Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 99-2: Recommended practices for environmental sustainability

This document is a compilation of recommended practices for improving the environmental sustainability of both new and existing data centres. Environmental impacts consider not just those associated with electricity but also water usage and other pollutants. It is recognized that the practices included are not universally applicable to all scales and business models of data centres or be undertaken by all parties involved in data centre operation, ownership or use.

Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von Rechenzentren - Teil 99-2: Empfohlene Praktiken für die Umweltverträglichkeit

Bei diesem Technischen Bericht handelt es sich um eine Zusammenstellung empfohlener Praktiken zur Verbesserung der Umweltverträglichkeit von neuen und bestehenden Rechenzentren. Umweltauswirkungen umfassen nicht nur die Auswirkungen von Elektrizität, sondern auch die des Wasserverbrauchs und von Schadstoffen. Es sei ausdrücklich erwähnt, dass sich die aufgenommenen Praktiken nicht in allgemeiner Weise auf alle Größen und Geschäftsmodelle von Rechenzentren auwenden lassen, und dass sie nicht von allen am Betrieb, der Eigentümerschaft oder der Nutzung eines Rechenzentrums beteiligten Parteien ausgeführt werden.

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 99-2. del: Priporočene prakse za okoljsko trajnostnost

Ta dokument je zbirka priporočenih praks za izboljšanje okoljske trajnostnosti novih in obstoječih podatkovnih centrov. Vplivi na okolje niso samo tisti, ki so povezani z električno energijo, temveč tudi z uporabo vode in drugimi onesnaževali.
Ugotovljeno je, da vključene prakse morda niso univerzalno veljavne za vse obsege in poslovne modele podatkovnih centrov ali jih ne izvajajo vse stranke, ki so vključene v delovanje, lastništvo ali uporabo podatkovnih centrov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jul-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
12-Jul-2019
Completion Date
12-Jul-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019
01-november-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2018

Informacijska tehnologija - Naprave in infrastruktura podatkovnih centrov - 99-2.

del: Priporočene prakse za okoljsko trajnostnost
Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures - Part 99-2:
Recommended practices for environmental sustainability
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
35.110 Omreževanje Networking
SIST-TP CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019
TECHNICAL REPORT
CLC/TR 50600-99-2
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2019
ICS 35.020; 35.110; 35.160 Supersedes CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2018
English Version
Information technology - Data centre facilities and infrastructures
- Part 99-2: Recommended practices for environmental
sustainability

Technologies de l’information - Installations et Informationstechnik - Einrichtungen und Infrastrukturen von

infrastructures des centres de traitement de données - Rechenzentren - Teil 99-2: Empfohlene Praktiken für die

Partie 99-2 : Pratiques recommandées en faveur de la Umweltverträglichkeit
durabilité environnementale
This Technical Report was approved by CENELEC on 2019-07-17.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019 E
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Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................3

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ...............................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................7

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................7

3.1 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................7

3.2 Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................8

4 Environmental sustainability .............................................................................................................9

4.1 General .............................................................................................................................9

4.2 Life cycle assessment .......................................................................................................9

4.3 Data centre boundaries ...................................................................................................10

5 Recommended practices for processes .........................................................................................12

6 Recommended practices for source energy mix ............................................................................13

6.1 General ...........................................................................................................................13

6.2 New facilities ...................................................................................................................14

6.3 Existing facilities ..............................................................................................................15

7 Recommended practices for embodied impact of ICT equipment .................................................16

8 Recommended practices for embodied impact of mechanical and electrical systems ..................18

8.1 New facilities ...................................................................................................................18

8.2 Existing facilities ..............................................................................................................19

Annex A (informative) Examples of simplified LCA metrics ...................................................................20

A.1 Direct Material Input of a Data Centre (DC-DMI) ...........................................................................20

A.2 Data Centre Cumulative Energy Demand (DC-CED) .....................................................................20

A.3 Data Centre Carbon Footprint (DC-CF) .........................................................................................21

A.4 Support, data and further information .............................................................................................21

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................22

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European foreword

This document (CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2019) was prepared by the Technical Committee CENELEC TC

215, Electrotechnical aspects of telecommunication equipment.
This document supersedes CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2018.

CLC/TR 50600-99-2:2018 has been revised to include the following Environmental Sustainability

practices, which were previously contained in CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2018, technically unchanged:

Practice in Practice in Topic
CLC/TR 50600-99-1 :2018 CLC/TR 50600-99-2 :2019
6.18.2 5.1 Life Cycle Assessment
5.18.3 5.4 Environmental Management
5.18.5 6.1.1 Sustainable energy usage
6.18.6 6.1.2 Alternative power generation
technologies
6.18.64 6.2.4 Capture rain water
6.18.65 6.2.5 Other water sources
6.18.66 6.2.6 Metering of water consumption
5.18.2 7.1 Consider the embodied energy in
devices

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.
Regarding the structure of the EN 50600 series, see the Introduction.
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Introduction

The unrestricted access to internet-based information demanded by the information society has led to

an exponential growth of both internet traffic and the volume of stored/retrieved data. Data centres are

housing and supporting the information technology and network telecommunications equipment for

data processing, data storage and data transport. They are required both by network operators

(delivering those services to customer premises) and by enterprises within those customer premises.

Data centres need to provide modular, scalable and flexible facilities and infrastructures to easily

accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of the market. In addition, energy consumption of

data centres has become critical both from an environmental point of view (reduction of carbon

footprint) and with respect to economic considerations (cost of energy) for the data centre operator.

The implementation of data centres varies in terms of:

a) purpose (enterprise, co-location, co-hosting, or network operator facilities);

b) security level;
c) physical size;
d) accommodation (mobile, temporary and permanent constructions).

The needs of data centres also vary in terms of availability of service, the provision of security and the

objectives for energy efficiency. These needs and objectives influence the design of data centres in

terms of building construction, power distribution, environmental control and physical security. Effective

management and operational information is required to monitor achievement of the defined needs and

objectives.

This series specifies requirements and recommendations to support the various parties involved in the

design, planning, procurement, integration, installation, operation and maintenance of facilities and

infrastructures within data centres. These parties include:
1) owners, facility managers, ICT managers, project managers, main contractors;

2) architects, consultants, building designers and builders, system and installation designers;

3) facility and infrastructure integrators, suppliers of equipment;
4) installers, maintainers.

At the time of publication of this Technical Report, EN 50600 series will comprise the following

standards and documents:

EN 50600-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 1: General

concepts;

EN 50600-2-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-1: Building

construction;

EN 50600-2-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-2: Power

distribution;

EN 50600-2-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-3:

Environmental control;

EN 50600-2-4, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-4:

Telecommunications cabling infrastructure;

EN 50600-2-5, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-5: Security

systems;

EN 50600-3-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3-1:

Management and operational information.
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EN 50600-4-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-1:

Overview of and general requirements for key performance indicators

EN 50600-4-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-2: Power

Usage Effectiveness

EN 50600-4-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-3:

Renewable Energy Factor

CLC/TR 50600-99-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-1:

Recommended practices for energy management

CLC/TR 50600-99-2, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-2:

Recommended practices for environmental sustainability

CLC/TR 50600-99-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 99-3:

Guidance to the application of EN 50600 series

The inter-relationship of the documents within the EN 50600 series is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 — Schematic relationship between the EN 50600 series of documents

EN 50600-2-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for particular facilities and

infrastructures to support the relevant classification for “availability”, “physical security” and “energy

efficiency enablement” selected from EN 50600-1.

EN 50600-3-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for data centre operations,

processes and management.

EN 50600-4-X documents specify requirements and recommendations for key performance indicators

(KPIs) used to assess and improve the resource usage efficiency and effectiveness, respectively, of a

data centre.

This Technical Report is a compilation of recommended practices for improving the environmental

sustainability of data centres.

This document considers that environmental sustainability of a data centre comprises three key areas:

— energy use;

— embodied impact of information and communication technology (ICT) equipment and mechanical

and electrical systems;
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— source energy mix of the above (i.e. amount of renewable content).

The recommended practices for improving the environmental sustainability of data centres relating to

operational energy use of a data centre (i.e. reductions of energy consumption and/or improvements of

energy efficiency, re-use of energy and use of renewable energy) are detailed in CLC/TR 50600-99-1.

However, any recommendations of CLC/TR 50600-99-1 that have applicability beyond energy

management and concern environmental sustainability will be included in this document. The long-term

objective is to avoid unintentional duplication of recommended practices in the two documents.

This document provides recommended practices to:

• assess and implement improvements to the environmental sustainability in data centres, by

means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA);
• assist the industry in taking steps towards more sustainable behaviour.

Customers or suppliers of information and communication technology (ICT) services possibly find it

useful to request or provide a list of the practices of this Technical Report that are implemented in a

data centre to assist in the procurement of services that meet their environmental or sustainability

standards.

This Technical Report also acts as an education and reference document to assist data centre

operators in identifying and implementing measures to improve the energy management of their data

centres.
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1 Scope

This document is a compilation of recommended practices for improving the environmental

sustainability of both new and existing data centres. Environmental impacts consider not just those

associated with electricity but also water usage and other pollutants.

It is recognized that the practices included are not universally applicable to all scales and business

models of data centres or be undertaken by all parties involved in data centre operation, ownership or

use.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 50600 (all parts), Information technology — Data centres facilities and infrastructures

EN 50600-2-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 2-3:

Environmental control

EN 50600-3-1, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 3-1:

Management and operational information

EN 50600-4-3, Information technology — Data centre facilities and infrastructures — Part 4-3:

Renewable Energy Factor
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
embodied impact

environmental impact caused pre- and post-use, including during manufacture and disposal

3.1.2
energy efficiency

measure of the work done (as a result of design and/or operational procedures) for a given amount of

energy consumed
[SOURCE: CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2019, 3.1.12]
3.1.3
energy management

combination of reduced energy consumption and increased energy efficiency, re-use of energy and

use of renewable energy

Note 1 to entry: See also EN 50600-3–1 for another definition of energy management.

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3.1.4
information and communication technology (ICT) equipment

information technology (IT) and network telecommunications (NT) equipment providing data storage,

processing and transport services
Note 1 to entry Representing the “critical load” of the data centre
[SOURCE: CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2019, 3.1.17]
3.1.5
system boundary

defines which processes are included in the LCA, chosen during goal and scope definition and govern

what is included in the flow model constructed in the subsequent inventory analysis

3.1.6
virtualisation

creation of a virtual version of physical ICT equipment or resource to offer a more efficient use of ICT

hardware
[SOURCE: CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2019, 3.1.24]
3.2 Abbreviations

For the purposes of this document the abbreviations of the EN 50600 series and the following ones

apply.
ADP Abiotic Depletion Potential

ASHRAE Formerly “American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air conditioning Engineers”

BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology
DC-CED Data Centre - Cumulative Energy Demand
DC-CF Data Centre Carbon Footprint
DC-DMI Data Centre - Direct Material Input
DG JRC Directorate-General Joint Research Council of the European Commission
EC European Commission
ERE Energy Reuse Effectiveness
ERF Energy Reuse Factor
ICT Information and communications technology
IT Information technology
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LCA Life cycle assessment
LCI Life cycle inventory
LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
M&E Mechanical and electrical
NT Network Telecommunications
OCP Open Compute Project
PUE Power Usage Effectiveness
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REF Renewable Energy Factor
SLA Service level agreement
UV Ultraviolet
WD Water Discharged
WEEE Waste electrical and electronic equipment
WUE Water Usage Effectiveness
4 Environmental sustainability
4.1 General

Sustainable development can be defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising

the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The three pillars of sustainable development are recognized as:
a) economic development;
b) social development;
c) environmental protection.

This document recommends practices to reduce environmental impact using a scientific approach, life

cycle assessment (LCA), which considers the impact on:
1) human health (including climate change);

2) ecosystem quality (impacts on the natural environment from an environmental mechanism,

measured by the percentage of vascular species that could potentially be lost as a result);

3) resources (measured by the surplus energy required to extract the same mass of a resource due

to a reduction in quality of the remaining mineral and fossil resources).

Environmental sustainability should be considered at the earliest possible stage of the design process

in order to achieve the greatest influence. Some recommendations for new facilities can also be

applicable for existing facilities, although the practices applied can be associated with increased costs

and disruption.
4.2 Life cycle assessment

Users of this document are not required to undertake an LCA. This subclause provides a background

to the method, and guidance based on the findings of previous LCA studies. However, users who wish

to undertake an LCA to gain a more detailed understanding of the areas of impact of a specific facility

are referred to in EN 15643-1, EN ISO 14040, ITU-T L.1410 and the ILCD Handbook.

LCA takes a holistic approach to identify key environmental impacts throughout a product, process or

service life cycle, from the point of material extraction to end-of-life, and allows the full environmental

impact of decisions to be understood.
An LCA has four stages:
a) goal and scope (including system boundaries);

b) life cycle inventory (LCI), flows entering and leaving system (across the system boundary), e.g.

emissions to air, discharges to water/ soil, use of mineral resources etc.;

c) impact assessment (inventory results are translated into environmental impacts/phenomena), e.g.

global warming, ozone depletion, toxicity, acidification;
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d) interpretation (the consequences of the environmental impacts): damage models can be used to

calculate the relative impact on different types or on different areas of protection (often grouped as

climate change, ecosystem quality, human health and resource depletion).

This approach identifies whether improvements made in one area create an overall reduction in

impact, and can identify and help avoid the shifting of environmental burden between life cycle stages

or individual processes. By focussing just on energy efficiency for example, a recommendation can be

to replace old, inefficient plant with new, more efficient equipment in order to reduce energy

consumption. However, this would also increase the embodied impact. Without taking a holistic view, it

is not possible to assess whether the reduction in energy consumption offsets the increase in

embodied impact.

The impact from manufacturing the mechanical and electrical systems and IT equipment dominate the

embodied environmental impact of data centres – being two to three orders of magnitude greater than

the construction phase. As a result, environmental assessment methods for buildings (such as

BREEAM and LEED), which consider the embodied impact of only the construction materials, are of

limited use, even though they have data centre specific schemes, because these components are

omitted from consideration.

The recommendations in this document are based on research findings using best available data to

highlight hotspots, however, large variations are possible in facility performance. For example, a facility

using 100 % renewable energy would have a lower total impact, but a higher embodied impact relative

to operational impact compared with a typical facility powered from a national electricity grid using a

small proportion of renewables in electricity generation and so each facility would have different

priorities to improve sustainability. Other areas can also become relatively significant.

4.3 Data centre boundaries

The system boundaries define the interface between the system under analysis and the natural

environment and the rest of the built environment, and over which materials and energy (in the form of

elementary flows) exchange with nature. In an LCA the boundaries shall be defined by the processes

and life cycle stages that belong within the analysed system (and any that are omitted). Reference shall

also be made to geographical boundaries (for example electricity production differs between countries)

and time boundaries (to ensure any data used it technologically appropriate to the studied period of

time, be that past, present or future). An LCA can consider any number of processes and life cycle

stages, so long as they are clearly noted, to ensure a study is easily replicable for comparison with a

different system.

LCAs can range in accuracy from screening (to highlight hotspots) to a full-blown detailed study. The

research work on which these recommendations are based (see Bibliography, Referenced Papers,

[1]), considered:

a) materials and energy flow at the following life cycle stages (for every component of a built data

centre):
b) extraction of raw materials and any transportation;

c) the manufacturing of data centre systems, equipment, components and sub-components;

d) the transport of components to site;
e) the operation of the facility;
f) the transporting of waste to its end disposal and the end-of-life treatment.
See the example system boundary in Figure 2 below.

NOTE The environmental impact from any electricity consumed, accounts for the source of energy; and

construction and demolition were omitted due to a lack of data.
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The manufacturing phase includes the production and transport of raw materials; the fabrication,

processing and manufacturing of these materials into final components, e.g. steel pipes and batteries;

and the transport of materials to the manufacturing sites. The impact of refreshing complete

components and systems is included in this stage.
Figure 2 — Example system boundary for data centre LCA
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5 Recommended practices for processes

The recommended practices of this Technical Report can be integrated with the management

procedures addressed in EN 50600-3-1:2016, Clause 8.
Practice Topic Description
5.1 Life Cycle Implement a plan for life cycle assessment (LCA) in accordance
Assessment with emerging EU guidelines and internationally standardized
methodologies.
NOTE This Practice aims to reduce overall carbon footprint and
improve sustainability rather than energy efficiency. References to
EN ISO 14040, EN ISO 14044, and/or EN 15978 might be useful.

Review results Existing LCAs can provide insights into the highest areas of impact

5.2
from existing where the boundaries and assumptions are similar to those of a
LCAs specific facility.
In locations with a high renewable content in the grid, the embodied
impacts become more significant. However for facilities using
electricity with a high carbon intensity, actions to reduce the
emissions associated with electricity consumption in use tend to
have a higher impact.
5.3 Consider This will provide information on the weighting of one area over

undertaking an another for the specific facility and help define which areas have the

LCA highest contribution towards environmental impact and therefore
where actions should be focussed. Use the relevant standards:
EN 15643-1, EN ISO 14040 and ITU-T L.1410. The Green Grid
provide guidelines and Tozer et al. describe a simplified
methodology to quantify environmental impact.
Note that LCA requires considerable resources and so is not
practical for all cases. Sharing of results helps the industry to better
understand this area and improve.
See Annex A for some possible simplified approaches to
considering the data centre life cycle environmental impact. See
also Bibliography, Referenced Papers [2].
Implement a plan for environmental management in accordance with
5.4 Environmental
emerging EU guidelines and internationally standardized methodologies.
Management
Consider appointing a cross functional Environmental Sustainability
Manager to take responsibility for this initiative.
NOTE EN ISO 14001 is an example of a standardized
methodology.

Monitor and report Implementation of this action increases visibility of environmental impact

5.5
and allows improvements to be tracked. The EU Eco-Management and
carbon footprint of
Audit Scheme (EMAS) is possibly also relevant.
in-use energy
Include the relevant recommendations into procurement requirements.
5.6 Green
Additional information can be found in outputs from the EURECA
procurement
(www.dceureca.eu) and EC JRC Data Centre Green Public Procurement
(2018) projects.
Consider the use of metrics to measure data centre productivity. The most
5.7 Measurement of
appropriate measure will vary according to the function of the data centre
useful work
and balance of elements between processing, network and storage. The
Green Grid describes several proxy measures, including output bits/kWh
which is theoretically straightforward to measure (see Bibliography,
Referenced Papers [3]. See also CLC/TR 50600-99–1:2019, 6.32)
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The following practice of CLC/TR 50600-99-1:2019 is also relevant:
UTILIZATION, MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING: General policies
5.1.3 Asset
Implement asset management for all ICT, mechanical and electrical
management
equipment assets in accordance with internationally standardized
methodologies.
NOTE 1 Understanding the numbers, types and purposes of the
assets deployed in a data centre underpins effective energy
management.
NOTE 2 ISO 55000 is an example of a standardized methodology.
6 Recommended practices for source energy mix
6.1 General
UTILIZATION, MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING: General policies
6.1.1
Sustainable
Consider the proportion of energy used by the data centre that comes
energy usage
from renewable / sustainable sources.
Recording and reporting on the proportion of sustainable / renewable
energy used against the overall energy consumption is expected to
become an expected monitoring and reporting requirement in time.
NOTE Standardized metrics in this area are available as
EN 50600-4-3 which specifies the “Renewable Energy Factor, REF”
as the ratio of the renewable energy (in kWh) to the total energy
consumption (in kWh).
6.1.2 Alternative power
Consideration should be given to energy supplies from alternative
...

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