-11:2016 opisuje preskusne metode za določanje radona-222 v plinih iz tal s pasivnim in aktivnim vzorčenjem na kraju samem med površino in globino 2 m.
Standard ISO 11665-11:2016 določa splošne zahteve za tehnike vzorčenja, pasivno ali aktivno in zajemno ali neprekinjeno, za merjenje koncentracij aktivnosti radona-222 na kraju samem v plinih iz tal.
Koncentracije aktivnosti radona-222 v tleh je mogoče meriti s točkovnimi ali neprekinjenimi metodami merjenja (glej standard ISO 11665-1). Pri metodah točkovnega merjenja (ISO 11665‑6) je aktivno samo vzorčenje plinov iz tal. Po drugi strani so neprekinjene metode (ISO 11665‑5) tipično povezane s pasivnim vzorčenjem plinov iz tal.
Metode merjenja se uporabljajo za vse vrste tal in so določene glede na končno uporabo rezultatov meritev (fenomenološko opazovanje, definicija ali preverjanje tehnik ublažitve ipd.) ob upoštevanju pričakovane ravni koncentracije aktivnosti radona-222.
Te metode merjenja se uporabljajo za vzorce plinov iz tal s koncentracijami aktivnosti radona, večjimi od 100 Bq/m3.
OPOMBA: Ta del standarda ISO 11665 dopolnjuje standard ISO 11665‑7 za karakterizacijo potenciala za radon v tleh.

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
01-december-2019

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Zrak: radon Rn-222 - 11. del: Preskusna metoda

za vzorčenje plinov iz tal (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air: radon-222 - Part 11: Test method

for soil gas with sampling at depth (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Luft: Radon-222 - Teil 11: Verfahren zur

Probenahme und Prüfung von Bodenluft (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Air: radon 222 - Partie 11: Méthode

d'essai pour le gaz du sol avec un prélèvement en profondeur (ISO 11665-11:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ICS:
13.040.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to air
kakovostjo zraka quality
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
EN ISO 11665-11
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.01; 17.240
English Version
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air:
radon-222 - Part 11: Test method for soil gas with
sampling at depth (ISO 11665-11:2016)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Luft:

Air: radon 222 - Partie 11: Méthode d'essai pour le gaz Radon-222 - Teil 11: Verfahren zur Probenahme und

du sol avec un prélèvement en profondeur (ISO 11665- Prüfung von Bodenluft (ISO 11665-11:2016)

11:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11665-11:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
EN ISO 11665-11:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
EN ISO 11665-11:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 11665-11:2016 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 11665-11:2019 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by April 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11665-11:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11665-11:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11665-11
First edition
2016-04-15
Measurement of radioactivity in the
environment — Air: radon-222 —
Part 11:
Test method for soil gas with sampling
at depth
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l’environnement — Air: radon 222 —
Partie 11: Méthode d’essai pour le gaz du sol avec un prélèvement en
profondeur
Reference number
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.1 Sampling objective ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Sampling characteristics ......... ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.3 Sampling conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.2 Location of sampling place .................. .................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Sampling duration .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.4 Volume of air sampled .................. ......................................................................................................................... ...... 5

6.3.5 Minimal depth of sampling ..................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Detection ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8 Measurement ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Influence quantities ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8.3 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

9.1 Radon activity concentration...................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.2 Standard uncertainty ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.3 Decision threshold and detection limit .............................................................................................................................. 7

9.4 Limits of the confidence interval ............................................................................................................................................. 8

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Values of soil-gas volumes available for extraction ..............................................................10

Annex B (normative) Measurement method using an active sampling ........................................................................11

Annex C (normative) Measurement method using a passive sampling ........................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Examples of soil-gas sampling probes for active sampling ..........................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear

technologies, and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.

ISO 11665 consists of the following parts, under the general title Measurement of radioactivity in the

environment — Air: radon-222:

— Part 1: Origins of radon and its short-lived decay products and associated measurement methods

— Part 2: Integrated measurement method for determining average potential alpha energy concentration

of its short-lived decay products

— Part 3: Spot measurement method of the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay

products

— Part 4: Integrated measurement method for determining average activity concentration using passive

sampling and delayed analysis
— Part 5: Continuous measurement method of the activity concentration
— Part 6: Spot measurement method of the activity concentration
— Part 7: Accumulation method for estimating surface exhalation rate
— Part 8: Methodologies for initial and additional investigations in buildings
— Part 9: Test methods for exhalation rate of building materials
— Part 11: Test method for soil gas with sampling at depth
The following part is under preparation:

— Part 10: Determination of the diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials using activity concentration

measurement
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
Introduction

Radon isotopes 222, 220 and 219 are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium

isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium-238, thorium-232 and uranium-235,

respectively, and are all found in the Earth’s crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, followed by stable

[1]
lead are produced by radon disintegration .

When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also

radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead, etc.). The potential effects on human health of radon lie in its solid

decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached to atmospheric aerosols,

radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths

according to their size.

Radon is today considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. Reference [2]

suggests that, at the worldwide level, radon accounts for around 52 % of global average exposure to

natural radiation. The radiological impact of isotope 222 (48 %) is far more significant than isotope 220

(4 %), while isotope 219 is considered negligible. For this reason, references to radon in this part of

ISO 11665 refer only to radon-222.

Radon activity concentration can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space.

Exposure to radon and its decay products varies tremendously from one area to another, as it depends

firstly on the amount of radon emitted by the soil and the building materials in each area and, secondly,

on the degree of containment and weather conditions in the areas where individuals are exposed.

As radon tends to concentrate in enclosed spaces like houses, the main part of the population exposure

is due to indoor radon. Soil gas is recognized as the most important source of residential radon through

infiltration pathways. Other sources are described in other parts of ISO 11665 (building materials) and

ISO 13164 (water).

Measurements of radon in the soil gas are performed for several applications dealing with radon

risk management (drawing up of radon potential maps, defining radon-prone areas, characterization

of radon potential of building sites, characterization of soil contaminated with radium-226, defining

mitigation techniques to be applied in a building, verification of applied mitigation techniques, etc.), and

phenomenological observation (understanding radon transport mechanisms in the soil and from the

soil into the building, identification and analysis of radon entry parameters, gas activity measurement

for survey of CO , volcanic eruption prediction, earthquake prediction, etc.).

The radon activity concentrations in the soil gas not only vary substantially at the season scale but also

from day to day and even from hour to hour. It also varies in space in the horizontal, as well as the

[3][4][5][19]

vertical dimension, depending on the following parameters characterizing the soil properties :

— geochemical parameters of soils (mainly distribution of uranium and radium in soils and rocks and

their localization influencing the radon emanation);

— physical parameters of all present layers of soils (grain size, permeability, porosity and effective

porosity, soil moisture and water saturation, density);

— geological situation (thickness of Quaternary cover, weathering character of the bedrock,

stratification, modification of layers by various antropogeneous activities);
— soil structure (deformation, presence of cracks);

— hydrological and geodynamic processes (transport of gaseous and liquid substances in porous and

fractured environment, radium and radon in underground/fissure water);

— geomorphological situation (location of the area in a valley, on the slopes, or on the top of a hill);

— exogenous/meteorological factors (temperature, pressure, precipitation).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)

Because of these fluctuations, standardized measurement protocols are needed in order to ensure

accurate and consistent measurement results of radon in the soils to ensure that they can be compared

in time and space.

Depending on the depth, the values usually found in the soil gas are normally between a few hundred

becquerels per cubic metre and several hundred of thousand becquerels per cubic metre. Activity

concentrations can reach several billions of becquerels per cubic metre in radium-rich soils.

Theoretically, the radon activity concentration in the soil gas can be defined for any variable depth below

the ground surface and it generally increases with depth below the surface in an ideal homogeneous

[6]

soil . But there is a minimal depth below the ground surface, at which the parameter can be really

measured. The minimal depth depends on the soil properties at a given place and on the measurement

method used. In particular, it depends on the volume of the soil gas sample. When the depth below the

ground surface is lower than the above mentioned minimal depth, the soil gas sample is diluted with

atmospheric air and the real value of radon activity concentration in the soil gas is underestimated (see

Annex A).

NOTE The origin of radon-222 and its short-lived decay products in the atmospheric environment and other

measurement methods are described generally in ISO 11665-1.
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Air:
radon-222 —
Part 11:
Test method for soil gas with sampling at depth
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11665 describes radon-222 test methods for soil gas using passive and active in-situ

sampling at depth comprised between surface and 2 m.

This part of ISO 11665 gives general requirements for the sampling techniques, either passive or active

and grab or continuous, for in-situ radon-222 activity concentrations measurement in soil gas.

The radon-222 activity concentration in the soil can be measured by spot or continuous measurement

methods (see ISO 11665-1). In case of spot measurement methods (ISO 11665-6), the soil gas sampling

is active only. On the other hand, the continuous methods (ISO 11665-5) are typically associated with

passive soil gas sampling.

The measurement methods are applicable to all types of soil and are determined according to the end

use of the measurement results (phenomenological observation, definition or verification of mitigation

techniques, etc.) taking into account the expected level of the radon-222 activity concentration.

These measurement methods are applicable to soil gas samples with radon activity concentrations

greater than 100 Bq/m .

NOTE This part of ISO 11665 is complementary with ISO 11665-7 for characterization of the radon soil

potential.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10381-7, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 7: Guidance on sampling of soil gas

ISO 11665-1, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Air: radon-222 — Part 1: Origins of radon

and its short-lived decay products and associated measurement methods

ISO 11665-5, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Air: radon-222 — Part 5: Continuous

measurement method of the activity concentration

ISO 11665-6, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Air: radon-222 — Part 6: Spot

measurement method of the activity concentration

ISO 11929, Determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the

confidence interval) for ionizing radiation measurements — Fundamentals and application

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11665-1 and the following apply.

3.1.1
water saturation of soil
part of soil pores filled with water
3.1.2
effective soil porosity

ratio of the volume of soil pores, which is available for transport, and the volume of soil

3.1.3
effective air porosity

ratio of the volume of soil pores filled with air, which is available for transport, and the volume of soil

3.1.4
activity concentration in soil air
activity per unit volume of soil air
3.1.5
active soil-gas sampling
sampling by extracting a certain volume of soil-gas
[SOURCE: ISO 10381-7:2005]
3.1.6
passive soil-gas sampling
sampling performed without employing negative pressure or suction
3.1.7
dead volume

volume which is present between suction opening of the soil-gas probe and the sampling vial or the

detection chamber
3.1.8
soil-gas sampling probe

probe, generally a tube, which is installed directly in soil (one-stage soil-gas sampling), to take soil-

gas samples
3.1.9
one-stage soil-gas sampling

sampling of soil-gas directly from a soil-gas probe placed in soil, without pre-drilling

[SOURCE: ISO 10381-7:2005]
3.2 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in ISO 11665-1 and the following apply.

C Activity concentration, in becquerel per cubic metre
µ Quantity to be measured
µ Background level
ε Correction factor linked to the calibration factor

V Volume of the soil gas extracted from the soil during the soil gas sampling, in cubic metre

V Volume of a sphere of an homogeneous soil, which contains the volume, V , of soil gas available for

soil s
extraction, in cubic metre
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
r Radius of the sphere of an homogeneous soil in metre
s Water saturation of soil
n Effective soil porosity
eff
n Effective air porosity
u( ) Standard uncertainty associated with the measurement result
u ( ) Relative uncertainty associated with the measurement result
rel
U Expanded uncertainty calculated by U = k ∙ u( ) with k = 2

C* Decision threshold of the activity concentration, in becquerel per cubic metre

C Detection limit of the activity concentration, in becquerel per cubic metre

Lower and upper limit of the confidence interval, respectively, of the activity concentration, in bec-

C ,C
querel per cubic metre
4 Principle

When the active soil gas sampling is used, the measurement of the radon activity concentration in the

soil gas is based on the following:

— sampling of a volume of soil gas representative of the soil under investigation at time, t, or during

time interval Δt;
— transfer of the soil gas sample into the detection chamber;

— measurement of the physical variable (photons, pulse counts and amplitude, etc.) linked to the

radiation emitted by radon and/or its decay products present in the detection chamber after the

transfer of the soil gas sample.

When the passive soil gas sampling is used, the measurement of the radon activity concentration in the

soil gas is based on the following:

— placing of the detection chamber to the place below the ground surface representative of the soil

under investigation during time interval Δt;

— passive transfer of the soil gas sample into the detection chamber by diffusion;

— measurement of the physical variable linked to the radiation emitted by radon and/or its decay

products present in the detection chamber after the transfer of the soil gas sample.

Several measurement methods meet the requirements of this part of ISO 11665. They are basically

distinguished by the type of the sampling and measurement of the physical quantity.

5 Equipment
The apparatus includes the following:

a) soil-gas sampling probe installed directly in soil if an active sampling is performed;

b) device for placing the detection chamber to the chosen place below the ground surface if a passive

sampling is used;
c) detection chamber;
d) measuring system adapted to the physical quantity.

The necessary equipment for specific measurement methods is specified in Annex B and Annex C.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 11665-11:2019
ISO 11665-11:2016(E)
6 Sampling
6.1 Sampling objective

The sampling objective is to obtain an air sample representative of the soil without creating a

perturbation of the soil.
6.2 Sampling characteristics
The sampling is passive or active. The sampling is grab or continuous.

The sampling is representative of the radon activity concentration at a given place and at a given depth

(or at a given depth interval) below the ground surface.

Grab sampling is representative of the radon activity concentration in the soil at a given moment.

Continuous sampling is representative of the radon activity concentration in the soil

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