Guide for incorporating human reliability analysis into probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power generating stations and other nuclear facilities

IEC 63260:2020 provides a structured framework for the incorporation of human reliability analysis (HRA) into probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs).
This document is to enhance the analysis of human-system interactions in PRAs, to help ensure reproducible conclusions, and to standardize the documentation of such assessments. To do this, a specific HRA framework is developed from standard practices to serve as a benchmark to assess alternative ways of incorporating HRA into PRA. This standard is an adoption of IEEE 1082-2017 by IEC.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-May-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
25-May-2020
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 63260:2020 - Guide for incorporating human reliability analysis into probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power generating stations and other nuclear facilities
English language
35 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 63260
Edition 1.0 2020-05
IEEE Std 1082
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Guide for incorporating human reliability analysis into probabilistic risk
assessments for nuclear power generating stations and other nuclear facilities
IEC 60320:2020-05(en) IEEE Std 1082-2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEEE

All rights reserved. IEEE is a registered trademark in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by the Institute of

Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without

permission in writing from the IEC Central Office. Any questions about IEEE copyright should be addressed to the

IEEE. Enquiries about obtaining additional rights to this publication and other information requests should be

addressed to the IEC or your local IEC member National Committee.
IEC Central Office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3, rue de Varembé 3 Park Avenue
CH-1211 Geneva 20 New York, NY 10016-5997
Switzerland United States of America
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11 stds.info@ieee.org
info@iec.ch www.ieee.org
www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional languages.

and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

details all new publications released. Available online and 67 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

once a month by email. French extracted from the Terms and definitions clause of

IEC publications issued between 2002 and 2015. Some

IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc entries have been collected from earlier publications of IEC

If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or TC 37, 77, 86 and CISPR.

need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63260
Edition 1.0 2020-05
IEEE Std 1082™
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Guide for incorporating human reliability analysis into probabilistic risk
assessments for nuclear power generating stations and other nuclear facilities
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.120.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-7547-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
Contents

1. Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 11

1.1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................. 11

1.2 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................... 11

2. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations ................................................................................................. 11

2.1 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................... 11

2.2 Acronyms and abbreviations .............................................................................................................. 13

3. Overview of an integrated HRA ................................................................................................................ 13

3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 13

3.2 Overall evaluation issues .................................................................................................................... 14

3.3 HRA process ....................................................................................................................................... 15

4. Details of the HRA process ........................................................................................................................ 17

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 17

4.2 Steps in the human reliability analysis (HRA) process ....................................................................... 17

5. Documentation .......................................................................................................................................... 26

5.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................... 26

5.2 Structure ............................................................................................................................................. 26

Annex A (informative) An example for documenting HRA data .................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 32

Annex C (informative) IEEE list of participants ........................................................................................... 34

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020 – v –
IEEE Std 1082-2017
Guide for Incorporating Human Reliability Analysis into
Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Power Generating Stations
and Other Nuclear Facilities
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation.

IEEE Standards documents are developed within IEEE Societies and Standards Coordinating Committees of the

IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. IEEE develops its standards through a consensus

development process, which brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve

the final product. Volunteers are not necessarily members of IEEE and serve without compensation. While IEEE

administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus development process, IEEE

does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of the information contained in its

standards. Use of IEEE Standards documents is wholly voluntary. IEEE documents are made available for use

subject to important notices and legal disclaimers (see http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html for more

information).

IEC collaborates closely with IEEE in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of

opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC

National Committees. The formal decisions of IEEE on technical matters, once consensus within IEEE Societies

and Standards Coordinating Committees has been reached, is determined by a balanced ballot of materially

interested parties who indicate interest in reviewing the proposed standard. Final approval of the IEEE

standards document is given by the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board.

3) IEC/IEEE Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC

National Committees/IEEE Societies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the

technical content of IEC/IEEE Publications is accurate, IEC or IEEE cannot be held responsible for the way in

which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

(including IEC/IEEE Publications) transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional

publications. Any divergence between any IEC/IEEE Publication and the corresponding national or regional

publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC and IEEE do not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC and IEEE are not responsible

for any services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or IEEE or their directors, employees, servants or agents including individual

experts and members of technical committees and IEC National Committees, or volunteers of IEEE Societies

and the Standards Coordinating Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board,

for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect,

or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this

IEC/IEEE Publication or any other IEC or IEEE Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that implementation of this IEC/IEEE Publication may require use of

material covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the

existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. IEC or IEEE shall not be held responsible for

identifying Essential Patent Claims for which a license may be required, for conducting inquiries into the legal

validity or scope of Patent Claims or determining whether any licensing terms or conditions provided in

connection with submission of a Letter of Assurance, if any, or in any licensing agreements are reasonable or

non-discriminatory. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any patent

rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– vi – IEC 63260:2020
IEEE Std 1082-2017

International Standard IEC 63260/IEEE Std 1082 has been processed through IEC technical

committee 45A: Instrumentation, control and electrical power systems of nuclear facilities,

under the IEC/IEEE Dual Logo Agreement.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
IEEE Std FDIS Report on voting
IEEE Std 1082-2017 45A/1285/FDIS 45A/1293/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

The IEC Technical Committee and IEEE Technical Committee have decided that the contents

of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site

under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– vii – IEEE Std 1082™-2017
IEEE Std 1082-2017
(Revision of IEEE Std 1082-1997)
IEEE Guide for Incorporating
Human Reliability Analysis into
Probabilistic Risk Assessments for
Nuclear Power Generating Stations
and Other Nuclear Facilities
Sponsor
Nuclear Power Engineering Committee
of the
IEEE Power and Energy Society
Approved 6 December 2017
IEEE-SA Standards Board
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– viii –
IEEE Std 1082-2017

Abstract: A structured framework for the incorporation of human reliability analysis (HRA) into

probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) is provided in this guide. To enhance the analysis of human/

system interactions in PRAs, to help ensure reproducible conclusions, and to standardize the

documentation of such assessments are the purposes of this guide. To do this, a specific HRA

framework is developed from standard practices. The HRA framework is neutral with respect to

specific HRA methods.

Keywords: HRA, human reliability analysis, IEEE 1082™, PRA, probabilistic risk assessment

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– ix –
IEEE Std 1082-2017
,(((Introduction

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 1082-2017, Guide for Incorporating Human Reliability Analysis into

Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Power Generating Stations and Other Nuclear Facilities.

Any process that requires manual control to minimize public risk will require a high level of human reliability.

This reliability can be evaluated through the systematic application of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA).

However, such an assessment requires a detailed understanding of human performance and human reliability

methods to form a reasonable reliability estimate.

The initial risk assessment made in the nuclear power plant industry, WASH-1400 [B17], recognized the

need for a discipline of human reliability analysis (HRA) to be systematically incorporated within the PRA

enterprise. But the methodology—both analyzing human failure events and identifying and incorporating

them appropriately in the PRA—was new, incomplete, and in several ways inadequate.

The limitations of the understanding of human reliability in the mid-1970s were vividly demonstrated by

the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Following TMI, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(NRC), in conjunction with The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), immediately called

for a conference on the human factor issues raised by TMI. This conference has subsequently become a series.

Parallel to the initiation of the conference, Subcommittee 7, Human Factors and Control Facilities of the IEEE

Nuclear Power Engineering Committee began discussing the standardization of HRA technology. The PRA/

HRA interface of incorporating and performing an HRA in the context of a PRA was recognized as the most

mature of the efforts of HRA. A guide, the least mandating of the IEEE standards documents, was approved as

an IEEE standards project in 1984. The guide was revised in 1997.

This guide outlines the steps necessary to include human reliability in risk assessments. The intent of the guide

is not to discuss the details of specific HRA methods, but rather to affirm a method-neutral framework for

using a diverse range of HRA methods to support PRA. Since human error has been found to be an important

contributor to risk, this guide underscores the systematic integration of the HRA at the earliest stages and

throughout the PRA.

Since the 1997 revision of IEEE Std 1082™, there have been significant developments in HRA methods,

theories, and practices. A working group (WG) was convened in 2012 to reaffirm the guide. This WG

found numerous cases where the 1997 standard contained outdated references or failed to consider now-

commonplace aspects of HRA. The WG, however, confirmed the underlying practice of HRA espoused in

IEEE Std 1082-1997 is still contemporary and relevant to HRA practice. The WG has updated the guide, to

the extent necessary to reflect important advances in HRA. Thus, the framework for conducting HRA found in

IEEE Std 1082-1997 remains intact in this revision but has been augmented with references to contemporary

issues and practices.

IEEE Std 1082 remains a unique, concise guide for specifying the framework for conducting HRA as part of

PRA. Additional standard guidance documents are available beyond IEEE Std 1082. For example, the Electric

Power Research Institute (EPRI) released the Systematic Human Action Reliability Procedure (SHARP) and

revised SHARP1 approach [B4], which describes a detailed process of integrating quantitative HRA into

PRA, mirroring parts of IEEE Std 1082. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has created

the Standard for Level 1/Large Early Release Frequency Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Nuclear Power

Plant Applications [B1], which outlines high level requirements for HRAs to be included in PRAs. The NRC

published Good Practices for Implementing Human Reliability Analysis [B13], which serves as a reference

for desirable, but not required aspects of HRA. These three guidelines and numerous recommended practices

found in specific HRA methods and texts, complement, but do not replace, IEEE Std 1082. For example,

SHARP1 [B4] elaborates on quantifying the HRA for inclusion in PRA but does not include the entire HRA

The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex B.

NUREG publications are available from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (http://www .nrc .gov).

EPRI publications are available from the Electric Power Research Institute (http://epri .com).

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– x –
IEEE Std 1082-2017

process of IEEE Std 1082. The ASME PRA standard [B1] articulates quality requirements for HRA but

does not specify how the HRA should be conducted. NRC’s good practices [B13] parallel many aspects of

IEEE Std 1082 but does not provide an overall process flow for conducting HRA. IEEE Std 1082 remains

relevant as an overarching standard framework for conducting HRA.

IEEE Std 1082 is a method-neutral approach. It is beyond the scope of this guide to enumerate how the guidance

can be tied into different HRA methods. Recent reviews of HRA methods may be found in [B1], [B3], [B14],

[B15], and [B16]. HRA method development has been extensive, with new approaches that address cognition,

context, errors of commission, as well as approaches that span simplified HRA quantification, to dynamic

models of human performance. The framework for integrating HRA into PRA as outlined in this guide should

apply across HRA methods, although some adaptations may be necessary to meet the unique requirements

of specific methods. Such adaptations, especially when using simplified HRA methods, should not come as

efficiencies at the expense of performing an integrated and complete HRA process.

ASME publications are available from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (http://www .asme .org/ ).

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– 11 –
IEEE Std 1082-2017
IEEE Guide for Incorporating
Human Reliability Analysis into
Probabilistic Risk Assessments for
Nuclear Power Generating Stations
and Other Nuclear Facilities
1. Overview
1.1 Scope

This guide provides a structured framework for the incorporation of human reliability analysis (HRA) into

probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs).
1.2 Purpose

The purpose of this guide is to enhance the analysis of human-system interactions in PRAs, to help ensure

reproducible conclusions, and to standardize the documentation of such assessments. To do this, a specific

HRA framework is developed from standard practices to serve as a benchmark to assess alternative ways of

incorporating HRA into PRA.
2. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations
2.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards Dictionary

Online should be consulted for terms not defined in this clause.

NOTE—Several terms used in this guide and in the field of HRA are important, yet are ambiguous in common usage or not

used frequently enough to be well known. They are defined in this clause for the use in understanding and following this

guide.

basic event: An element of the probabilistic risk assessment model for which no further decomposition is

performed because it is at the limit of resolution consistent with available data.

IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at: http:// dictionary.ieee .org.

Notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement this

standard.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– 12 –
IEEE Std 1082-2017

consequences: The result(s) of (i.e., events that follow and depend upon) a specified event.

cutset: A group of events that, if all occur, would cause occurrence of the top event (the outcome of interest

such as that investigated by means of a fault tree).

dependence: The relationship between two or more human failure events, which may result in an adjustment

to the model or the human error probability.

design-basis accident: A postulated accident that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to withstand

without loss to the systems, structures, and components necessary to help ensure public health and safety.

dominant sequence: A sequence of events that constitutes a dominant contributor to overall risk.

event: (A) Any change in conditions or performance of interest. (B) An occurrence at a specific point in time.

event tree: A graphical representation of the logical progression of the possible scenarios through a multiple

series of events that may or may not occur.

fault tree: A graphical representation of an analytical technique whereby an undesired state of a system is

specified and the patterns leading to that state can be evaluated to determine how the undesirable system

failure can occur.

human action: The observable result (often a bodily movement) of a person’s intention.

human error: Failure of human task performance to meet specified criteria of accuracy, completeness,

correctness, appropriateness, or timeliness.

human error probability (HEP): The quantitative estimation of the likelihood of a human error.

human failure event (HFE): A basic event that pertains to a human error.

human interaction: A human action or set of actions that affects equipment, response of systems, or other

human actions.

human reliability analysis (HRA): Any number of formal approaches and methods used to identify sources

of human error and quantify their accompanying human error probabilities.

initiating event: An event either internal or external to the plant that perturbs the steady state operation of the

plant by challenging plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or

release of airborne fission products.

operating crew: Plant personnel working on shift to operate the plant. They include control room personnel

and those support personnel who directly support the control room personnel in operating the plant.

performance shaping factor (PSF): A factor that influences human reliability through its effects on

performance. These include factors such as environmental conditions, human-system interface design,

procedures, training, and supervision.

probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the risk associated with

plant operation and maintenance that is measured in terms of frequency of occurrence of risk metrics, such as

This definition differs from the one(s) found in previous IEEE guidance. The current definition has been tailored to match the specific

use in human reliability analysis.
Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63260:2020
– 13 –
li bility A
IEEE Std 1082-2017

core damage or a radioactive material release and its effects on the health of the public [also referred to as a

probabilistic safety assessment (PSA)].

recovery: A set of interactions intended to restore failed equipment or to find alternatives to achieve its

function.

risk: Probability and consequences of an event, as expressed by the answer to the following three questions:

(1) What can go wrong?, (2) How likely is it?, and (3) What are the consequences if it occurs?

screening: A type of analysis aimed at eliminating from further consideration factors that are less significant

for protection or safety in order to concentrate on the more significant factors.

screening value: A rough but conservative point estimate of the probability of a specific human failure event.

uncertainty interval: The confidence in the human error probability estimate as expressed in a confidence

bound around the single-point estimate.

walkthrough: A systematic process by which the actions required of operators are checked against the real

plant or against a model, mock-up, or simulation of the real plant. A walkthrough is typically used to identify

performance shaping factors.
2.2 Acronyms and abbreviations
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
I&C instrumentation and control
INPO Institute of Nuclear Power Operations
LOCA loss of coolant accident
NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
3. Overview of an integrated HRA
3.1 General
3.1.1 Importance of human reliability

In assessing the risk associated with a nuclear power plant, the analyst should consider not only the reliability

of plant hardware systems but also the reliability of people’s interactions with other plant or support personnel

and with the plant’s equipment and systems. The scope of interactions with plant equipment and systems

should include those in the control room and at local control stations and with both manually controlled and

automated systems.
3.1.2 Importance of integrated HRA and PRA

An HRA should be an integral part of a PRA. In PRAs, the quality of the analysis (e.g., quantification of human

error) is dependent upon the analyst’s ability to identify scenarios and the expected human actions. This guide

provides a specific approach that, if applied, will standardize the integration of HRA into the PRA process. The

breakdown and order of the steps presented are not so important; all of the steps and their activities, however,

should be found within any HRA. This approach is well established for design-basis PRAs. The approach

applies to beyond design-basis analyses such as those used for severe accidents. However, as the uncertainty

and variability of the plant state and accident scenario evolution increase, so too does the complexity of

Published by IEC under license from IEEE. © 2017 IEEE. All rights reserved.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ng Statio
IEC 63260:2020
– 14 –
IEEE Std 1082-2017

performing the analysis. The steps outlined in this guide should be considered at a minimum; additional steps

may be appropriate for certain cases, such as severe accident analyses.
3.2 Overall evaluation issues

The focus of this guide is restricted to the incorporation of the HRA integrally into a PRA. This includes the

following issues:
a) The compatibility of an HRA with the PRA of which it is a part;

b) The relationship between the way in which an HRA is performed, its philosophy, and the results or

insights that may be obtained;
c) Matching the best suited HRA method to the analysis requirements; and
d) The limits of an HRA or its results.
3.2.1 PRA compatibility

The HRA process proposed is suitable to all levels of a PRA given defined human failure events. If these are not

defined, then this guidance cannot be applied successfully. The risk focus of a PRA requires the quantitative

results of an HRA to be probabilistic in nature. Applications of PRAs to risk management efforts require

that the HRA docum
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.