Rotating electrical machines - Part 32: Measurement of stator end-winding vibration at form-wound windings

IEC TS 60034-32:2016(E) is intended to provide consistent guidelines for measuring and reporting end-winding vibration behaviour during operation and at standstill. It - defines terms for measuring, analysis and evaluation of stator end-winding vibration and related structural dynamics; - gives guidelines for measuring dynamic / structural characteristics offline and stator end-winding vibrations online; - describes instrumentation and installation practices for end-winding vibration measurement equipment; - establishes general principles for documentation of test results; - describes the theoretical background of stator end-winding vibrations. This part of IEC 60034 is applicable to three-phase synchronous generators and three-phase synchronous direct online (DOL) motors.

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 32: Messung von Wickelkopfschwingungen an Formspulen im Ständer

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 32: Mesurage des vibrations des développantes de stator au niveau des enroulements préformés

Električni rotacijski stroji - 32. del: Merjenje vibracij statorskega navitja pri navitih navitjih (IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)

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Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
23-Apr-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
01-december-2021

Električni rotacijski stroji - 32. del: Merjenje vibracij statorskega navitja pri navitih

navitjih (IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)

Rotating electrical machines - Part 32: Measurement of stator end-winding vibration at

form-wound windings (IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)
Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 32: Messung von Wickelkopfschwingungen an
Formspulen im Ständer (IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)
Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 32: Mesurage des vibrations des
développantes de stator au niveau des enroulements préformés (IEC/TS 60034-
32:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
ICS:
29.160.01 Rotacijski stroji na splošno Rotating machinery in
general
SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION CLC IEC/TS 60034-32
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
October 2021
ICS 29.160.01
English Version
Rotating electrical machines - Part 32: Measurement of stator
end-winding vibration at form-wound windings
(IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 32: Mesurage des Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 32: Messung von

vibrations des développantes de stator au niveau des Wickelkopfschwingungen an Formspulen im Ständer

enroulements préformés (IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)
(IEC/TS 60034-32:2016)
This Technical Specification was approved by CENELEC on 2021-08-16.

CENELEC members are required to announce the existence of this TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the TS available promptly

at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021 E
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021) consists of the text of IEC/TS 60034-32:2016 prepared

by IEC/TC 2 "Rotating machinery".

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Technical Specification IEC/TS 60034-30-2:2016 was approved by

CENELEC as a European Technical Specification without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60034-18-31 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60034-18-31
IEC 60034-18-32 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60034-18-32
IEC/TS 60034-18-33 NOTE Harmonized as CLC/TS 60034-18-33
IEC 60034-18-34 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60034-18-34
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications with their
corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod),

the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is

available here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60034-1 - Rotating electrical machines - Part 1: EN 60034-1 -
Rating and performance
IEC 60034-15 - Rotating electrical machines - Part 15: EN 60034-15 -
Impulse voltage withstand levels of form-
wound stator coils for rotating a.c.
machines
IEC 60079 series Explosive atmospheres EN 60079 series
ISO 7626-5 1994 Vibration and shock - Experimental - -
determination of mechanical mobility – Part
5: Measurements using impact excitation
with an exciter which is not attached to the
structure
ISO 18431-1 - Mechanical vibration and shock - Signal - -
processing - Part 1: General introduction
ISO 18431-2 - Mechanical vibration and shock - Signal - -
processing - Part 2: Time domain windows
for Fourier Transform analysis

A new edition and common modifications are currently under preparation. Stage of these documents

at the time of publication: FprEN 60034-1 and FprEN 60034-1/prAA.
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
IEC TS 60034-32
Edition 1.0 2016-12
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Rotating electrical machines –
Part 32: Measurement of stator end-winding vibration at form-wound windings
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.160.01 ISBN 978-2-8322-3714-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
– 2 – IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ...................................................................... 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 13

4 Causes and effects of stator end-winding vibrations ...................................................... 14

5 Measurement of stator end-winding structural dynamics at standstill ............................. 15

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

5.2 Experimental modal analysis ................................................................................. 15

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

5.2.2 Measurement equipment ............................................................................... 16

5.2.3 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 17

5.2.4 Evaluation of measured frequency response functions, identification of

modes ........................................................................................................... 20

5.2.5 Elements of test report .................................................................................. 20

5.2.6 Interpretation of results .................................................................................. 21

5.3 Driving point analysis ............................................................................................ 22

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

5.3.2 Measurement equipment ............................................................................... 23

5.3.3 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 23

5.3.4 Evaluation of measured FRFs, identification of modes ................................... 23

5.3.5 Elements of test report .................................................................................. 24

5.3.6 Interpretation of results .................................................................................. 24

6 Measurement of end-winding vibration during operation ................................................ 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Measurement equipment ....................................................................................... 25

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

6.2.2 Vibration transducers ..................................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Electro-optical converters for fiber optic systems ........................................... 27

6.2.4 Penetrations for hydrogen-cooled machines .................................................. 27

6.2.5 Data acquisition ............................................................................................. 27

6.3 Sensor installation ................................................................................................ 28

6.3.1 Sensor locations ............................................................................................ 28

6.3.2 Good installation practices ............................................................................. 29

6.4 Most relevant dynamic characteristics to be retrieved ........................................... 30

6.5 Identification of operational deflection shapes ....................................................... 31

6.6 Elements of test report .......................................................................................... 31

6.7 Interpretation of results ......................................................................................... 32

7 Repeated measurements for detection of structural changes ......................................... 33

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 33

7.2 Reference measurements, operational parameters and their comparability ........... 33

7.3 Choice of measurement actions ............................................................................ 35

7.4 Aspects of machine’s condition and its history ...................................................... 36

Annex A (informative) Background causes and effects of stator end-winding vibrations ....... 37

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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016 – 3 –

A.1 Stator end-winding dynamics ................................................................................ 37

A.1.1 Vibration modes and operating deflection shape ............................................ 37

A.1.2 Excitation of stator end-winding vibrations ..................................................... 38

A.1.3 Relevant vibration characteristics of stator end-windings ............................... 38

A.1.4 Influence of operational parameter ................................................................ 41

A.2 Increased stator end-winding vibrations ................................................................ 41

A.2.1 General aspects of increased vibration .......................................................... 41

A.2.2 Increase of stator end-winding vibrations levels over time and potential

remedial actions ............................................................................................ 42

A.2.3 Transient conditions as cause for structural changes ..................................... 43

A.2.4 Special aspects of main insulation ................................................................. 44

A.3 Operational deflection shape of global stator end-winding vibrations ..................... 44

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

A.3.2 Force distributions relevant for global vibrational behaviour ........................... 44

A.3.3 Idealized global vibration behaviour while in operation .................................. 45

A.3.4 General vibration behaviour of stator end-windings ........................................ 47

A.3.5 Positioning of sensors for the measurement of global vibration level .............. 49

A.4 Operational deflection shape of local stator end-winding vibrations ....................... 51

Annex B (informative) Data visualization .............................................................................. 52

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 52

B.2 Standstill measurements ....................................................................................... 53

B.3 Measurements during operation ............................................................................ 56

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 62

Figure 1 – Stator end-winding of a turbogenerator (left) and a large motor (right) at

connection end with parallel rings ........................................................................................... 7

Figure 2 – Example for an end-winding structure of an indirect cooled machine ...................... 8

Figure 3 – Measurement structure with point numbering and indication of excitation ............. 19

Figure 4 – Simplified cause effect chain of stator end-winding vibration and influencing

operational parameters ......................................................................................................... 35

Figure A.1 – Illustration of global vibration modes ................................................................. 40

Figure A.2 – Example of rotational force distribution for p = 1 ............................................... 45

Figure A.3 – Example of rotating operational vibration deflection wave for p = 1 ................... 46

Figure A.4 – Illustration of two vibration modes with different orientation in space

(example for p = 1) ................................................................................................................ 47

Figure A.5 – on-rotational operational vibration deflection wave (example for p = 1) ............. 48

Figure A.6 – Amplitude and phase distribution for a general case. ........................................ 49

Figure A.7 – Sensors for the measurement of global vibration level centred in the

winding zones ....................................................................................................................... 50

Figure A.8 – Measurement of global vibration level with 6 equidistantly distributed

sensors in the centre of winding zones ................................................................................. 50

Figure A.9 – Example – Sensor positions for the measurement of local vibration level

of the winding connection relative to global vibration level .................................................... 51

Figure B.1 – Measurement structure with point numbering and indication of excitation .......... 52

Figure B.2 – Example for linearity test − Force signal and variance of related FRFs ............. 53

Figure B.3 – Example for reciprocity test – FRFs in comparison ............................................ 53

Figure B.4 – Example – Two overlay-plots of the same transfer functions but different

dimensions ........................................................................................................................... 54

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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
– 4 – IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016
Figure B.5 – Shapes of the 4, 6 and 8-node modes with natural frequencies,

measurement in one plane .................................................................................................... 55

Figure B.6 – Mode shape of a typical 4-node mode with different viewing directions

(stator end-winding and outer support ring) ........................................................................... 55

Figure B.7 – Example – Amplitude and phase of dynamic compliance and coherence ........... 56

Figure B.8 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Trend in displacement over time for 10 stator

end-winding accelerometers, as well as one accelerometer mounted on the stator core ........ 56

Figure B.9 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – End-winding vibration, winding temperature

trends over time, constant stator current ............................................................................... 57

Figure B.10 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – End-winding vibration, stator current trends

over time, constant winding temperature ............................................................................... 57

Figure B.11 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Example of variation in vibration levels at

comparable operating conditions........................................................................................... 58

Figure B.12 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Raw vibration signal, acceleration waveform .......... 59

Figure B.13 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – FFT and double integrated vibration signal,

displacement spectrum ......................................................................................................... 59

Figure B.14 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Displacement spectrum .......................................... 60

Figure B.15 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Velocity spectrum ................................................... 60

Figure B.16 – 2-pole, 60 Hz generator – Acceleration spectrum ............................................ 61

Table 1 – Node number of highest mode shape in relevant frequency range and

minimum number of measurement locations ......................................................................... 20

Table 2 – Possible measurement actions to gain insight into various aspects of the

cause-effect chain. ............................................................................................................... 36

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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 32: Measurement of stator end-winding vibration
at form-wound windings
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical

Specification when

• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

despite repeated efforts, or

• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International Standard.

Technical Specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 60034-32, which is a Technical Specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 2: Rotating machinery.
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
– 6 – IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
2/1810/DTS 2/1849/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

NOTE A table of cross-references of all IEC TC 2 publications can be found on the IEC TC 2 dashboard on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• transformed into an International standard,
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Large alternating current (AC) machines are equipped with multiphase stator windings. The

information in this document is based on a dual-layer design. Such windings are connected to

a multiphase voltage system (multiphase current system), which establishes a rotating

magnetic field in the air gap between the rotor surface and stator bore. The voltage and

current can vary during operation in order to adapt to varying mechanical load. Electrical

machines are normally designed for motor or generator operating mode. The majority of AC

machines are equipped with symmetrical three-phase windings, consisting of three,

electrically isolated, spatially distributed winding parts that are intended for common

operation.

Large AC rotating electrical machines are typically equipped with form-wound windings

consisting of form wound coils (as defined in IEC 60034-15:2009, 2.3), single winding coils

(single winding bars) which are given their shape before being assembled into the machine.

The winding overhang, or end-winding, is the portion of the stator winding that extends

beyond the end of the magnetic core and is, in most cases, formed as a circular cone, see

some examples in Figure 1 below.
IEC
NOTE Individual coil end marked with black line.
Figure 1 – Stator end-winding of a turbogenerator (left)
and a large motor (right) at connection end with parallel rings
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
– 8 – IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016

The majority of large AC machines with form-wound stator windings are equipped with a

stator end-winding support structure. Among other functions it is expected to withstand the

high electromagnetic force loading when the machine is exposed to an electrical fault in the

electrical supply system. This includes a fault in the supply lines of an electrical grid or in an

electronic supply device. In many cases the stator end-winding support structure is not only

designed to increase the structural strength, but also provide appropriate structural stiffness

and inertia to systematically influence structural dynamics and thus the vibration level during

operation.
IEC
Figure 2 – Example for an end-winding structure of an indirect cooled machine

Typical support elements are plates and rings, which support the end-winding cone as a

whole. Moreover, the distance between coils (or bars) of the end-winding are defined by

spacing elements and their positions are fixed by fastening components. The typical materials

used for support elements, spacers and fasteners are composites containing glass fibre

materials as well as resin impregnated felts, cords and bandings (see Figure 2). Also, high

electrical fields surrounding metal parts could produce electrical discharges compromising

long term electrical strength.

Until now there existed no general Technical Specification to get reliable and comparable

results for the identification of natural frequencies during stand-still and for vibration

behaviour of stator end-windings during operation.

The experimental modal analysis of stator end-windings is a well-established tool which has

also been used for the verification of natural frequencies and mode shapes of large electrical

machines worldwide. The goal is to avoid operation of the machine with increased end-

winding vibration levels under the influence of natural frequencies. Measurement of transfer

functions and identification of structural dynamic properties (e.g. natural frequencies, mode

shapes and other modal parameters) with an impact test is a common testing procedure. It is

applied to new machines by the manufacturer and also used as a maintenance tool by the

user or contractor during a major overhaul of large rotating machines.
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SIST-TS CLC IEC/TS 60034-32:2021
IEC TS 60034-32:2016  IEC 2016 – 9 –

Operational measurement of vibrational behaviour of stator end-windings can be performed by

the installation of special vibration transducers at selected end-winding locations for periodic

measurements or permanent on-line monitoring.

Although measurements of natural frequencies and vibration levels of stator end-windings are

well established techniques, the interpretation of results is still a matter of further

improvement and de
...

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