Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 9-2: Active arc-fault mitigation systems - Optical-based internal arc-detection and mitigation devices

IEC 60947-9-2:2021 covers internal arc-fault control devices, hereinafter referred to as IACD, which are intended to:
– detect internal arc-faults in low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies, by processing (at a minimum) the optical effect of an internal arc-fault, and
– operate mitigation device (either external or combined) in order to minimize the effects of the internal arc-fault.

Appareillage à basse tension - Partie 9-2: Systèmes actifs de limitation des défauts d'arc - Dispositifs optiques de détection et de limitation d'arcs internes

L'IEC 60947-9-2:2021 s’applique aux dispositifs de contrôle de défaut d’arc interne, ci-après désignés IACD, qui sont destinés à:
– détecter les défauts d’arc interne dans les ensembles d’appareillage à basse tension, en traitant (a minima) le phénomène optique d’un défaut d’arc interne, et
– faire fonctionner un dispositif de limitation (externe ou combiné) afin de réduire le plus possible les effets de défaut d’arc interne

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
26-Apr-2021
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IEC 60947-9-2:2021 - Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 9-2: Active arc-fault mitigation systems - Optical-based internal arc-detection and mitigation devices
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IEC 60947-9-2
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 9-2: Active arc-fault mitigation systems – Optical-based internal
arc‑detection and mitigation devices
Appareillage à basse tension –

Partie 9-2: Systèmes actifs de limitation des défauts d'arc – Dispositifs optiques

de détection et de limitation d’arcs internes
IEC 60947-9-2:2021-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60947-9-2
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 9-2: Active arc-fault mitigation systems – Optical-based internal
arc‑detection and mitigation devices
Appareillage à basse tension –

Partie 9-2: Systèmes actifs de limitation des défauts d'arc – Dispositifs optiques

de détection et de limitation d’arcs internes
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.120.40; 29.130.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-9606-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 13

4 Classification ................................................................................................................. 16

4.1 IACD type ............................................................................................................. 16

4.1.1 Stand-alone type IACD .................................................................................. 16

4.1.2 Multifunction-type IACD ................................................................................. 17

4.1.3 Combined-type IACD ..................................................................................... 17

4.2 Combination of sensors ........................................................................................ 18

4.2.1 Optical sensors-only type .............................................................................. 18

4.2.2 Optical sensors and secondary sensors type ................................................. 18

4.3 Binary output types ............................................................................................... 19

4.3.1 Operate output .............................................................................................. 19

4.3.2 Auxiliary binary output ................................................................................... 19

5 Characteristics .............................................................................................................. 19

5.1 Maximum arc-fault detection time .......................................................................... 19

5.2 Maximum arc-fault extinction time ......................................................................... 19

5.3 Minimum arc-fault detection current value ............................................................. 19

5.4 Maximum prospective short-circuit current value ................................................... 19

6 Product information ....................................................................................................... 20

6.1 Nature of information ............................................................................................ 20

6.2 Markings ............................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Instructions for installation, operation, maintenance, decommissioning and

dismantling ........................................................................................................... 21

7 Normal service, mounting and transport conditions ........................................................ 22

8 Constructional and performance requirements ............................................................... 22

8.1 Constructional requirements ................................................................................. 22

8.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

8.1.2 Creepages and clearances ............................................................................ 22

8.1.3 Material requirement ...................................................................................... 22

8.2 Performance requirements .................................................................................... 23

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

8.2.2 Operating conditions ...................................................................................... 23

8.2.3 Temperature-rise ........................................................................................... 23

8.3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ..................................................................... 24

9 Tests ............................................................................................................................. 24

9.1 General – Kind of tests ......................................................................................... 24

9.2 Compliance with constructional requirements ........................................................ 24

9.3 Type tests ............................................................................................................. 24

9.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

9.3.2 Guidance on sample selection ....................................................................... 26

9.3.3 Light-immunity tests ....................................................................................... 29

9.3.4 Detection and extinction tests ........................................................................ 31

9.3.5 Dielectric properties ....................................................................................... 37

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IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

9.3.6 EMC tests ...................................................................................................... 38

9.3.7 Environmental tests ....................................................................................... 39

9.3.8 Temperature-rise tests ................................................................................... 41

9.3.9 Functional tests ............................................................................................. 41

9.4 Routine tests......................................................................................................... 41

9.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 41

9.4.2 Functional requirements ................................................................................ 42

9.4.3 Safety requirements....................................................................................... 42

10 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 43

Annex A (normative) Detection tests under reduced energy arcs ......................................... 44

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

A.2 Electrical test circuit, electrodes and arc parameters ............................................ 45

A.2.1 Electrical test circuit ...................................................................................... 45

A.2.2 Calibration of test circuit ................................................................................ 45

A.2.3 Electrodes ..................................................................................................... 45

A.2.4 Ignition wire ................................................................................................... 45

A.2.5 Arc electrical values ...................................................................................... 45

A.2.6 Environmental conditions ............................................................................... 46

A.2.7 Conditioning of test objects ............................................................................ 46

A.3 Preparation and maintenance ............................................................................... 46

A.3.1 Preparation and conditioning of the test box .................................................. 46

A.3.2 Care and maintenance of the test equipment ................................................. 47

A.4 Optical sensors conditioning and positioning ......................................................... 47

A.5 Instructions for IACD maintenance during test sequence ...................................... 49

Annex B (normative) Detection and extinction tests for high energy arcs ............................. 50

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

B.2 Test specimen, electrical test circuit, arc parameters ............................................ 50

B.2.1 Test specimen (stand-alone or multifunction-type IACD) ................................ 50

B.2.2 Test specimen (combined-type IACD) ............................................................ 51

B.2.3 Electrical test circuit ...................................................................................... 55

B.2.4 IACD configuration ........................................................................................ 56

B.2.5 Arc parameters .............................................................................................. 56

B.3 Environmental conditions ...................................................................................... 56

B.4 Optical sensors conditioning and positioning ......................................................... 57

B.5 Instructions for maintenance ................................................................................. 58

Annex C (normative) Arcing current parameters ................................................................... 59

C.1 Preamble .............................................................................................................. 59

C.2 The different phases of an arc .............................................................................. 59

C.3 Detection of arc initiation (t ) ................................................................................ 60

C.4 Arc continuity ........................................................................................................ 62

C.5 Detection of arc-extinction .................................................................................... 62

C.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 62

C.5.2 Quenching device .......................................................................................... 62

C.5.3 Current-switching device ............................................................................... 62

C.6 Measurement means ............................................................................................. 62

C.7 Waveform consistency .......................................................................................... 62

Annex D (informative) IACD optical measurements .............................................................. 64

D.1 Preamble .............................................................................................................. 64

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– 4 – IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021

D.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 64

D.1.2 Photometry – The appearance point of view .................................................. 64

D.1.3 Radiometry – The technical point of view ....................................................... 64

D.2 The different optical units ...................................................................................... 64

D.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 64

D.2.2 The luminosity function .................................................................................. 65

D.2.3 How to use the luminosity function ................................................................. 66

D.3 Light measurement ............................................................................................... 68

D.3.1 Use of a luxmeter .......................................................................................... 68

D.3.2 Use of a spectrometer ................................................................................... 69

D.3.3 Spectrometer operation ................................................................................. 70

D.3.4 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 71

D.3.5 Absolute irradiance calibration ....................................................................... 73

D.3.6 Luxmeter operation ........................................................................................ 73

D.3.7 Luxmeter calibration ...................................................................................... 74

D.3.8 Luxmeter to spectrometer comparison ........................................................... 75

D.4 Measuring the sensitivity and bandwidth of the optical sensors of an IACD ........... 75

Annex E (normative) Ambient light immunity tests ................................................................ 77

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 77

E.2 Test method .......................................................................................................... 78

E.2.1 Principle ........................................................................................................ 78

E.2.2 IACD installation and setup............................................................................ 78

E.2.3 Environmental conditions ............................................................................... 79

E.2.4 Requirements for light source ........................................................................ 79

E.2.5 Requirements for luxmeter ............................................................................. 79

E.2.6 Calibration and testing method ...................................................................... 80

E.2.7 Test report ..................................................................................................... 82

Annex F (informative) Items subject to agreement between manufacturer and user ............. 83

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 84

Figure 1 – Optical-based IACD schematic (stand-alone type and no secondary sensor) ........ 11

Figure 2 – Stand-alone type IACD architecture overview ....................................................... 17

Figure 3 – Multifunction-type IACD architecture overview ..................................................... 17

Figure 4 – Combined-type IACD architecture overview.......................................................... 18

Figure 5 – Stand-alone IACD (hardware) architecture ........................................................... 27

Figure 6 – Multifunction-type IACD (hardware) architecture .................................................. 28

Figure 7 – Reduced energy detection tests – Arrangement principle ..................................... 33

Figure 8 – Method of test ...................................................................................................... 35

Figure 9 – High energy detection and extinction tests – Arrangement principle ..................... 36

Figure A.1 – Arc-test box outline ........................................................................................... 44

Figure A.2 – Positioning principle (point-sensor test case) .................................................... 48

Figure A.3 – Positioning principle (optical fibre test case) ..................................................... 49

Figure B.1 – Three-phase edge-to-edge arrangement principle (stand-alone or

multifunction-type, top view) ................................................................................................. 50

Figure B.2 – Three-phase face-to-face arrangement principle (stand-alone or

multifunction-type, top view) ................................................................................................. 51

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IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

Figure B.3 – Three-phase edge-to-edge arrangement principle (line combined-type, top

view) ..................................................................................................................................... 52

Figure B.4 – Three-phase face-to-face arrangement principle (line combined-type, top

view) ..................................................................................................................................... 53

Figure B.5 – Three-phase test edge-to-edge arrangement principle (parallel combined-

type, top view) ...................................................................................................................... 54

Figure B.6 – Three-phase test face-to-face arrangement principle (parallel combined-

type, top view) ...................................................................................................................... 55

Figure B.7 – Positioning of optical sensor vs arc ................................................................... 57

Figure C.1 – Detection of arc ignition .................................................................................... 61

Figure C.2 – Example of invalid test due to unintended arcing caused by incorrect

connection of ignition wire .................................................................................................... 63

Figure D.1 – The luminosity function, also known as υ(λ) curve, describes the

sensitivity of the human eye .................................................................................................. 66

Figure D.2 – Example of a measured absolute irradiance spectrum from an arc formed

across two copper busbars at 5 kA (RMS) 60 Hz .................................................................. 67

Figure D.3 – Resulting integrals of the illuminance, Φ , and irradiance, Φ , produced

v e

from the measured arc data taken from Figure D.2 ............................................................... 68

Figure D.4 – Block diagram of typical luxmeter circuit ........................................................... 69

Figure D.5 – Example of spectral irradiance measurement from a compact

fluorescent light .................................................................................................................... 69

Figure D.6 – Basic components of a spectrometer ................................................................ 71

Figure D.7 – Calculated emission of a Planck’s emitter at 2 500 K, υ(λ) curve and

resulting overlap ................................................................................................................... 73

Figure D.8 – Calibration bench for luxmeters ........................................................................ 74

Figure D.9 – Examples of spectral irradiance measured at 50 cm distance between

spectrometer and light source ............................................................................................... 76

Figure D.10 – Spectral irradiance examples comparing a continuous xenon light source

to a pulsed xenon light source .............................................................................................. 76

Figure E.1 – Calibrating the system for 2 000 lx .................................................................... 78

Figure E.2 – Luxmeter readings for QTH at 207 W (6,50 A at 31,8 V) at various

distances between the luxmeter and the light source ............................................................ 80

Figure E.3 – Test setup for an IACD fitted with point-sensor ................................................. 81

Figure E.4 – Test setup for an IACD fitted with optical fibre sensor ....................................... 81

Table 1 – Markings and indications for an IACD ................................................................. 20

Table 2 – Test conditions for glow-wire test .......................................................................... 23

Table 3 – Tests sequences for standalone-type or multifunction-type IACD .......................... 25

Table 4 – Tests sequences for combined-type IACD ............................................................. 26

Table 5 – General conditions of tests under high energy ....................................................... 37

Table 6 − EMC − Emission tests ........................................................................................... 39

Table 7 – Insulation test parameters ..................................................................................... 40

Table 8 – Vibration test parameters ...................................................................................... 40

Table A.1 – Test circuit conditions ........................................................................................ 45

Table A.2 – Ignition wire specifications ................................................................................. 45

Table A.3 – Arc parameters .................................................................................................. 46

Table A.4 – Environmental conditions ................................................................................... 46

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021

Table A.5 – Point-sensor positioning values .......................................................................... 47

Table A.6 – Optical fibre sensor positioning values ............................................................... 48

Table B.1 – Test circuit conditions ........................................................................................ 56

Table B.2 – Arc values .......................................................................................................... 56

Table B.3 – Environmental conditions ................................................................................... 57

Table B.4 – Point-sensor positioning values .......................................................................... 58

Table B.5 – Optical fibre sensor positioning values ............................................................... 58

Table B.6 – Authorized maintenance ..................................................................................... 58

Table C.1 – Main phases of an arc-fault ................................................................................ 59

Table D.1 – Selected photometric and radiometric definitions and units ................................ 65

Table E.1 – Minimum ambient light values regarding specific workplaces ............................. 77

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60947-9-2:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
LOW-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR –
Part 9-2: Active arc-fault mitigation systems –
Optical-based internal arc-detection and mitigation devices
...

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