Explosive atmospheres - Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards - Tests

IEC 60079-32-2:2015 describes test methods concerning the equipment, product and process properties necessary to avoid ignition and electrostatic shock hazards arising from static electricity. It is intended for use in a risk assessment of electrostatic hazards or for the preparation of product family or dedicated product standards for electrical or non-electrical machines or equipment. The purpose of this part of IEC 60079 is to provide standard test methods used for the control of static electricity, such as surface resistance, earth leakage resistance, powder resistivity, liquid conductivity, capacitance and evaluation of the incendivity of provoked discharges. It is especially intended for use with existing standards of the IEC 60079 series. This part of IEC 60079 presents the latest state of knowledge which may, however, slightly differ from requirements in other standards, especially concerning test climates. When a requirement of this standard conflicts with a requirement specified in IEC 60079-0, to avoid the possibility of re-testing previously approved equipment, the requirement in IEC 60079-0 applies only for equipment within the scope of IEC 60079-0. In all other cases, the statements in this part of IEC 60079 apply. Keywords: ignition and electrostatic shock hazards, static electricity

Atmosphères explosives - Partie 32-2: Dangers électrostatiques - Essais

L'IEC 60079-32-2:2015 décrit les méthodes d'essai relatives aux matériels, au produit et aux propriétés de processus nécessaires pour éviter l'inflammation et les dangers de chocs électrostatiques liés à l'électricité statique. Elle est destinée à être utilisée dans le cadre d'une évaluation des risques de dangers électrostatiques ou de la préparation de normes de famille de produits ou de normes de produits spécifiques concernant des machines ou des matériels électriques ou non électriques. Le but de la présente partie de l'IEC 60079 est de fournir des méthodes d'essai normalisées utilisées pour le contrôle de l'électricité statique, telles que la résistance superficielle, la résistance de fuite à la terre, la résistivité de la poudre, la conductivité du liquide, la capacité et l'évaluation de l'inflammabilité des décharges provoquées. Le présent document est notamment destiné à être utilisé avec les normes existantes de la série IEC 60079. La présente partie de l'IEC 60079 décrit l'état des connaissances les plus récentes qui peuvent toutefois différer légèrement des exigences d'autres normes, notamment concernant les climats d'essai. Lorsqu'une exigence de la présente norme est en contradiction avec une exigence spécifiée dans l'IEC 60079-0, cette dernière s'applique uniquement aux matériels relevant du domaine d'application de l'IEC 60079-0 pour éviter toute possibilité de contre-essai des matériels précédemment approuvés. Dans tous les autres cas, les énoncés de la présente partie de l'IEC 60079 s'appliquent. Mots clés: l'inflammation et les dangers de chocs électrostatiques, l'électricité statique

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Publication Date
24-Feb-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
25-Feb-2015
Completion Date
25-Feb-2015
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IEC 60079-32-2
Edition 1.0 2015-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Explosive atmospheres –
Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards – Tests
Atmosphères explosives –
Partie 32-2: Dangers électrostatiques – Essais
IEC 60079-32-2:2015-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60079-32-2
Edition 1.0 2015-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Explosive atmospheres –
Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards – Tests
Atmosphères explosives –
Partie 32-2: Dangers électrostatiques – Essais
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.260.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-2276-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Surface resistance ................................................................................................ 11

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 12

4.2.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 12

4.2.4 Test sample ................................................................................................... 13

4.2.5 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 13

4.2.6 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 14

4.2.7 Test report ..................................................................................................... 14

4.3 Surface resistivity ................................................................................................. 14

4.4 Volume resistivity .................................................................................................. 14

4.5 Leakage resistance ............................................................................................... 15

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.5.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 15

4.5.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 15

4.5.4 Test sample ................................................................................................... 15

4.5.5 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 16

4.5.6 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 16

4.5.7 Test report ..................................................................................................... 16

4.6 In-use testing of footwear ...................................................................................... 16

4.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

4.6.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 16

4.6.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 17

4.6.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 17

4.6.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 17

4.6.6 Test report ..................................................................................................... 17

4.7 In-use testing of gloves ......................................................................................... 17

4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

4.7.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 18

4.7.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 18

4.7.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 18

4.7.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 18

4.7.6 Test report ..................................................................................................... 18

4.8 Powder resistivity .................................................................................................. 18

4.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

4.8.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 19

4.8.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 19

4.8.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 20

4.8.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 20

4.8.6 Test report ..................................................................................................... 20

4.9 Liquid conductivity ................................................................................................ 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

4.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

4.9.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 21

4.9.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 21

4.9.4 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 22

4.9.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 23

4.9.6 Test report ..................................................................................................... 23

4.10 Capacitance .......................................................................................................... 23

4.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

4.10.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 24

4.10.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 24

4.10.4 Test sample ................................................................................................... 24

4.10.5 Procedure for moveable items ....................................................................... 24

4.10.6 Procedure for installed items ......................................................................... 25

4.10.7 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 25

4.10.8 Test report ..................................................................................................... 25

4.11 Transferred charge ............................................................................................... 25

4.11.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

4.11.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 26

4.11.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 26

4.11.4 Test sample ................................................................................................... 27

4.11.5 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 27

4.11.6 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 28

4.11.7 Test report ..................................................................................................... 28

4.12 Ignition test ........................................................................................................... 29

4.12.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

4.12.2 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 29

4.12.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 32

4.12.4 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 32

4.12.5 Test report ..................................................................................................... 32

4.13 Measuring of charge decay ................................................................................... 33

4.13.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

4.13.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 33

4.13.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 33

4.13.4 Test sample ................................................................................................... 34

4.13.5 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 34

4.13.6 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 35

4.13.7 Test report ..................................................................................................... 35

4.14 Breakdown voltage ............................................................................................... 35

4.14.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

4.14.2 Principle ........................................................................................................ 35

4.14.3 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 35

4.14.4 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 36

4.14.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................ 37

4.14.6 Test report ..................................................................................................... 37

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

Figure 1 – Test sample with applied electrodes (dimensions in mm) ..................................... 12

Figure 2 – Measuring cell for powder resistivity ..................................................................... 19

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015

Figure 3 – Measuring cell for liquid conductivity .................................................................... 22

Figure 4 – Ignition probe ....................................................................................................... 31

Figure 5 – Perforated plate of ignition probe ......................................................................... 32

Figure 6 – Example of an arrangement for measurement of charge decay ............................ 34

Figure 7 – Electrodes for measuring breakdown voltage of sheets ........................................ 36

Table 1 – Volume concentrations of flammable test gas mixtures .......................................... 30

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES –
Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards – Tests
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60079-32-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 31:

Equipment for explosive atmospheres.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
31/1164/FDIS 31/1176/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of the IEC 60079 series, under the general title Explosive atmospheres, can

be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 7 –
EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES –
Part 32-2: Electrostatics hazards – Tests
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60079 describes test methods concerning the equipment, product and

process properties necessary to avoid ignition and electrostatic shock hazards arising from

static electricity. It is intended for use in a risk assessment of electrostatic hazards or for the

preparation of product family or dedicated product standards for electrical or non-electrical

machines or equipment.

The purpose of this part of IEC 60079 is to provide standard test methods used for the control

of static electricity, such as surface resistance, earth leakage resistance, powder resistivity,

liquid conductivity, capacitance and evaluation of the incendivity of provoked discharges. It is

especially intended for use with existing standards of the IEC 60079 series.

NOTE IEC TS 60079-32-1, Explosive atmospheres – Part 32-1: Electrostatic hazards, guidance, was published in

2013. This international standard is not intended to supersede standards that cover specific products and

industrial situations.

This part of IEC 60079 presents the latest state of knowledge which may, however, slightly

differ from requirements in other standards, especially concerning test climates. When a

requirement of this standard conflicts with a requirement specified in IEC 60079-0, to avoid

the possibility of re-testing previously approved equipment, the requirement in IEC 60079-0

applies only for equipment within the scope of IEC 60079-0. In all other cases, the statements

in this part of IEC 60079 apply.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60079-0, Explosive atmospheres – Part 0: Equipment – General requirements

IEC TS 60079-32-1, Explosive atmospheres – Part 32-1: Electrostatic hazards, guidance

IEC 60093, Methods of test for volume resistivity and surface resistivity of solid electrical

insulating materials

IEC 60243-1, Electric strength of insulating materials – Test methods – Part 1: Tests at power

frequencies

IEC 60243-2, Electric strength of insulating materials – Test methods – Part 2: Additional

requirements for tests using direct voltage

IEC 60247, Insulating liquids – Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation

factor (tan d) and d.c. resistivity

IEC TS 61241-2-2, Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust – Part 2:

Test methods – Section 2: Method for determining the electrical resistivity of dust in layers

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015

IEC 61340-2-1, Electrostatics – Part 2-1: Measurement methods – Ability of materials and

products to dissipate static electric charge

IEC 61340-2-3, Electrostatics – Part 2-3: Methods of test for determining the resistance and

resistivity of solid planar materials used to avoid electrostatic charge accumulation

IEC 61340-4-4, Electrostatics – Part 4-4: Standard test methods for specific applications –

Electrostatic classification of flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBC)

ISO 14309, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic – Determination of volume and/or surface

resistivity

ASTM E582, Standard test method for minimum ignition energy and quenching distance in

gaseous mixtures
EN 1081, Resilient floor coverings – Determination of the electrical resistance

EN 1149-3, Protective clothing – Electrostatic properties Part 3: Test methods for

measurement of charge decay.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
conductive

having a resistivity or resistance below the dissipative range (see 3.4) allowing stray current

arcs and electric shocks to occur

Note 1 to entry: Conductive materials or objects are neither dissipative nor insulating and are incapable of

retaining a significant electrostatic charge when in contact with earth.

Note 2 to entry: Boundary limits are given in IEC TS 60079-32-1 for the conductive range for solid materials,

enclosures, some objects and bulk materials.

Note 3 to entry: Product standards and other standards covering electrostatic properties often include specific

definitions of “conductive” which apply only to items covered by those standards and may be different from the

definitions given here. See e.g. ISO 8031 and ISO 8330 for hose assemblies, ISO 284 for belts and EN 1149-1, -2,

-3 and -5 for protective clothing.
3.2
conductivity (electrical conductivity)
reciprocal of volume resistivity, expressed in siemens per metre (see 3.14)
3.3
conductor
conductive object
3.4
dissipative (electrostatic dissipative)

having an intermediate resistivity or resistance that lies between the conductive and insulating

ranges (see 3.1 and 3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Dissipative materials or objects are neither conductive nor insulating but, like conductive items,

safely limit contact charging and/or dissipate even the maximum charging currents associated with their designed

application when in contact with earth

Note 2 to entry: Boundary limits are given in IEC TS 60079-32-1 for the dissipative range for solid materials,

enclosures, some objects and bulk materials.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60079-32-2:2015 © IEC 2015 – 9 –

Note 3 to entry: Product standards often include specific definitions of “dissipative” which apply only to items

covered by those standards and may be different to the definitions given here. See 3.1, Note 3 to entry.

3.5
enclosure

walls, doors, covers, cable glands, rods, spindles, shafts, coatings, etc. which surround and

enclose equipment

Note 1 to entry: For electrical equipment, the enclosure is likely to be identical to the enclosure defined in

IEC 60079-0.

Note 2 to entry: Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC) and other similar containers are not equipment

enclosures and, therefore, are considered separately in IEC TS 60079-32-1.
3.6
hazardous area
area in which flammable or expl
...

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