Corrugating medium -- Determination of the edge crush resistance after laboratory fluting

ISO 16945:2014 specifies two methods for the determination of the edge crush resistance of a corrugating medium after laboratory fluting. The procedures are applicable to any corrugating medium to be used after fluting in the manufacture of corrugated fibreboard.

Papier cannelure pour carton ondulé -- Détermination de la résistance à la compression sur chant après cannelage en laboratoire

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Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Feb-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
10-Feb-2014
Completion Date
21-Feb-2014
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16945
First edition
2014-03-01
Corrugating medium — Determination
of the edge crush resistance after
laboratory fluting
Papier cannelure pour carton ondulé — Détermination de la
résistance à la compression sur chant après cannelage en laboratoire
Reference number
ISO 16945:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16945:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16945:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.2 Testing immediately after fluting ............................................................................................................................................ 4

9.3 Testing after 30 min of reconditioning ............................................................................................................................... 4

9.4 Fluting and testing ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

10.1 Edge crush resistance ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10.2 Edge crush resistance index ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (informative) Maintenance of fluting rolls (horizontal type) ............................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16945:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16945:2014(E)
Introduction

This International Standard evaluates the ability of corrugating medium to contribute to the compression

strength of a corrugated box. It is a procedure for measuring the edgewise compression strength of a

laboratory-fluted strip of corrugating medium. The corrugated medium is fluted by passing it between

heated rollers. Two different test procedures are then widely used.

a) The fluted corrugating medium is compressed immediately after fluting (i.e 20 s to 25 s after

fluting).

b) The fluted corrugating medium is conditioned for 30 min to 35 min after fluting under standard

laboratory test conditions before being compressed.

Procedure a) generally gives considerably higher results than those obtained with procedure b). The

differences in results are claimed to be caused by the lower moisture content (and thus higher stiffness)

of the unconditioned fluted corrugating medium.

Since considerable advantages are claimed for both procedures and both are widely used, this

International Standard describes both procedures.

Test values and failure modes in this approach are expected to be different than those for ring crush

method and short span compression test (SCT).

NOTE This test is sometimes referred to as CCT (corrugated crush test) or CFC (corrugated fluted crush test).

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16945:2014(E)
Corrugating medium — Determination of the edge crush
resistance after laboratory fluting
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the edge crush resistance

of a corrugating medium after laboratory fluting. The procedures are applicable to any corrugating

medium to be used after fluting in the manufacture of corrugated fibreboard.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 536, Paper and board — Determination of grammage

ISO 13820, Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard — Description and calibration of compression-testing

equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
edge crush resistance
CCT

maximum edgewise compression force per unit length that a laboratory fluted test piece will withstand

before onset of break under the test conditions specified in this International Standard

Note 1 to entry: Edge crush resistance is expressed in kilonewtons per metre (kN/m).

3.2
edge crush resistance index
edge crush resistance divided by the grammage
Note 1 to entry: The result is expressed in newton metres per gram (Nm/g).
4 Principle
The principle is as follows:

a) fluting of the paper by passing it between heated rollers and mounting in a holder with the flutes

placed vertically;

b) application of a compressive force and determination of the maximum force per unit length.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 16945:2014(E)
5 Apparatus

5.1 Cutting device, for cutting the test pieces to the required specifications, see Clause 8.

5.2 Fluter, consisting of a pair of matched steel corrugating rolls. The rolls shall be capable of being

maintained at a temperature of 175 °C ± 8 °C. The temperature is controlled by any suitable method.

Check the temperature when the rolls are in motion.

One roll is motor-driven at 4,5 r/min ± 1,0 r/min and the rolls are held in mesh by a force of (100 ± 10) N

exerted between the rolls and distributed evenly across the teeth, under test conditions. In some

instruments, the force between the rolls is applied by a spring acting in a slide. In such instruments,

friction in this device can result in the force which acts upon the test piece being considerably less than

the force required to displace the rolls initially. When verifying that an instrument conforms to the

requirements given in this subclause, it is therefore necessary to measure the force required to prevent

the undriven roll from moving towards the driven roll, from a position about 200 μm away.

The essential characteristics of each roll are the following (see also Figure 1):

...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 16945
ISO/TC 6/SC 2 Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on Voting terminates on
2013-02-25 2013-05-25

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION • МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ • ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION

Corrugating medium — Determination of the edge crush
resistance after laboratory fluting

Papier cannelure pour carton ondulé — Détermination de la résistance à la compression sur chant après

cannelage en laboratoire
ICS 85.060

To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee

secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at

publication stage.

Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du

secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au

Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.

THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE

REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.

IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES, DRAFT

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO

WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN NATIONAL REGULATIONS.

RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH

THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
© International Organization for Standardization, 2013
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16945
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as permitted

under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract from it may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16945
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle.................................................................................................................................................. 1

5 Apparatus ............................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Cutting device ........................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Fluter ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Holder ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Compression tester ............................................................................................................................... 4

6 Sampling................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Conditioning .......................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Preparation of test pieces..................................................................................................................... 4

9 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................... 4

9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 4

9.2 Testing immediately after fluting ......................................................................................................... 4

9.3 Testing after 30 minutes of reconditioning......................................................................................... 4

9.4 Fluting and testing ................................................................................................................................ 4

10 Calculation ............................................................................................................................................. 5

10.1 Edge crush resistance .......................................................................................................................... 5

10.2 Edge crush resistance index ................................................................................................................ 5

11 Test report .............................................................................................................................................. 6

Annex A (informative) Precision ........................................................................................................................ 7

Annex B (informative) Maintenance of fluting rolls (horizontal type) .......................................................... 9

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16945
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16945 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16945
Introduction

This test evaluates the ability of corrugating medium to contribute to the compression strength of a corrugated

box. It is a procedure for measuring the edgewise compression strength of a laboratory-fluted strip of

corrugating medium. The corrugated medium is fluted by passing it between heated rollers. Two different test

procedures are then widely used:

a) the fluted corrugating medium is compressed immediately after fluting (i.e 20 s to 25 s after fluting);

b) the fluted corrugating medium is conditioned for 30 min to 35 min under standard laboratory test

conditions before being compressed.

Procedure a) generally gives considerably higher results than those obtained with procedure b). The

differences in results are claimed to be caused by the lower moisture content (and thus higher stiffness) of the

unconditioned fluted corrugating medium.

Since considerable advantages are claimed for both procedures and both are widely used, this International

Standard describes both procedures.

Test values and failure modes in this approach are expected to be different than those for Ring crush method

and Short span compression test (SCT).

NOTE This test is sometimes referred to as CCT (corrugated crush test) or CFC (corrugated fluted crush test).

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 16945
Corrugating medium — Determination of edge crush resistance
after laboratory fluting
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the edge crush resistance of a

corrugating medium after laboratory fluting. The procedures are applicable to any corrugating medium to be

used, after fluting, in the manufacture of corrugated fibreboard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
ISO 536, Paper and board — Determination of grammage

ISO 13820, Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard — Description and calibration of compression-testing

equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following term and definition apply.
3.1
edge crush resistance
CCT

maximum edgewise compression force per unit length that a laboratory fluted test piece will withstand before

onset of break under the test conditions specified in this International Standard

NOTE Edge crush resistance is expressed in kilonewtons per metre (kN/m).
3.2
edge crush resistance index
edge crush resistance divided by the grammage
NOTE The result is expressed in newton metres per gram (Nm/g)
4 Principle

Fluting of the paper by passing it between heated rollers and mounting in a holder with the flutes placed

vertically. Application of a compressive force and determination of the maximum force per unit length.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16945
5 Apparatus
5.1 Cutting device

A cutting device for cutting the test pieces to the required specifications, see Clause 8.

5.2 Fluter

A fluter consisting of a pair of matched steel corrugating rolls. The rolls shall be capable of being maintained

at a temperature of 175 °C ± 8 °C. The temperature is controlled by any suitable method. Check the

temperature when the rolls are in mo
...

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