Ships and marine technology -- Computer applications -- General principles for the development and use of programmable electronic systems in marine applications

ISO 17894:2005 provides a set of mandatory principles, recommended criteria and associated guidance for the development and use of dependable marine programmable electronic systems for shipboard use. It applies to any shipboard equipment containing programmable elements which may affect the safe or efficient operation of the ship. It contains information for all parties involved in the specification, operation, maintenance and assessment of such systems. The principles and guidance in the document are largely based on requirements in national and international standards. The source standards and their contribution to this International Standard are presented in the bibliography.

Navires et technologies marines -- Applications informatiques -- Principes généraux pour le développement et l'utilisation des systèmes électroniques programmables pour applications marines

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Apr-2005
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Feb-2005
Completion Date
04-Apr-2005
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17894
First edition
2005-03-15
Ships and marine technology —
Computer applications — General
principles for the development and use of
programmable electronic systems in
marine applications
Navires et technologies marines — Applications informatiques —
Principes généraux pour le développement et l'utilisation des systèmes
électroniques programmables pour applications marines
Reference number
ISO 17894:2005(E)
ISO 2005
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms.......................................................................................................... 5

6 Use of this International Standard ...................................................................................................... 5

7 Principles for marine PES .................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Intention for marine PES ...................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Product principles for marine PES...................................................................................................... 6

7.2.1 First principle ........................................................................................................................................ 6

7.2.2 Second principle ................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.3 Third principle ....................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.4 Fourth principle..................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.5 Fifth principle ........................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2.6 Sixth principle ....................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.7 Seventh principle .................................................................................................................................. 8

7.2.8 Eighth principle ..................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.9 Ninth principle ....................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.10 Tenth principle ...................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.11 Eleventh principle ................................................................................................................................. 9

7.3 Life cycle principles for marine PES................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Twelfth principle.................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.3 Thirteenth principle............................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.4 Fourteenth principle ........................................................................................................................... 10

7.3.5 Fifteenth principle ............................................................................................................................... 10

7.3.6 Sixteenth principle .............................................................................................................................. 11

7.3.7 Seventeenth principle......................................................................................................................... 11

7.3.8 Eighteenth principle............................................................................................................................ 11

7.3.9 Nineteenth principle............................................................................................................................ 11

7.3.10 Twentieth principle ............................................................................................................................. 12

Annex A (informative) Terms and concepts used in this International Standard...................................... 13

Annex B (informative) Guidance on the principles for marine PES ............................................................ 18

Annex C (informative) Guidance on the life cycle of marine PES ............................................................... 39

Annex D (informative) Checklist for marine PES life cycle outputs............................................................ 45

Annex E (informative) Application of the principles in the life cycle .......................................................... 57

Annex F (informative) Principles for marine PES.......................................................................................... 61

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 63

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 17894 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 8, Ships and marine technology, Subcommittee

SC 10, Computer applications.
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
Introduction

Systems which include programmable electronic systems (PES) are not exact substitutes for the

electromechanical systems and/or crew tasks which they replace. A new technology is involved, which can

provide opportunities for integration of traditional system components (including crew tasks) and more

complex behaviour. This allows increases in efficiency and safety through improved monitoring, better

situational awareness on the bridge, etc. However, PES are complex products and, like all products, they can

contain defects. These defects cannot be seen. Software does not respond to traditional engineering methods

for the testing of soundness. The combination of complexity, replacement of a combination of mechanical and

crew functions with computer hardware and software, and industry practice in developing and maintaining

marine PES leads to a wide range of potential defects which cannot be guarded against by prescriptive

standards.

The use of a PES in the management, monitoring or control of a ship may have several effects:

 potential to enhance the ability and efficiency of the crew;

 changes in the organization of work through the automation of lower-level tasks;

 integration of systems through use of several systems by one seafarer;

 shift in the role of the crew towards the management of many linked, complex PES;

 shift of the crew's perception of the ship to that presented by the interfaces of the PES;

 layers of embedded and/or application software interposed between the crew and the ship;

 physical interconnection of ship systems through the use of computer networks.

The overall effect of the use of PES is that the ship becomes one total system of inter-linked PES and crew

which work together to fulfil the operator's business goals for the ship. In order for this total system to be

dependable, both the design of the PES and the management of its use have to support the safe and effective

performance of the crew as a critical component of the total system. Such a human-centred approach has to

be based on a thorough knowledge of the particular skills, working environment and tasks of the crew using

the PES. The total system concept is described further in A.2.

In the traditional approach to maritime safety, ship systems are built to and operated against precise,

prescriptive standards. These standards were developed in response to feedback about incidents or risky

behaviour of previous ship systems. This approach is appropriate for relatively simple systems in a time of

slow technical innovation. However, suppliers and operators nowadays want to innovate with complex, new

solutions. In addition, the base technologies for PES are evolving very quickly. The assurance of dependability

in this case cannot rely on knowledge of previous systems. The solution is for the developer and operator to

assess the risks from and to the particular ship, its systems, crew and its operating philosophy, and to address

these specific risks in the design and operation of the PES. Components of the system can then either be re-

designed or operated in such a way as to minimize these risks. The quality of construction, operation and

maintenance of the system to be sure of the achievement of a required level of dependability of the PES is

also defined.

This International Standard is based on best practice in PES development as stated in existing marine,

electrical and electronic, IT, ergonomics and safety standards. It is not intended to replace any of these

standards. It presents a synoptic view of the requirements of these standards as a framework of principles for

the development of dependable PES.
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17894:2005(E)
Ships and marine technology — Computer applications —
General principles for the development and use of
programmable electronic systems in marine applications
1 Scope

This International Standard provides a set of mandatory principles, recommended criteria and associated

guidance for the development and use of dependable marine programmable electronic systems for shipboard

use. It applies to any shipboard equipment containing programmable elements which may affect the safe or

efficient operation of the ship. It contains information for all parties involved in the specification, operation,

maintenance and assessment of such systems. The principles and guidance in the document are largely

based on requirements in national and International Standards. The source standards and their contribution to

this International Standard are presented in the bibliography.

NOTE This International Standard does not directly address performance, test or test results requirements

associated with specific types of equipment or functions. In such instances existing application or component standards

may be applied, e.g. IEC 60945, in respect of navigation and radio-communications equipment. The responsible body (e.g.

National Administration, Classification Society or other contracted party) will determine the applicability of this International

Standard, and its specific requirements where any potential conflict arises.
2 Conformance

An organization demonstrating compliance to this International Standard shall provide evidence of how its

system fulfils the principles stated in Clause 7. The evidence shall be to the satisfaction of an independent

assessor. This can be achieved through compliance with the criteria given in Clause 7 or by an alternative

means which is to the satisfaction of an independent assessor.

NOTE The criteria for assessment are given in an itemized list below each principle in Clause 7.

3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 9000:2000, Quality management systems — Fundamentals and vocabulary

ISO 9241-2, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 2: Guidance

on task requirements

ISO 9241-10, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 10:

Dialogue principles

ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) — Part 11:

Guidance on usability
ISO 10007, Quality management systems — Guidelines for configuration management
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
ISO 13407, Human-centred design processes for interactive systems
ISO/IEC 2382-1, Information technology — Vocabulary — Part 1: Fundamental terms
ISO/IEC 9126-1, Software engineering — Product quality — Part 1: Quality model
ISO/IEC 12207, Information technology — Software life cycle processes

ISO/IEC 12207:1995/Amd.1:2002, Information technology — Software life cycle processes — Amendment 1

ISO/IEC 12207:1995/Amd.2:2004, Information technology — Software life cycle processes — Amendment 2

IEC 61069-1, Industrial-process measurement and control — Evaluation of system properties for the purpose

of system assessment — Part 1: General considerations and methodology

IEC 61508-4, Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems —

Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations
IEEE 610.12, Standard glossary of software engineering terminology

BS 4778-3.1, Quality vocabulary. Availability, reliability and maintainability terms. Guide to concepts and

related definitions

BS 4778-3.2, Quality vocabulary. Availability, reliability and maintainability terms. Glossary of international

terms
4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The following referenced

definitions are stated here since there is some inconsistency between the listed standards and also because

the listed definitions are used frequently in this document. Annex A elaborates the concepts behind key terms

used in this International Standard.
4.1
context of use

the users, goals, tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials), and the physical and social

environments in which a product is used
[ISO 9241-11]

NOTE See A.2 for an elaboration of this term as used in this International Standard.

4.2
dangerous failure

failure which has the potential to put the safety-related system into a hazardous or fail-to-function state

[IEC 61508-4]

NOTE Whether or not the potential is realized may depend on the architecture of the system; in systems with multiple

channels to improve safety, a dangerous failure is less likely to lead to the overall dangerous or fail-to-function state.

4.3
dependability

the extent to which a system can be relied upon to perform exclusively and correctly a task under given

conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external

resources are provided
[IEC 61096-5]
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
4.4
failure
the termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function
[IEC Guide 50(191)]

NOTE An error is that part of the system state which is liable to lead to failure. A failure occurs because the system is

erroneous [IEC 61508-4]. Error is a discrepancy between a computed, observed or measured value or condition and the

true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition. (IEC Guide 50(191); [BS 4778])

4.5
fault

the state of an item characterized by inability to perform a required function, excluding the inability during

preventive maintenance or other planned actions, or due to lack of external resources

[IEC Guide 50(191)]
4.6
fault tolerance

the attribute of an item that makes it able to perform a required function in the presence of certain given sub-

item faults
[IEC 61508-4, IEC Guide 50(191), BS 4778]
4.7
hazard

a situation that could occur during the lifetime of a product, system or plant that has the potential for human

injury, damage to property, damage to the environment, or economic loss
[BS 4778]
4.8
programmable electronic system

a system based on one or more programmable electronic devices, connected to (and including) input devices

(e.g. sensors) and/or output devices/final elements (e.g. actuators), for the purposes of control, protection or

monitoring
[IEC 61508-4]

NOTE 1 The term PES includes all elements in the system, including power supplies, extending from sensors or other

input devices, via data highways or other communicating paths, to the actuators, or other output devices.

NOTE 2 See A.1 for an elaboration of this term as used in this International Standard.

4.9
risk

the probable rate of occurrence of a hazard causing harm and the degree of severity of the harm

[IEC 51]

NOTE See A.3 for an elaboration of this term as used in this International Standard.

4.10
software

all or part of the programs, procedures, rules and associated documentation of an information-processing

system
[ISO 2382-1:1993]
© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
4.11
system life cycle

the activities occurring during a period of time that starts when a system is conceived and ends when the

system is no longer available for use
[IEC 61508-4]
4.12
task

the smallest indivisible part of an activity when it is broken down to a level best understood and performed by

a specific user
[BS 4778]

NOTE There is a distinction between task and function. Function is defined as an elementary operation performed by

the system which, combined with other elementary operations (system functions), enables the system to perform a task

[IEC 61096-1]. Functions are an attribute of systems whereas tasks are performed by users within work systems.

4.13
usability

the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness,

efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use
[ISO 9241-11]
4.14
user

The individual interacting with the system, [ISO 9241-10 and -2] or person, who uses software to perform

some task
[IEEE 610.12]

NOTE 1 For a COTS product, the user will include the designer who customizes the product to fulfil required functions

in a specific system. Throughout the life of a system, those who customize or maintain the PES will also be users of some

aspects of the system.

NOTE 2 Individuals or groups that are affected by the output, operation or existence of a PES but who do not directly

interact with the PES are classed as stakeholders.

NOTE 3 In the annexes to this International Standard, the term “user” is occasionally extended to refer to all

prospective or actual users. This usage may include, for example, stakeholders such as maintenance staff, owner

management and different (other) groups of users.
4.15
validation

confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended use or

application have been fulfilled
[ISO 9000:2000]

NOTE Validation demonstrates that the PES, before or after installation, meets the requirements for the PES.

4.16
verification

confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that specified requirements have been fulfilled

[ISO 9000:2000]

NOTE In the context of this International Standard, verification is the act of demonstrating that deliverables for a

specific life cycle stage meet the inputs to that stage.
4 © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17894:2005(E)
5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
COTS commercial off the shelf
PES programmable electronic system
PE programmable electronic devices
SIL safety integrity level
V&V verification and validation
6 Use of this International Standard

This International Standard contains a high level set of principles for the development and use of marine PES.

These principles are not grouped beyond a split between product and process. The lack of grouping of the

principles is intended to prevent readers concluding that a particular principle will only apply in a particular

case.

The terms used are defined but can be interpreted. This range of interpretation is intentional and is intended to

be a strength of the approach. It allows the principles and associated assessment criteria (listed below each

principle) to be interpreted for a broad range of PES. This is important because this International Standard is

intended to apply to all PES. The range of business requirements for ships and their systems is broad and

multi-dimensional and, as described in the Introduction, all systems form part of the total system of the ship.

An assessor, developer or user of a marine PES can place emphasis on particular principles depending on

the context of use of the PES.

During assessment the criteria given as sub-items to each of the principles in Clause 7 are interpreted at the

minimum level necessary for the integrity of the PES. Therefore, those wishing to apply the standard may not

need to fully address all recommendations for all PES, but the underlying intent of the criteria should be

considered for all PES. Risk and context of use should be taken into account at all times, including

assessment.

The guidance given in Annex B provides advice on interpretation of the principles for both low-risk and high-

risk PES. Specific advice on measures to be taken in different risk situations is available in the supporting

standards.

Organizations will have varying degrees of responsibility for different areas of compliance. Degree of risk,

practicalities and stage in the life cycle will all be factors in agreeing the interpretation and application of the

principles in any particular project. The principles should be treated as the general safety requirements for all

PES.

Owners need to consider and document the context of use which they wish to create for PES onboard. They

should then allocate the functions which they wish to be implemented by PES and define the user

requirements of these systems.

Ship builders, or other integrators of PES in a newbuilding/modification, should apply the principles to their

own work and to each sub-contractor and equipment supplier.

Buyers of marine PES should recognize that some part of the operation of their ships is mediated by computer

software. The principles in this document should be applied to the use and maintenance of PES throughout

the life of the ship in order to minimize any risk arising from this particular technology.

Implementation of the approach to development and operation of PES described in this International Standard

require support from management. In most cases, organizations will have a PES development and/or support

life cycle in place already. How closely this matches up with the life cycle and outputs described in Annexes C

and D of this International Standard will have an impact on how easily it can be accepted.

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 17894:2005(E)

Annex B contains a general commentary on each principle and also provides specific guidance for particular

participants or stages in the life cycle. Annex E illustrates the issues, actions and responsibilities associated

with use of the standard throughout the life cycle of a system. A list of the principles is given in Annex F.

Implementation of the requirements of this International Standard requires cooperation, thought and shared

responsibility both by PES developers, operators and the organization which is to assess this conformance.

The assessor should work from the principles down to the evidence which is required in order to give

assurance that the particular PES meets the principles. The parties being assessed should work up from the

requirements of the particular PES to the evidence and V&V plan required by the assessor. The result will be

agreed evidence, a test/support programme for the hardware, software, data, documentation and training, and

assigned responsibility for the provision of evidence and fulfilment of requirements. A generic life cycle and list

of project outputs that may be used as a basis for the specification of evidence are given in Annexes C and D.

Readers of this International Standard are expected to have some familiarity with the concepts of quality

management, systems, safety and software engineering, and human factors. The Bibliography lists standards

and other documents that address these topics. In order to gain a clear understanding of the relationship

between this general systems standard and equipment- or application-specific standards, such as those for

navigation equipment, readers are advised to study the annexes, in particular A, B.1 & B.2, C and E before

reading the requirements given in Clause 7.
7 Principles for marine PES
7.1 Intention for marine PES

The PES shall be demonstrably suitable for the user and the given task in a particular context of use. It shall

deliver correct, timely, sufficient and unambiguous information to its users and other systems. The hardware

and software of the PES shall respond correctly throughout its life cycle.

This can be achieved if the following principles are fulfilled by the PES and its associated elements throughout

its life.
7.2 Product principles for marine PES
7.2.1 First principle

P1 The PES shall be free from unacceptable risk of harm to persons or the environment.

a) The risk from hazards arising from both the intrinsic (physical) properties of the PES and its functional

behaviour should be reduced to an acceptable level. These may include mechanical, electrical, thermal,

noise/vibration, fire and explosion, chemical, biological, radiation and occupational health.

b) The acce
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