Electronic components - Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices - Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms

IEC 62435-2:2017 is related to deterioration mechanisms and is concerned with the way that components degrade over time depending on the storage conditions applied. This part also includes guidance on test methods that may be used to assess generic deterioration mechanisms. Typically, this part is used in conjunction with IEC 62435-1:2017 for any device long-term storage whose duration may be more than 12 months for product scheduled for long duration storage.

Elektronische Bauteile - Langzeitlagerung elektronischer Halbleiterbauelemente - Teil 2: Schädigungsmechanismen

Composants électroniques - Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs électroniques à semiconducteurs - Partie 2: Mécanismes de détérioration

L’IEC 62435-2:2017 a trait aux mécanismes de détérioration et traite de la façon dont les composants se dégradent dans le temps en fonction des conditions de stockage appliquées. La présente partie contient aussi des préconisations sur les méthodes d’essai qui peuvent être utilisées pour évaluer les mécanismes de détérioration génériques. Elle s’utilise habituellement conjointement avec l’IEC 62435-1:2017 pour tout stockage de dispositifs dont la durée peut être supérieure à 12 mois, pour un produit destiné à être stocké pendant une durée prolongée.

Elektronske komponente - Dolgoročno skladiščenje elektronskih polprevodniških elementov - 2. del: Mehanizmi slabšanja (IEC 62435-2:2017)

Ta del standarda IEC 62435 je povezan z mehanizmi slabšanja in obravnava način, na katerega se komponente razgrajujejo v času življenjske dobe glede na uporabljene pogoje skladiščenja. Ta del vključuje tudi navodila o preskusnih metodah, ki se lahko uporabljajo za ocenjevanje splošnih mehanizmov slabšanja. Običajno se ta del uporablja skupaj s standardom IEC 62435-1 za dolgoročno skladiščenje poljubne naprave, ki je lahko daljše od 12 mesecev za izdelek, ki je načrtovan za dolgoročno skladiščenje. Mehanizmi, ki se uporabljajo za posebne vrste komponent, so opisani v standardih od IEC 62435-5 do IEC 62435-9 (predlog)1.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Apr-2017
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
28-Apr-2017
Completion Date
28-Apr-2017

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.SUHYRGQLãNLKComposants électroniques - Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs électroniques à semiconducteurs - Partie 2 - Mécanismes de détérioration (IEC 62435-2:2017)Electronic components - Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices - Part 2 - Deterioration Mechanisms (IEC 62435-2:2017)31.080.01Polprevodniški elementi (naprave) na splošnoSemiconductor devices in generalICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 62435-2:2017SIST EN 62435-2:2017en01-junij-2017SIST EN 62435-2:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 62435-2:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 62435-2
April 2017 ICS 31.020
English Version

Electronic components - Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices - Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms (IEC 62435-2:2017)

Composants électroniques - Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs électroniques à semiconducteurs -

Partie 2: Mécanismes de détérioration (IEC 62435-2:2017)

Elektronische Bauteile - Langzeitlagerung elektronischer Halbleiterbauelemente - Teil 2: Schädigungsmechanismen (IEC 62435-2:2017) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-02-28. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62435-2:2017 E SIST EN 62435-2:2017

EN 62435-2:2017 2 European foreword The text of document 47/2327/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62435-2, prepared by IEC/TC 47 "Semiconductor devices" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 62435-2:2017. The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2017-11-28 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2020-02-28

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 62435-2:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated: IEC 60068-2-17:1994 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-17:1994 (not modified). IEC 60068-2-20:2008 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-20:2008 (not modified). IEC 60721-3-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60721-3-1. IEC 60721-3-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60721-3-3. IEC 60749-21 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60749-21. IEC 61340-5-1:2007 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61340-5-1:2007 (not modified). IEC/TR 61340-5-2:2007 NOTE Harmonized as CLC/TR 61340-5-2:2008 (not modified). IEC 61760-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61760-4. IEC/TR 62258-3 NOTE Harmonized as CLC/TR 62258-3. IEC 62435-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62435-1. IEC 62435-4 1) NOTE Harmonized as EN 62435-4 1). IEC 62435-5 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62435-5.

1) At draft stage. SIST EN 62435-2:2017
EN 62435-2:2017 3 Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies. NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60749-20-1 -

Semiconductor devices - Mechanical and climatic test methods - Part 20-1: Handling, packing, labelling and shipping of surface-mount devices sensitive to the combined effect of moisture and soldering heat EN 60749-20-1 -

SIST EN 62435-2:2017
SIST EN 62435-2:2017

IEC 62435-2 Edition 1.0 2017-01 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Electronic components – Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices –

Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms

Composants électroniques – Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs électroniques à semiconducteurs –

Partie 2: Mécanismes de détérioration

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE

ICS 31.020
ISBN 978-2-8322-3836-3
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 62435-2:2017

– 2 – IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017

CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7 2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ........................................................................ 7 3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 7 3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 8 4 Principles of deterioration ................................................................................................ 8 4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Solderability and oxidisation of lead finishes ........................................................... 8 4.3 Popcorning ............................................................................................................. 8 4.4 Delamination ........................................................................................................... 8 4.5 Corrosion and tarnishing ......................................................................................... 8 4.6 Electrical effects ..................................................................................................... 9 4.7 High-energy ionizing radiation damage ................................................................... 9 4.8 Storage temperature risks to semiconductor devices ............................................... 9 4.9 Noble metal finishes ............................................................................................... 9 4.10 Matte tin and other finishes ..................................................................................... 9 4.11 Solder ball and solder bump .................................................................................... 9 4.12 Devices containing programmable memory – flash, programmable logic and other devices containing non-volatile memory cells ............................................... 10 5 Technical validation of the components ......................................................................... 10 5.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 10 5.2 Test selection criteria ............................................................................................ 10 5.3 Measurements and tests ....................................................................................... 11 5.3.1 Assessment of the supplied batch reliability ................................................... 11 5.3.2 List of test methods ....................................................................................... 11 5.4 Periodic assessment ............................................................................................. 12 Annex A (normative)

Failure mechanisms – Encapsulated and non-encapsulated active components ................................................................................................................ 14 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 17

Table 1 – List of tests ........................................................................................................... 11 Table A.1 – Failure mechanisms: encapsulated and non-encapsulated active components .......................................................................................................................... 14

SIST EN 62435-2:2017
IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS – LONG-TERM STORAGE
OF ELECTRONIC SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 62435-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices. The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 47/2327/FDIS 47/2350/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. SIST EN 62435-2:2017

– 4 – IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017

A list of all parts in the IEC 62435 series, published under the general title Electronic components – Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices, can be found on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific document. At this date, the document will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 62435-2:2017
IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

INTRODUCTION This document applies to the long-term storage of electronic components. This is a document for long-term storage (LTS) of electronic devices drawing on the best long-term storage practices currently known. For the purposes of this document, LTS is defined as any device storage whose duration can be more than 12 months for product scheduled for long duration storage. While intended to address the storage of unpackaged semiconductors and packaged electronic devices, nothing in this standard precludes the storage of other items under the storage levels defined herein. Although it has always existed to some extent, obsolescence of electronic components and particularly of integrated circuits, has become increasingly intense over the last few years. Indeed, with the existing technological boom, the commercial life of a component has become very short compared with the life of industrial equipment such as that encountered in the aeronautical field, the railway industry or the energy sector. The many solutions enabling obsolescence to be resolved are now identified. However, selecting one of these solutions should be preceded by a case-by-case technical and economic feasibility study, depending on whether storage is envisaged for field service or production, for example: • remedial storage as soon as components are no longer marketed; • preventive storage anticipating declaration of obsolescence. Taking into account the expected life of some installations, sometimes covering several decades, the qualification times, and the unavailability costs, which can also be very high, the solution to be adopted to resolve obsolescence should often be rapidly implemented. This is why the solution retained in most cases consists in systematically storing components which are in the process of becoming obsolescent. The technical risks of this solution are, a priori, fairly low. However, it requires perfect mastery of the implemented process and especially of the storage environment, although this mastery becomes critical when it comes to long-term storage. All handling, protection, storage and test operations are recommended to be performed according to the state of the art. The application of the approach proposed in this standard in no way guarantees that the stored components are in perfect operating condition at the end of this storage. It only comprises a means of minimizing potential and probable degradation factors. Some electronic device users have the need to store electronic devices for long periods of time. Lifetime buys are commonly made to support production runs of assemblies that well exceed the production timeframe of its individual parts. This puts the user in a situation requiring careful and adequate storage of such parts to maintain the as-received solderability and minimize any degradation effects to the part over time. Major degradation concerns are moisture, electrostatic fields, ultra-violet light, large variations in temperature, air-borne contaminants, and outgassing. Warranties and sparing also present a challenge for the user or repair agency as some systems have been designated to be used for long periods of time, in some cases for up to 40 years or more. Some of the devices needed for repair of these systems will not be available from the original supplier for the lifetime of the system or the spare assembly may be built with the original production run but then require long-term storage. This document was developed to provide a standard for storing electronic devices for long periods of time. SIST EN 62435-2:2017

– 6 – IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017

For storage of devices that are moisture sensitive but that do not need to be stored for long periods of time, refer to IEC TR 62258-3. Long-term storage assumes that the device is going to be placed in uninterrupted storage for a number of years. It is essential that it is useable after storage. Particular attention should be paid to storage media surrounding the devices together with the local environment. These guidelines do not imply any warranty of product or guarantee of operation beyond the storage time given by the manufacturer. The IEC 62435 series is intended to ensure that adequate reliability is achieved for devices in user applications after long-term storage. Users are encouraged to request data from suppliers to these specifications to demonstrate a successful storage life as requested by the user. These standards are not intended to address built-in failure mechanisms that would take place regardless of storage conditions These standards are intended to give practical guide to methods of long-duration storage of electronic components where this is intentional or planned storage of product for a number of years. Storage regimes for work-in-progress production are managed according to company internal process requirements and are not detailed in this series of standards. The overall standard includes a number of parts. Parts 1 to 4 apply to any long-term storage and contain general requirements and guidance, whereas Parts 5 to 9 are specific to the type of product being stored. It is intended that the product specific part should be read alongside the general requirements of Parts 1 to 4. Electronic components requiring different storage conditions are covered separately starting with Part 5. The structure of the IEC 62435 series as currently conceived is as follows: Part 1 – General Part 2 – Deterioration mechanisms Part 3 – Data Part 4 – Storage Part 5 – Die and wafer devices Part 6 – Packaged or finished devices Part 7 – MEMS Part 8 – Passive electronic devices Part 9 – Special cases

SIST EN 62435-2:2017
IEC 62435-2:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS – LONG-TERM STORAGE
OF ELECTRONIC SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms

1 Scope This part of IEC 62435 is related to deterioration mechanisms and is concerned with the way that components degrade over time depending on the storage conditions applied. This part also includes guidance on test methods that may be used to assess generic deterioration mechanisms. Typically, this part is used in conjunction with IEC 62435-1 for any device long-term storage whose duration may be more than 12 months for product scheduled for long duration storage. Mechanisms that apply to specific component types are detailed in IEC 62435-5 to IEC 62435-9 (proposed)1. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (

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