Cranes -- Wire ropes -- Care and maintenance, inspection and discard

ISO 4309:2017 establishes general principles for the care and maintenance, and inspection and discard of steel wire ropes used on cranes and hoists. In addition to guidance on storage, handling, installation and maintenance, this document provides discard criteria for those running ropes which are subjected to multi-layer spooling, where both field experience and testing demonstrate that deterioration is significantly greater at the crossover zones on the drum than at any other section of rope in the system. It also provides more realistic discard criteria covering decreases in rope diameter and corrosion, and gives a method for assessing the combined effect of deterioration at any position in the rope. ISO 4309:2017 is applicable to those ropes used on the following types of cranes, the majority of which are defined in ISO 4306‑1: a) cable and portal cable cranes; b) cantilever cranes (pillar jib, wall or walking); c) deck cranes; d) derrick and guy derrick cranes; e) derrick cranes with rigid bracing; f) floating cranes; g) mobile cranes; h) overhead travelling cranes; i) portal or semi-portal bridge cranes; j) portal or semi-portal cranes; k) railway cranes; l) tower cranes; m) offshore cranes, i.e. cranes mounted on a fixed structure supported by the sea bed or on a floating unit supported by buoyancy forces. ISO 4309:2017 applies to rope on cranes, winches and hoists used for hook, grabbing, magnet, ladle, excavator or stacking duties, whether operated manually, electrically or hydraulically. It also applies to rope used on hoists and hoist blocks. NOTE In view of the fact that the exclusive use of synthetic sheaves or metal sheaves incorporating synthetic linings is not recommended when single-layer spooling at the drum, due to the inevitability of wire breaks occurring internally in large numbers before there is any visible evidence of any wire breaks or signs of substantial wear on the periphery of the rope, no discard criteria are given for this combination.

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue -- Câbles en acier -- Entretien et maintenance, inspection et dépose

ISO 4309:2017 établit des principes généraux pour l'entretien et la maintenance, l'inspection et la dépose de câbles en acier utilisés sur des appareils de levage et des palans. En plus des recommandations sur le stockage, la manutention, l'installation et la maintenance, le présent document définit des critčres de dépose pour les câbles en service ŕ enroulement multicouche, lorsque l'expérience sur le terrain et les essais démontrent que la détérioration est considérablement plus importante dans les zones de recouvrement qu'au niveau de toute autre section du câble dans le systčme. ISO 4309:2017 définit également des critčres de dépose plus réalistes couvrant la diminution du diamčtre du câble et la corrosion et décrit une méthode permettant d'évaluer l'effet combiné de détérioration en tout endroit du câble. La présente Norme internationale est applicable aux câbles utilisés sur les types suivants d'appareils de levage, dont la plupart sont définis dans l'ISO 4306‑1: a) blondins et portiques ŕ câble porteur; b) grues ŕ potence (sur colonne, murales, vélocipčdes); c) grues de bord; d) grues-derricks et grues-derricks ŕ haubans; e) grues-derricks ŕ contreventement rigide; f) grues flottantes; g) grues mobiles; h) ponts roulants; i) portiques ou semi-portiques; j) grues sur portique ou semi-portique; k) grues sur voie ferrée; l) grues ŕ tour; m) grues offshore, c'est-ŕ-dire grues montées sur une structure fixe prenant appui sur le fond marin ou sur une unité flottante supportée par la poussée hydrostatique. ISO 4309:2017 est applicable aux câbles qui sont utilisés sur des appareils de levage opérant avec crochet, benne preneuse, électro-aimant, poche de coulée, excavateur ou gerbeur, qu'ils soient actionnés manuellement, électriquement ou hydrauliquement. Il est également applicable aux câbles utilisés sur les palans et les moufles. NOTE Étant donné que l'utilisation exclusive de poulies synthétiques ou métalliques avec revętement intérieur synthétique de la gorge n'est pas recommandée en cas d'enroulement monocouche sur le tambour, en raison des inévitables ruptures de fils se produisant ŕ l'intérieur du câble sans qu'il n'y ait ni ruptures visibles, ni signes d'usure importante ŕ la périphérie du câble, aucun critčre de dépose n'est donné pour cette combinaison.

Žerjavi - Žične vrvi - Previdnost, vzdrževanje, pregledi in izločanje

Ta standard določa splošna načela za previdnost in vzdrževanje ter pregled in izločanje jeklenih žičnih vrvi, ki se uporabljajo pri žerjavih in dvigalih. Poleg smernic za shranjevanje, ravnanje, namestitev in vzdrževanje ta dokument podaja izločitvene kriterije za tiste vrvi, ki so podvržene večplastnemu navijanju, pri katerem preskušanje in izkušnje na terenu dokazujejo, da je obraba občutno večja na conah križanja na bobnu kot pa na katerem koli drugem delu vrvi v sistemu. Prav tako podaja bolj realistične izločitvene kriterije, ki zajemajo zmanjševanje premera vrvi in korozijo, ter določa metodo za oceno kombiniranega vpliva obrabe na katerem koli mestu vrvi. Ta dokument se uporablja za tiste vrvi, ki se uporabljajo pri naslednjih vrstah žerjavov, pri čemer je večina žerjavov opredeljena v standardu ISO 4306-1: a) kabelski in portalni kabelski žerjavi; b) konzolni žerjavi (stebrni žerjavi z ročico, stenski ali premični); c) ploščadni žerjavi; d) igličasti žerjavi in igličasti žerjavi z žično oporo; e) igličasti žerjavi s togo oporo; f) plavajoči žerjavi; g) premični žerjavi; h) tekalni žerjavi; i) kozičasti ali polkozičasti žerjavi; j) portalni ali polportalni žerjavi; k) železniški žerjavi; l) stolpni žerjavi; m) žerjavi na plavajočih objektih, tj. žerjavi, ki so postavljeni na fiksni konstrukciji, ki jo podpira morsko dno, ali na plavajoči enoti, ki jo podpirajo sile plovnosti. Ta dokument se uporablja za vrvi na žerjavih, vitlih in dvigalih, ki se uporabljajo za zakavljanje, prijemanje, prijemanje z magnetom, zajemanje, kopanje ali zlaganje, ne glede na to, ali se upravljajo ročno, električno ali hidravlično. Uporablja se tudi za vrvi, ki se uporabljajo na dvigalih in dvižnih blokih.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Nov-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-Oct-2017
Completion Date
30-Nov-2017

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4309
Fifth edition
2017-11
Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and
maintenance, inspection and discard
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Câbles en acier —
Entretien et maintenance, inspection et dépose
Reference number
ISO 4309:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 4309:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Care and maintenance .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Rope replacement................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Offloading and storing the rope ............................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Condition of the rope prior to installation ...................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Installing the rope ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.6 Running-in the new rope.............................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Maintaining the rope.......................................................................................................................................................................11

4.8 Maintenance of rope-related parts of the crane ......................................................................................................11

5 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Daily visual inspections ................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Periodic inspections ........................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.2 Frequency ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Extent of inspection....................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.4 Inspection at, or in the vicinity of, a termination .............................................................................14

5.3.5 Inspection record .........................................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Inspection following an incident ..........................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Inspection following period with crane out of operation ...............................................................................15

5.6 Inspection by magnetic rope test method ....................................................................................................................15

6 Discard criteria ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Visible broken wires ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2.1 Criteria for visible broken wires .....................................................................................................................16

6.2.2 Use of Tables 3 and 4 and rope category number ............................................................................16

6.2.3 Wire breaks other than those resulting from service ...................................................................16

6.2.4 Single-layer and parallel-closed ropes .......................................................................................................17

6.2.5 Rotation-resistant ropes ........................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Magnetic rope test (MRT) ...........................................................................................................................................................19

6.4 Decrease in rope diameter .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.1 Uniform decrease along the rope ...................................................................................................................20

6.4.2 Calculation to determine actual uniform decrease in diameter and

expression as percentage of nominal rope diameter ....................................................................21

6.4.3 Local decrease .................................................................................................................................................................21

6.5 Fracture of strands ...........................................................................................................................................................................21

6.6 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Deformation and damage ...........................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.2 Waviness ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Basket deformation ....................................................................................................................................................23

6.7.4 Core or strand protrusion or distortion ...................................................................................................23

6.7.5 Protruding wires in loops .....................................................................................................................................23

6.7.6 Local increase in rope diameter ......................................................................................................................23

6.7.7 Flattened portion ..........................................................................................................................................................23

6.7.8 Kink or tightened loop .............................................................................................................................................24

6.7.9 Bend in rope ......................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 4309:2017(E)

6.7.10 Damage due to heat or electric arcing ........................................................................................................24

Annex A (normative) Key areas requiring particularly close inspection ....................................................................25

Annex B (informative) Typical modes of deterioration .................................................................................................................27

Annex C (informative) Discard criteria for MRT ....................................................................................................................................37

Annex D (informative) Internal examination of rope by use of clamps ........................................................................39

Annex E (informative) Typical examples of inspection records ............................................................................................42

Annex F (informative) Useful information on rope deterioration and discard criteria ...............................45

Annex G (informative) Combined effect assessment of rope condition and severity rating —

One method .............................................................................................................................................................................................................48

Annex H (informative) Examples of cross-sections of ropes and corresponding rope

category number (RCN) ..............................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex I (informative) External corrosion ....................................................................................................................................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 3, Ropes.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 4309:2010), which has been technically

revised and contains the following changes:

— magnetic rope test (MRT) methodology and discard criteria are introduced, as an aid to the internal

inspection of wire ropes;

— guidance is given on when to use magnetic rope testing and how to combine its results with other

inspection results;
— an example of an MRT report is provided.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
Introduction

A wire rope on a crane is regarded as an expendable component, requiring replacement when the results

of inspection indicate that its condition has diminished to the point where further use might be unsafe.

By following well-established principles such as those detailed in this document, along with any

additional specific instructions provided by the manufacturer of the crane or hoist and/or by the

manufacturer of the rope, this point should never be exceeded.

When correctly applied, the discard criteria given in this document are aimed at retaining an adequate

safety margin. Failure to recognize them can be extremely harmful, dangerous and damaging.

To assist those who are responsible for “care and maintenance” as distinct from those who are

responsible for “inspection and discard”, the procedures are conveniently separated.

vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4309:2017(E)
Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection
and discard
1 Scope

This document establishes general principles for the care and maintenance, and inspection and discard

of steel wire ropes used on cranes and hoists.

In addition to guidance on storage, handling, installation and maintenance, this document provides

discard criteria for those running ropes which are subjected to multi-layer spooling, where both field

experience and testing demonstrate that deterioration is significantly greater at the crossover zones on

the drum than at any other section of rope in the system.

It also provides more realistic discard criteria covering decreases in rope diameter and corrosion, and

gives a method for assessing the combined effect of deterioration at any position in the rope.

This document is applicable to those ropes used on the following types of cranes, the majority of which

are defined in ISO 4306-1:
a) cable and portal cable cranes;
b) cantilever cranes (pillar jib, wall or walking);
c) deck cranes;
d) derrick and guy derrick cranes;
e) derrick cranes with rigid bracing;
f) floating cranes;
g) mobile cranes;
h) overhead travelling cranes;
i) portal or semi-portal bridge cranes;
j) portal or semi-portal cranes;
k) railway cranes;
l) tower cranes;

m) offshore cranes, i.e. cranes mounted on a fixed structure supported by the sea bed or on a floating

unit supported by buoyancy forces.

This document applies to rope on cranes, winches and hoists used for hook, grabbing, magnet, ladle,

excavator or stacking duties, whether operated manually, electrically or hydraulically.

It also applies to rope used on hoists and hoist blocks.

NOTE In view of the fact that the exclusive use of synthetic sheaves or metal sheaves incorporating

synthetic linings is not recommended when single-layer spooling at the drum, due to the inevitability of wire

breaks occurring internally in large numbers before there is any visible evidence of any wire breaks or signs of

substantial wear on the periphery of the rope, no discard criteria are given for this combination.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4301-1:1986, Cranes and lifting appliances — Classification — Part 1: General

ISO 17893, Steel wire ropes — Vocabulary, designation and classification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17893 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
nominal diameter
diameter by which the rope is designated
3.2
measured diameter
actual diameter

average of two measurements, taken at right angles to one another, of the diameter that circumscribes

the rope cross-section
3.3
reference diameter
ref

measured diameter (3.2) of a section of rope that is not subject to bending, taken directly after running

in the new rope

Note 1 to entry: This diameter is used as the baseline for uniform change in diameter.

3.4
crossover zone

that portion of rope coincident with a crossing over of one wrap by another as the rope traverses the

drum or rises from one layer to the next at the drum flange
3.5
wrap
one revolution of rope around a drum
3.6
reel
flanged spool on which rope is wound for shipment or storage
1) This edition of ISO 4301-1 has been provisionally retained.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
3.7
wire rope periodic inspection

in-depth visual inspection of the rope plus measurement of the rope and, if practicable, an assessment

of its internal condition

Note 1 to entry: If required, this may include an MRT (3.11) performed by a person competent in the operation of

MRT equipment and interpretation of trace data.
3.8
competent person

person having such knowledge and experience of wire ropes on cranes and hoists as is necessary for

that person to assess the condition of the rope, make a judgement as to whether it may remain in service

and stipulate the maximum time interval between inspections

Note 1 to entry: If an MRT (3.11) is required, it has to be performed by a competent person in that discipline.

3.9
valley wire break

wire break that occurs at the inter-strand contact point or valley area between two outer strands

Note 1 to entry: Outer wire breaks that also occur within the rope anywhere between one valley area and the

next — see Figure 1 — including any strand-core breaks, may also be regarded as valley wire breaks The red

lines indicate the contact points and the location of the valley breaks.
Figure 1 — Position of valley breaks
3.10
severity rating
amount of deterioration expressed as a percentage towards discard

Note 1 to entry: The rating may relate to either an individual mode of deterioration [e.g. broken wires, decrease

in diameter or loss of metallic area as detected by MRT (3.11)] or the combined effect of more than one mode of

deterioration, e.g. broken wires and decrease in diameter.
3.11
magnetic rope test
MRT

non-destructive testing (NDT) based on the measurement of the magnetic flux leakage of a

magnetized rope
3.12
test head

device on that part of the MRT (3.11) instrument positioned around the rope during testing which

generates the magnetizing field and contains the detecting or sensing elements
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
3.13
base trace

signals on the MRT (3.11) recording display as the rope travels through the test head on the first

occasion that it is tested

Note 1 to entry: The trace is the datum against which future in-service deterioration effects are compared. The

trace reflects the construction of the rope and changes in magnetic characteristics of the rope along its length,

e.g. magnetic permeability differences.
3.14
local fault
local flaw

short discontinuity in the wire rope, such as a wire break, welded wire, corrosion pit or inter-

strand nicking
3.15
loss of metallic area
LMA

change in metallic cross-sectional area expressed as percentage of nominal metallic cross-sectional

area of the new rope

Note 1 to entry: Loss of metallic area is normally associated with damage such as uniform corrosion, wear,

abrasion/mechanical damage or wire breaks.
4 Care and maintenance
4.1 General

In the absence of any instructions provided by the manufacturer of the crane in the operator’s manual

and/or provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the rope, the general principles given in 4.2 to 4.7

shall be followed.
4.2 Rope replacement

Unless an alternative rope has been approved by the crane manufacturer, rope manufacturer or other

competent person, only a rope of the correct length, diameter, construction, type and direction of lay

and strength (i.e. minimum breaking force), as specified by the crane manufacturer, shall be installed

on the crane. A record of the rope change shall be placed on file.

In the case of larger-diameter, rotation-resistant ropes, it may be necessary to apply additional means

of securing the rope ends, e.g. through the use of steel straps or servings, particularly when preparing

samples for testing.

If the length of rope required for use is to be cut from a longer length, such as a bulk-manufactured reel

of rope, servings shall be applied at both sides of the intended cutting point to prevent the rope from

unlaying (i.e. unravelling) after the cut has been made.

Figure 2 shows an example of how a single-layer rope should be served before cutting. For rotation-

resistant and parallel-closed ropes, multiple-length servings may be necessary. An alternative method

for larger-diameter, rotation-resistant ropes is shown in Figure 3. Ropes that are only lightly preformed

are more likely to unlay/unravel after cutting, if inadequate or insufficient servings are applied.

NOTE Serving is sometimes referred to as “seizing”.

Unless an alternative rope termination has been approved by the crane manufacturer, rope

manufacturer or other competent person, only one of a type, as specified by the crane manufacturer

in the operator’s manual, shall be used to attach a rope to a drum, hook block or anchor point on the

machinery structure.
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4309:2017(E)

It is beneficial to take a base trace for the MRT by testing the rope before installation or as soon as

practical after installation.
Key
L = 2d min
Figure 2 — Application of serving prior to cutting of single-layer type rope
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 4309:2017(E)

Figure 3 — Alternative serving and cutting method for large diameter rotation-resistant rope

4.3 Offloading and storing the rope
To avoid accidents and/or damage to the rope, it should be offloaded with care.

Reels or coils of rope shall not be dropped, neither shall they be struck by a metal hook or fork of a lift

truck or any other external force that could damage or deform the rope.

Ropes should be stored in a cool, dry building and should not be allowed to be in contact with the floor.

They should not be stored where they are likely to be affected by chemicals, chemical fumes, steam or

other corrosive agents.

If outdoor storage cannot be avoided, ropes should be covered so that moisture cannot induce corrosion.

Ropes in storage shall be checked periodically for any signs of deterioration such as surface corrosion

and, if deemed necessary by a competent person, dressed with a suitable preservative or lubricant

which is compatible with the rope manufacturing lubricant.

In warm environments, the reel should be periodically rotated one half-turn to prevent drainage of

lubricant from the rope.
4.4 Condition of the rope prior to installation

Before installing the rope, and preferably on receipt, the rope and its certificate should be checked to

ensure that the rope is in accordance with that ordered.

The minimum breaking force of the rope to be installed shall not be lower than that specified by the

crane manufacturer.

The diameter of the new rope shall be measured in a straight section with the rope under no tension

and the value (d ) recorded.

Where a wire rope has been kept in storage for a period of time during which corrosion might have

occurred, it may be advantageous to perform visual inspection and an MRT.

Check the condition of all sheave and drum grooves to ensure that they are capable of accepting the size

of the new rope, do not contain any irregularities, such as corrugations, and have sufficient remaining

thickness to safely support the rope.

The sheave groove diameter should be between 5 % and 10 % larger than the nominal rope diameter.

For optimal performance the groove diameter should be at least 1 % greater than the actual diameter

of the new rope.
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4309:2017(E)
4.5 Installing the rope

When uncoiling and/or installing a wire rope, every precaution shall be taken to avoid inducing turn

into, or out of, the rope. Allowing this to occur can result in the formation of loops, kinks or bends in the

rope, rendering it unfit for use.

In order to prevent any of these developing, the rope should be paid out in a straight line with a

minimum of slack being allowed to occur (see Figure 4).

Rope supplied in a coil should be placed on a turntable and paid out straight; however, where the coiled

length is short, the outer rope end may be made free and the remainder of the rope rolled along the

ground [see Figure 4 a)].

A rope shall never be paid out by throwing off wraps when the coil or reel is flat on the ground or by

rolling the reel along the ground (see Figure 5).

For those lengths of rope supplied on a reel, place the supply reel and its supporting stand or cradle

as far away from the crane or hoist as possible, in order to limit any fleet angle effects to an absolute

minimum and thus avoid any undesirable rotational effects.

Protect the rope from any potential ingress of grit or other contaminants by running it on suitable

matting (e.g. used conveyor belting), rather than allowing it to run directly on the ground.

Be aware that a revolving reel of rope can have a high inertia, in which case it needs to be controlled in

order to slowly pay out the rope. For smaller reels, this is usually achieved by employing a single brake

(see Figure 6). Larger reels have significant inertia once they start to revolve and might need to be

substantially braked.

As far as is practicable, ensure that the rope always bends in the same direction during installation, i.e.

pay out the rope from the top of the supply reel to the top of the drum on the crane or hoist (referred to

as “top-to-top”), or from the underneath of the supply reel to the underneath of the drum on the crane

or hoist (referred to as “bottom-to-bottom”). For an example of “bottom-
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 4309:2019
01-december-2019
Žerjavi - Žične vrvi - Previdnost, vzdrževanje, pregledi in izločanje
Cranes - Wire ropes - Care and maintenance, inspection and discard

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Câbles en acier - Entretien et maintenance,

inspection et dépose
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 4309:2017
ICS:
53.020.30 Pribor za dvigalno opremo Accessories for lifting
equipment
SIST ISO 4309:2019 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4309:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4309:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4309
Fifth edition
2017-11
Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and
maintenance, inspection and discard
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Câbles en acier —
Entretien et maintenance, inspection et dépose
Reference number
ISO 4309:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST ISO 4309:2019
ISO 4309:2017(E)
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Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Care and maintenance .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Rope replacement................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Offloading and storing the rope ............................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Condition of the rope prior to installation ...................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Installing the rope ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.6 Running-in the new rope.............................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Maintaining the rope.......................................................................................................................................................................11

4.8 Maintenance of rope-related parts of the crane ......................................................................................................11

5 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Daily visual inspections ................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Periodic inspections ........................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.2 Frequency ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Extent of inspection....................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.4 Inspection at, or in the vicinity of, a termination .............................................................................14

5.3.5 Inspection record .........................................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Inspection following an incident ..........................................................................................................................................15

5.5 Inspection following period with crane out of operation ...............................................................................15

5.6 Inspection by magnetic rope test method ....................................................................................................................15

6 Discard criteria ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Visible broken wires ........................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2.1 Criteria for visible broken wires .....................................................................................................................16

6.2.2 Use of Tables 3 and 4 and rope category number ............................................................................16

6.2.3 Wire breaks other than those resulting from service ...................................................................16

6.2.4 Single-layer and parallel-closed ropes .......................................................................................................17

6.2.5 Rotation-resistant ropes ........................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Magnetic rope test (MRT) ...........................................................................................................................................................19

6.4 Decrease in rope diameter .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.4.1 Uniform decrease along the rope ...................................................................................................................20

6.4.2 Calculation to determine actual uniform decrease in diameter and

expression as percentage of nominal rope diameter ....................................................................21

6.4.3 Local decrease .................................................................................................................................................................21

6.5 Fracture of strands ...........................................................................................................................................................................21

6.6 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Deformation and damage ...........................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.2 Waviness ..............................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Basket deformation ....................................................................................................................................................23

6.7.4 Core or strand protrusion or distortion ...................................................................................................23

6.7.5 Protruding wires in loops .....................................................................................................................................23

6.7.6 Local increase in rope diameter ......................................................................................................................23

6.7.7 Flattened portion ..........................................................................................................................................................23

6.7.8 Kink or tightened loop .............................................................................................................................................24

6.7.9 Bend in rope ......................................................................................................................................................................24

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6.7.10 Damage due to heat or electric arcing ........................................................................................................24

Annex A (normative) Key areas requiring particularly close inspection ....................................................................25

Annex B (informative) Typical modes of deterioration .................................................................................................................27

Annex C (informative) Discard criteria for MRT ....................................................................................................................................37

Annex D (informative) Internal examination of rope by use of clamps ........................................................................39

Annex E (informative) Typical examples of inspection records ............................................................................................42

Annex F (informative) Useful information on rope deterioration and discard criteria ...............................45

Annex G (informative) Combined effect assessment of rope condition and severity rating —

One method .............................................................................................................................................................................................................48

Annex H (informative) Examples of cross-sections of ropes and corresponding rope

category number (RCN) ..............................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex I (informative) External corrosion ....................................................................................................................................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 96, Cranes, Subcommittee SC 3, Ropes.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 4309:2010), which has been technically

revised and contains the following changes:

— magnetic rope test (MRT) methodology and discard criteria are introduced, as an aid to the internal

inspection of wire ropes;

— guidance is given on when to use magnetic rope testing and how to combine its results with other

inspection results;
— an example of an MRT report is provided.
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Introduction

A wire rope on a crane is regarded as an expendable component, requiring replacement when the results

of inspection indicate that its condition has diminished to the point where further use might be unsafe.

By following well-established principles such as those detailed in this document, along with any

additional specific instructions provided by the manufacturer of the crane or hoist and/or by the

manufacturer of the rope, this point should never be exceeded.

When correctly applied, the discard criteria given in this document are aimed at retaining an adequate

safety margin. Failure to recognize them can be extremely harmful, dangerous and damaging.

To assist those who are responsible for “care and maintenance” as distinct from those who are

responsible for “inspection and discard”, the procedures are conveniently separated.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4309:2017(E)
Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection
and discard
1 Scope

This document establishes general principles for the care and maintenance, and inspection and discard

of steel wire ropes used on cranes and hoists.

In addition to guidance on storage, handling, installation and maintenance, this document provides

discard criteria for those running ropes which are subjected to multi-layer spooling, where both field

experience and testing demonstrate that deterioration is significantly greater at the crossover zones on

the drum than at any other section of rope in the system.

It also provides more realistic discard criteria covering decreases in rope diameter and corrosion, and

gives a method for assessing the combined effect of deterioration at any position in the rope.

This document is applicable to those ropes used on the following types of cranes, the majority of which

are defined in ISO 4306-1:
a) cable and portal cable cranes;
b) cantilever cranes (pillar jib, wall or walking);
c) deck cranes;
d) derrick and guy derrick cranes;
e) derrick cranes with rigid bracing;
f) floating cranes;
g) mobile cranes;
h) overhead travelling cranes;
i) portal or semi-portal bridge cranes;
j) portal or semi-portal cranes;
k) railway cranes;
l) tower cranes;

m) offshore cranes, i.e. cranes mounted on a fixed structure supported by the sea bed or on a floating

unit supported by buoyancy forces.

This document applies to rope on cranes, winches and hoists used for hook, grabbing, magnet, ladle,

excavator or stacking duties, whether operated manually, electrically or hydraulically.

It also applies to rope used on hoists and hoist blocks.

NOTE In view of the fact that the exclusive use of synthetic sheaves or metal sheaves incorporating

synthetic linings is not recommended when single-layer spooling at the drum, due to the inevitability of wire

breaks occurring internally in large numbers before there is any visible evidence of any wire breaks or signs of

substantial wear on the periphery of the rope, no discard criteria are given for this combination.

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2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 4301-1:1986, Cranes and lifting appliances — Classification — Part 1: General

ISO 17893, Steel wire ropes — Vocabulary, designation and classification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17893 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
nominal diameter
diameter by which the rope is designated
3.2
measured diameter
actual diameter

average of two measurements, taken at right angles to one another, of the diameter that circumscribes

the rope cross-section
3.3
reference diameter
ref

measured diameter (3.2) of a section of rope that is not subject to bending, taken directly after running

in the new rope

Note 1 to entry: This diameter is used as the baseline for uniform change in diameter.

3.4
crossover zone

that portion of rope coincident with a crossing over of one wrap by another as the rope traverses the

drum or rises from one layer to the next at the drum flange
3.5
wrap
one revolution of rope around a drum
3.6
reel
flanged spool on which rope is wound for shipment or storage
1) This edition of ISO 4301-1 has been provisionally retained.
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3.7
wire rope periodic inspection

in-depth visual inspection of the rope plus measurement of the rope and, if practicable, an assessment

of its internal condition

Note 1 to entry: If required, this may include an MRT (3.11) performed by a person competent in the operation of

MRT equipment and interpretation of trace data.
3.8
competent person

person having such knowledge and experience of wire ropes on cranes and hoists as is necessary for

that person to assess the condition of the rope, make a judgement as to whether it may remain in service

and stipulate the maximum time interval between inspections

Note 1 to entry: If an MRT (3.11) is required, it has to be performed by a competent person in that discipline.

3.9
valley wire break

wire break that occurs at the inter-strand contact point or valley area between two outer strands

Note 1 to entry: Outer wire breaks that also occur within the rope anywhere between one valley area and the

next — see Figure 1 — including any strand-core breaks, may also be regarded as valley wire breaks The red

lines indicate the contact points and the location of the valley breaks.
Figure 1 — Position of valley breaks
3.10
severity rating
amount of deterioration expressed as a percentage towards discard

Note 1 to entry: The rating may relate to either an individual mode of deterioration [e.g. broken wires, decrease

in diameter or loss of metallic area as detected by MRT (3.11)] or the combined effect of more than one mode of

deterioration, e.g. broken wires and decrease in diameter.
3.11
magnetic rope test
MRT

non-destructive testing (NDT) based on the measurement of the magnetic flux leakage of a

magnetized rope
3.12
test head

device on that part of the MRT (3.11) instrument positioned around the rope during testing which

generates the magnetizing field and contains the detecting or sensing elements
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3.13
base trace

signals on the MRT (3.11) recording display as the rope travels through the test head on the first

occasion that it is tested

Note 1 to entry: The trace is the datum against which future in-service deterioration effects are compared. The

trace reflects the construction of the rope and changes in magnetic characteristics of the rope along its length,

e.g. magnetic permeability differences.
3.14
local fault
local flaw

short discontinuity in the wire rope, such as a wire break, welded wire, corrosion pit or inter-

strand nicking
3.15
loss of metallic area
LMA

change in metallic cross-sectional area expressed as percentage of nominal metallic cross-sectional

area of the new rope

Note 1 to entry: Loss of metallic area is normally associated with damage such as uniform corrosion, wear,

abrasion/mechanical damage or wire breaks.
4 Care and maintenance
4.1 General

In the absence of any instructions provided by the manufacturer of the crane in the operator’s manual

and/or provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the rope, the general principles given in 4.2 to 4.7

shall be followed.
4.2 Rope replacement

Unless an alternative rope has been approved by the crane manufacturer, rope manufacturer or other

competent person, only a rope of the correct length, diameter, construction, type and direction of lay

and strength (i.e. minimum breaking force), as specified by the crane manufacturer, shall be installed

on the crane. A record of the rope change shall be placed on file.

In the case of larger-diameter, rotation-resistant ropes, it may be necessary to apply additional means

of securing the rope ends, e.g. through the use of steel straps or servings, particularly when preparing

samples for testing.

If the length of rope required for use is to be cut from a longer length, such as a bulk-manufactured reel

of rope, servings shall be applied at both sides of the intended cutting point to prevent the rope from

unlaying (i.e. unravelling) after the cut has been made.

Figure 2 shows an example of how a single-layer rope should be served before cutting. For rotation-

resistant and parallel-closed ropes, multiple-length servings may be necessary. An alternative method

for larger-diameter, rotation-resistant ropes is shown in Figure 3. Ropes that are only lightly preformed

are more likely to unlay/unravel after cutting, if inadequate or insufficient servings are applied.

NOTE Serving is sometimes referred to as “seizing”.

Unless an alternative rope termination has been approved by the crane manufacturer, rope

manufacturer or other competent person, only one of a type, as specified by the crane manufacturer

in the operator’s manual, shall be used to attach a rope to a drum, hook block or anchor point on the

machinery structure.
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It is beneficial to take a base trace for the MRT by testing the rope before installation or as soon as

practical after installation.
Key
L = 2d min
Figure 2 — Application of serving prior to cutting of single-layer type rope
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Figure 3 — Alternative serving and cutting method for large diameter rotation-resistant rope

4.3 Offloading and storing the rope
To avoid accidents and/or damage to the rope, it should be offloaded with care.

Reels or coils of rope shall not be dropped, neither shall they be struck by a metal hook or fork of a lift

truck or any other external force that could damage or deform the rope.

Ropes should be stored in a cool, dry building and should not be allowed to be in contact with the floor.

They should not be stored where they are likely to be affected by chemicals, chemical fumes, steam or

other corrosive agents.

If outdoor storage cannot be avoided, ropes should be covered so that moisture cannot induce corrosion.

Ropes in storage shall be checked periodically for any signs of deterioration such as surface corrosion

and, if deemed necessary by a competent person, dressed with a suitable preservative or lubricant

which is compatible with the rope manufacturing lubricant.

In warm environments, the reel should be periodically rotated one half-turn to prevent drainage of

lubricant from the rope.
4.4 Condition of the rope prior to installation

Before installing the rope, and preferably on receipt, the rope and its certificate should be checked to

ensure that the rope is in accordance with that ordered.

The minimum breaking force of the rope to be installed shall not be lower than that specified by the

crane manufacturer.

The diameter of the new rope shall be measured in a straight section with the rope under no tension

and the value (d ) recorded.

Where a wire rope has been kept in storage for a period of time during which corrosion might have

occurred, it may be advantageous to perform visual inspection and an MRT.

Check the condition of all sheave and drum grooves to ensure that they are capable of accepting the size

of the new rope, do not contain any irregularities, such as corrugations, and have sufficient remaining

thickness to safely support the rope.

The sheave groove diameter should be between 5 % and 10 % larger than the nominal rope diameter.

For optimal performance the groove diameter should be at least 1 % greater than the actual diameter

of the new rope.
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4.5 Installing the rope

When uncoiling and/or installing a wire rope, every precaution shall be taken to avoid inducing turn

into, or out of, the rope. Allowing this to occur can result in the formation of loops, kinks or bends in the

rope, rendering it unfit for use.

In order to prevent any of these developing, the rope should be paid out in a straight line with a

minimum of slack being allowed to occur (see Figure 4).

Rope supplied in a coil should be placed on a turntable and paid out straight; however, where the coiled

length is short, the outer rope end may be made free and the remainder of the rope rolled along the

ground [see Figure 4 a)].

A rope shall never be paid out by throwing off wraps when the coil or reel is flat on the ground or by

rolling the reel along the ground (see Figure 5).

For those lengths of rope supplied on a reel, place the supply reel and its supporting stand or cradle

as far away from the crane or hoist as possible, in order to limit any fleet angle effects to an absolute

minimum and thus avoid any undesirable ro
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 4309
Cinquième édition
2017-11
Appareils de levage à charge
suspendue — Câbles en acier —
Entretien et maintenance, inspection
et dépose
Cranes — Wire ropes — Care and maintenance, inspection and discard
Numéro de référence
ISO 4309:2017(F)
ISO 2017
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ISO 4309:2017(F)
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ISO 4309:2017(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Entretien et maintenance ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2 Remplacement du câble .................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Déchargement et stockage du câble ..................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Condition du câble avant installation .................................................................................................................................. 6

4.5 Installation du câble ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Rodage du nouveau câble ...........................................................................................................................................................10

4.7 Entretien du câble .............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.8 Entretien des parties de l'appareil de levage liées au câble ..........................................................................11

5 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Inspections visuelles quotidiennes ....................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Inspections périodiques...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3.2 Fréquence............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Étendue de l'inspection ...........................................................................................................................................13

5.3.4 Inspection au niveau ou à proximité d'une terminaison ............................................................14

5.3.5 Rapport d'inspection .................................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Inspection faisant suite à un incident ..............................................................................................................................14

5.5 Inspection faisant suite à une période de mise hors service de l'appareil de levage ..............14

5.6 Vérification par contrôle électromagnétique de câble.......................................................................................14

6 Critères de dépose ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2 Fils cassés visibles .............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.1 Critères de fils cassés visibles............................................................................................................................15

6.2.2 Utilisation des Tableaux 3 et 4 et des numéros de catégorie de câbles (RCN) ........16

6.2.3 Ruptures de fils autres que celles résultant de l'utilisation .....................................................16

6.2.4 Câbles à une couche et câbles disposés en parallèle......................................................................17

6.2.5 Câbles anti-giratoires ................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 Contrôle électromagnétique du câble (MRT) ............................................................................................................19

6.4 Diminution du diamètre du câble ........................................................................................................................................20

6.4.1 Diminution uniforme le long du câble ........................................................................................................20

6.4.2 Calcul pour déterminer la diminution réelle uniforme de diamètre et

l'exprimer en pourcentage du diamètre nominal du câble ......................................................21

6.4.3 Diminution locale .........................................................................................................................................................21

6.5 Rupture de torons..............................................................................................................................................................................21

6.6 Corrosion ..................................................................................................................................................................................................21

6.7 Déformation et endommagement .......................................................................................................................................22

6.7.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................22

6.7.2 Déformation en tire-bouchon ............................................................................................................................22

6.7.3 Déformation en panier.............................................................................................................................................23

6.7.4 Extrusion/distorsion de toron ou d'âme .................................................................................................23

6.7.5 Extrusion de fils (fils saillants) dans les boucles ..............................................................................23

6.7.6 Augmentation locale du diamètre du câble ...........................................................................................23

6.7.7 Parties aplaties ...............................................................................................................................................................24

6.7.8 Coques (nœuds) ou boucles resserrées ....................................................................................................24

6.7.9 Flexion de câble .............................................................................................................................................................24

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6.7.10 Détérioration produite par la chaleur ou un phénomène électrique ..............................24

Annexe A (normative) Zones clefs nécessitant une inspection approfondie ..........................................................25

Annexe B (informative) Modes de détérioration types ..................................................................................................................27

Annexe C (informative) Critères de dépose pour contrôles électromagnétiques MRT .................................37

Annexe D (informative) Examen interne d'un câble en utilisant des mâchoires ................................................39

Annexe E (informative) Exemples types de rapports d'inspection ....................................................................................42

Annexe F (informative) Informations utiles sur les critères de détériorationet de dépose

des câbles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

Annexe G (informative) Évaluation d’effet combiné de condition du câbleet de degré de

sévérité — Une méthode ...........................................................................................................................................................................49

Annexe H (informative) Exemples de sections transversales de câbles et du numéro de

catégorie de câble correspondant (RCN) .................................................................................................................................53

Annexe I (informative) Lignes directrices pour l'estimationet l'évaluation de la

corrosion externe .............................................................................................................................................................................................59

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................61

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Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 96, Appareils de levage à charge

suspendue, sous-comité SC 3, Câbles.

Cette cinquième édition annule et remplace la quatrième édition (ISO 4309:2010), qui] fait l'objet d'une

révision technique et porte sur les principales modifications suivantes:

— la méthode de contrôle électromagnétique des câbles (MRT) et les critères de dépose ont été

introduits comme une aide pour l'inspection interne des câbles en acier;

— des lignes directrices sont données concernant la méthode des contrôles électromagnétique et

comment combiner les résultats aux autre résultats d'inspection;
— un exemple de rapport de MRT est fourni.
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ISO 4309:2017(F)
Introduction

Dans un appareil de levage, le câble est considéré comme un élément consommable, appelé à être

remplacé quand l'inspection montre que son état s'est détérioré à un point tel qu'il s'avèrerait dangereux.

En suivant des principes clairement établis, tels que ceux détaillés dans le présent document, ainsi

que les instructions spécifiques supplémentaires fournies par le fabricant de l'appareil de levage ou du

palan et/ou par le fabricant du câble, ce point ne devrait jamais être dépassé.

Lorsqu'ils sont correctement appliqués, les critères de dépose donnés dans le présent document

permettent de conserver une bonne marge de sécurité. Le non-respect de ces critères peut engendrer

des situations extrêmement nocives, dangereuses ou endommageantes.

Par commodité pour les personnes chargées de l'entretien et de la maintenance, distinctes des

personnes chargées du contrôle et de la dépose, les procédures sont bien données séparément.

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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 4309:2017(F)
Appareils de levage à charge suspendue — Câbles en acier
— Entretien et maintenance, inspection et dépose
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document établit des principes généraux pour l'entretien et la maintenance, l'inspection et la

dépose de câbles en acier utilisés sur des appareils de levage et des palans.

En plus des recommandations sur le stockage, la manutention, l'installation et la maintenance, le

présent document définit des critères de dépose pour les câbles en service à enroulement multicouche,

lorsque l'expérience sur le terrain et les essais démontrent que la détérioration est considérablement

plus importante dans les zones de recouvrement qu'au niveau de toute autre section du câble dans le

système.

Il définit également des critères de dépose plus réalistes couvrant la diminution du diamètre du câble et

la corrosion et décrit une méthode permettant d'évaluer l'effet combiné de détérioration en tout endroit

du câble.

La présente Norme internationale est applicable aux câbles utilisés sur les types suivants d'appareils de

levage, dont la plupart sont définis dans l'ISO 4306-1:
a) blondins et portiques à câble porteur;
b) grues à potence (sur colonne, murales, vélocipèdes);
c) grues de bord;
d) grues-derricks et grues-derricks à haubans;
e) grues-derricks à contreventement rigide;
f) grues flottantes;
g) grues mobiles;
h) ponts roulants;
i) portiques ou semi-portiques;
j) grues sur portique ou semi-portique;
k) grues sur voie ferrée;
l) grues à tour;

m) grues offshore, c'est-à-dire grues montées sur une structure fixe prenant appui sur le fond marin

ou sur une unité flottante supportée par la poussée hydrostatique.

Le présent document est applicable aux câbles qui sont utilisés sur des appareils de levage opérant avec

crochet, benne preneuse, électro-aimant, poche de coulée, excavateur ou gerbeur, qu'ils soient actionnés

manuellement, électriquement ou hydrauliquement.
Il est également applicable aux câbles utilisés sur les palans et les moufles.

NOTE Étant donné que l'utilisation exclusive de poulies synthétiques ou métalliques avec revêtement

intérieur synthétique de la gorge n'est pas recommandée en cas d'enroulement monocouche sur le tambour, en

raison des inévitables ruptures de fils se produisant à l'intérieur du câble sans qu'il n’y ait ni ruptures visibles, ni

signes d'usure importante à la périphérie du câble, aucun critère de dépose n’est donné pour cette combinaison.

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ISO 4309:2017(F)
2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l'application du présent document. Pour

les références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition

du document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 4301-1:1986, Grues et appareils de levage — Classification — Partie 1: Généralités

ISO 17893, Câbles en acier — Vocabulaire, désignation et classification
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 17893 ainsi que les

suivants s'appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
diamètre nominal
diamètre par lequel un câble est désigné
3.2
diamètre mesuré
diamètre réel

moyenne de deux mesures du diamètre, réalisées perpendiculairement l'une par rapport à l'autre, sur

une section transversale du câble
3.3
diamètre de référence
ref

diamètre mesuré (3.2) d'une section de câble qui n'est pas soumise à la flexion, pris directement après

l'enroulement du nouveau câble

Note 1 à l'article: Ce diamètre est utilisé comme base pour un changement uniforme du diamètre.

3.4
zone de croisement

portion d'un câble coïncidant avec le croisement d'une spire de câble par une autre au fur et à mesure

que le câble s'enroule autour du tambour ou passe d'une couche à la couche suivante au niveau du

flasque du tambour
3.5
couche
un tour de câble sur le tambour
3.6
touret
support sur lequel est enroulé le câble pour le transport ou le stockage
1) Cette édition de l'ISO 4301-1 a été maintenue provisoirement.
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ISO 4309:2017(F)
3.7
inspection périodique du câble

inspection visuelle approfondie du câble, avec mesurage du câble et, si possible, avec évaluation de l'état

interne du câble

Note 1 à l'article: Si spécifié, ceci peut inclure un MRT (3.11) réalisé par une personne compétente pour la

manipulation de l'équipement MRT et pour l'interprétation des données liées aux traces

3.8
personne compétente

personne ayant une connaissance et une expérience suffisantes des câbles utilisés sur les appareils de

levage et les palans pour évaluer l'état du câble, décider si le câble peut ou non rester en service et

spécifier l'intervalle de temps maximal entre les inspections

Note 1 à l'article: Si un contrôle électromagnétique (MRT) (3.11) du câble est requis, il doit être réalisé par une

personne compétente dans cette discipline
3.9
rupture de fils en vallée

rupture de fil qui se produit au point de contact entre torons ou en zone de vallée entre deux torons

extérieurs

Note 1 à l'article: Les ruptures de fils extérieurs qui se produisent aussi sur le câble n'importe où entre une zone

de vallée et la suivante, voir Figure 1, y compris toute rupture âme-toron, peuvent aussi être considérées comme

des ruptures de fil en vallée.
Figure 1 — Position de rupture de fils en vallée
3.10
degré de sévérité
quantité de détérioration exprimée en pourcentage du critère de dépose

Note 1 à l'article: Ce degré peut se rapporter soit à un mode de détérioration particulier [par exemple ruptures

de fils ou diminution de diamètre ou une perte de section métallique détectée par le contrôle électromagnétique

(3.11)] ou l'effet combiné de plus d'un mode de détérioration, par exemple ruptures de fils ou diminution de

diamètre.
3.11
contrôle électromagnétique de câble
MRT

essai non destructif (NDT) basé sur le mesurage de la perte de flux magnétique d'un câble aimanté

3.12
tête d'essai

dispositif sur la partie de l'instrument du MRT (3.11) qui est placée autour du câble lors de l'essai, qui

génère le champ magnétique et qui comprend des éléments de détection ou d’exploration

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ISO 4309:2017(F)
3.13
trace de référence

signaux sur l'écran d'enregistrement du MRT (3.11) lorsque le câble traverse pour la première fois la

tête d'essai

Note 1 à l'article: La trace est la référence à laquelle les effets de détérioration future en service sont comparés.

La trace reflète la composition du câble et les modifications des caractéristiques magnétiques du câble sur toute

sa longueur, soit par exemple des différences de perméabilité magnétique
3.14
défaut local
faille locale

courte discontinuité d'un câble, telle qu'une rupture de fil, un fil soudé, une piqûre de corrosion ou une

indentation entre torons
3.15
perte de section métallique
LMA

modification de la section exprimée en pourcentage de la section métallique nominale du nouveau câble

Note 1 à l'article: La perte de section métallique est normalement associée à un endommagement tel que la

corrosion généralisée, l'usure, l'abrasion/l'endommagement mécanique ou une concentration de fils cassés

4 Entretien et maintenance
4.1 Généralités

En l'absence de toute instruction fournie par le fabricant de l'appareil de levage dans le manuel

d'utilisation et/ou dans tout autre document fourni par le fabricant ou le fournisseur du câble, les

principes généraux donnés de 4.2 à 4.7 doivent être suivis.
4.2 Remplacement du câble

N'installer sur l'appareil de levage qu'un câble de longueur, de diamètre, de composition, de type, de

sens de câblage et de résistance (c'est-à-dire charge minimale de rupture) appropriés tels que spécifiés

par le fabricant de l'appareil de levage, sauf si un autre câble a été approuvé par le fabricant de l'appareil

de levage, le fabricant du câble ou toute autre personne compétente. Un enregistrement du changement

de câble doit être classé dans un dossier.

Dans le cas de câbles anti-giratoires de grand diamètre, il peut être nécessaire d'utiliser des moyens

supplémentaires pour sécuriser les extrémités du câble, par exemple à l'aide de feuillards d’acier ou de

ligatures, en particulier lors de la préparation des échantillons pour les essais.

Si la longueur de câble nécessaire pour l’utilisation doit être prélevée à partir d’une plus grande

longueur, par exemple sur un touret de câble en vrac, une ligature doit être pratiquée de part et d'autre

du point de coupure prévu pour éviter de détoronner (c'est-à-dire détorsader) le câble après que la

coupure ait été effectuée.

La Figure 2 montre un exemple de la façon dont il convient de ligaturer un câble monocouche avant la

coupe. Pour les câbles anti-giratoires et disposés en parallèle, plusieurs longueurs de ligatures peuvent

être nécessaires. Une méthode alternative pour les câbles anti-giratoires de grand diamètre est donnée

à la Figure 3. Les câbles qui sont seulement légèrement préformés sont davantage susceptibles de

détorsader/détoronner après coupe si des ligatures inappropriées ou insuffisantes sont effectuées.

NOTE En anglais, «ligature» se dit serving, mais parfois également seizing.

À moins qu’une autre terminaison de câble n’ait été approuvée par le fabricant de l'appareil de levage,

le fabricant de câble ou toute autre personne compétente, un seul type de terminaison tel que spécifié

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ISO 4309:2017(F)

par le fabricant d’appareil de levage dans le manuel d'utilisation sera utilisé pour fixer un câble à un

tambour, à un moufle ou à un point d'ancrage sur la structure du mécanisme. Il est bénéfique d'adopter

une trace de référence pour le contrôle électromagnétique en testant le câble avant son installation ou

dès que possible après son installation.
Légende
L = 2d minimum

Figure 2 — Application d'une ligature avant la coupe d'un câble de type monocouche

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ISO 4309:2017(F)

Figure 3 — Méthode alternative de ligature et de coupe pour les câbles anti-giratoires de grand

diamètre
4.3 Déchargement et stockage du câble

Pour éviter des accidents et/ou tout endommagement du câble proprement dit, il convient de décharger

les câbles avec soin.

Les tourets ou les bobines de câbles ne doivent pas chuter sur le sol. Ils ne doivent pas être mis en

contact avec un crochet métallique ou une fourche de chariot élévateur et ils ne doivent pas être soumis

à toute force externe susceptible d'endommager ou de déformer le câble.

Il convient que les câbles soient stockés dans un bâtiment frais et sec sans être posés à même le sol. Il

convient de ne pas les stocker dans des lieux où ils risquent d'être affectés par des produits chimiques,

des fumées chimiques, de la vapeur ou d'autres agents corrosifs.

Si le stockage des câbles à l'extérieur ne peut être évité, il convient de les couvrir pour les protéger

contre toute humidité susceptible de déclencher de la corrosion.

Les câbles entreposés doivent être examinés périodiquement afin de vérifier la présence de signes de

détérioration telle qu'une corrosion superficielle et, si une personne compétente le juge nécessaire, un

agent conservateur ou un lubrifiant approprié compatible avec le lubrifiant d'origine des câbles doit

leur être appliqué.

Dans des environnements chauds, il convient que le touret soit périodiquement tourné d'un demi-tour

pour éviter le drainage du lubrifiant du câble.
4.4 Condition du câble avant installation

Avant d'installer le câble, et de préférence lors de sa réception, il convient de contrôler le câble et son

certificat afin de s'assurer que le câble est conforme à la commande.

La charge de rupture minimale du câble à installer ne doit pas être inférieure à celle spécifiée par le

fabricant de l'appareil de levage.

Le diamètre du nouveau câble doit être mesuré dans une section droite lorsque celui-ci n'est soumis à

aucune tension et la valeur (d ) doit être enregistrée.

Lorsqu’un câble a été stocké pendant un laps de temps ayant pu provoquer de la corrosion, il peut être

avantageux d'effectuer une inspection visuelle et un contrôle électromagnétique (MRT).

Vérifier l'état de toutes les gorges de poulies et de tambours afin de s'assurer qu'elles peuvent recevoir

le diamètre du nouveau câble, qu'elles sont exemptes de toute irrégularité telle que des ondulations et

que leur épaisseur est encore suffisante pour supporter le câble en toute sécurité.

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ISO 4309:2017(F)
Il convient que le di
...

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