Guidelines for performance evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse systems — Part 8: Evaluation of treatment systems based on life cycle cost

This document provides life-cycle cost (LCC) methodology for treatment systems for water reuse for initial planning as well as later performance evaluation. LCC analysis provides valid information to determine whether the objectives have actually been accomplished and how operations are improved and optimized. Environmental impact is also taken into account in the LCC evaluation.

Lignes directrices pour l’évaluation des performances des techniques de traitement des systèmes de réutilisation de l’eau — Partie 8: Évaluation des systèmes de traitement fondée sur le coût global

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Jul-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
04-Mar-2023
Completion Date
08-Jul-2022
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ISO 20468-8:2022 - Guidelines for performance evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse systems — Part 8: Evaluation of treatment systems based on life cycle cost Released:8. 07. 2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20468-8
First edition
2022-07
Guidelines for performance evaluation
of treatment technologies for water
reuse systems —
Part 8:
Evaluation of treatment systems based
on life cycle cost
Lignes directrices pour l’évaluation des performances des techniques
de traitement des systèmes de réutilisation de l’eau —
Partie 8: Évaluation des systèmes de traitement fondée sur le coût
global
Reference number
ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................. 2

4 Concept of economic evaluation ..........................................................................................................................................................2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Timing of the evaluation ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Consideration of water quality................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Economic evaluation procedure .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Boundary definition ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Cost elements definition ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.3 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 .4 E v a lu at ion ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Evaluation of environmental benefits .......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Water recovery ratio and heat output recovery ratio ......................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Example of evaluation of treatment systems for municipal water

reuse .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex B (informative) Example of evaluation of treatment systems for industrial water

reuse ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Evaluation of environmental benefits ..............................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 282, Water reuse, Subcommittee SC 3,

Risk and performance evaluation of water reuse systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 20468 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this document is to more specifically define a methodology for evaluating the economic

performance of treatment systems, which is covered in ISO 20468-1:2018, Clause 7. The background

to this document is the need to promote water reuse projects with cost-effective treatment systems

in communities and industrial facilities in order to achieve sustainable water supply. A variety of

stakeholders, including managers of water reuse projects and owners of water infrastructure and

facilities, can select appropriate treatment systems through comprehensive performance evaluations

using this document and the ISO 20468 series.

The concept of the economic performance evaluation methodology has already been established based

on life-cycle cost (LCC), comprising capital, operation and maintenance (O&M), and disposal costs in

IEC 60300-3-3. The economic performance evaluation methodologies of the petroleum and natural gas

industries and building and constructed assets are defined in ISO 15663 and ISO 15686-5, respectively,

based on the general standard of IEC 60300-3-3. The importance of the economic evaluation, based on

LCC considering the environmental impact, is also described in guidelines for selecting high-quality

[14]

water infrastructure and facilities. With reference to these existing standards, this document

provides a customized evaluation methodology for treatment systems in water reuse projects based

on LCC, taking environmental impact into consideration. In this document there are no restrictions on

applicable treatment systems, such as biological, physical or membrane separation.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
Guidelines for performance evaluation of treatment
technologies for water reuse systems —
Part 8:
Evaluation of treatment systems based on life cycle cost
1 Scope

This document provides life-cycle cost (LCC) methodology for treatment systems for water reuse for

initial planning as well as later performance evaluation. LCC analysis provides valid information to

determine whether the objectives have actually been accomplished and how operations are improved

and optimized. Environmental impact is also taken into account in the LCC evaluation.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20670, Water reuse — Vocabulary
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 20670 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
capital cost
money used to purchase, install and commission a capital asset
3.1.2
disposal cost
money used to demolish and rehabilitate a capital asset at the end of its life
3.1.3
operation and maintenance cost

cost incurred in running and managing the facility, labour, material and other related costs incurred to

retain a building or its part in a state in which it can perform its required functions

3.1.4
life-cycle cost
total cost incurred during the life cycle
[SOURCE: IEC 60300-3-3:2017, 3.1.13]
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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)
3.1.5
life-cycle costing

process of evaluating the difference between the life-cycle costs of two or more alternative options

[SOURCE: ISO 15663:2021, 3.1.27, modified — Note to entry removed.]
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply:

C LCC, LCY/year
C LCC of alternative system, LCY/year
C LCC of baseline system, LCY/year
disposal cost, LCY/year
capital cost, LCY/year
operation and maintenance cost, LCY/year
C cost for water input or water output in O&M, LCY/year
∆C cost reduction in water use, LCY/year
heat output recovery ratio
water recovery ratio
LCC life-cycle cost
LCY local currency
O&M operation and maintenance
heat output in alternative system, J/year
outa
heat output in baseline system, J/year
outb
u unit cost, LCY/m
w water consumed, m /year
water input in alternative system, m /year
ina
water input in baseline system, m /year
inb
water output in alternative system, m /year
outa
water output in baseline system, m /year
outb
4 Concept of economic evaluation
4.1 General

The concept of life-cycle costing is applied to evaluate the economic performance of treatment systems

in a water reuse project. An economic evaluation procedure using the total cost of the treatment system

throughout a project’s life can be applied to estimate the cost difference between each alternative system

to select an appropriate water reclamation technology, while satisfying the project’s requirements.

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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)

This document describes the economic evaluation methodology for treatment systems based on the

following concepts according to existing standards:

— The LCC of an alternative treatment system with water reclamation process (in both cases of new

[3],[15]

installation and renewal or modification) is compared with that of a baseline system.

— The economic evaluation procedure includes definitions of the boundary of a treatment system,

cost elements, calculation and evaluation.
The following characteristics should be especially considered:

— The boundary of an economic evaluation can include an entire treatment system consisting of water

supply process and wastewater treatment process, as well as water reclamation process, when a

[16]

reduction in the total amount of required water is expected by the reclamation process.

— Heat recovery and recovery of valuable materials can be included in the evaluation.

— Environmental impacts can also be included in the evaluation, along with an economic evaluation.

4.2 Timing of the evaluation

A water reuse project requires a careful evaluation of goals, including an assessment of technology

feasibility and relative costs to achieve the objectives. The evaluation can be conducted at the planning

stage, O&M stage and disposal stage. The assumed data at the planning stage can be replaced with

actual and more accurate data at the other stages. This can provide stakeholders with a greater

opportunity of understanding the project status.
4.3 Consideration of water quality

Generally, the construction cost and the operation cost of a water reclamation facility differ greatly

depending on the water quality of the wastewater supplied and the reclaimed water quality required.

When a water reclamation facility is adopted, it is important to evaluate and select appropriate

technologies to satisfy the requirements of water quality and quantity that are specified by users (see

ISO 20468-1:2018, Clause 6).
5 Economic evaluation procedure
5.1 Boundary definition

For the economic evaluation of treatment systems, it is necessary to accurately define the boundary in

accordance with the characteristics of an individual water reuse project. In particular, relevant facilities

that will be affected by the project should be included in the boundary. For example, if heat recovered

by the water reclamation process is utilized for a heating system, the facilities for heat recovery, such as

a heat pump, should be within the boundary. In general, heat pump and heat exchanger equipment are

widely applied for the heat recovery facilities in municipal sewage plants. Direct reuse of hot water is

often applied in industrial facilities.

In the definition of the boundary, it is important to properly define the alternative system and the

baseline system. For example, if the alternative system is defined with the installation of a new water

reclamation process, the baseline system does not need the reclamation process. The boundary can be

defined for each of several systems with different water reclamation technologies as candidates and

compared with a baseline system.

An example of the boundary of an alternative system and a baseline system in a water reuse project

utilizing treated municipal wastewater is shown in Figure 1. Treated water with its quality improved

by a reclamation process in the alternative system can be used for building and landscapes. Heat

recovered by the facility with the water reclamation process can be used for air conditioning systems

and other purposes. As a result, an alternative system can achieve cost reduction for water and energy

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ISO 20468-8:2022(E)

supplies compared with the baseline system. An example of facilities and items in the defined boundary

in a case study on a water reuse project using treated municipal wastewater is shown in Annex A.

Figure 1 — Example of boundary of treatment system in a municipal water reuse project

Another example of the boundary of an alternative system with a water reclamation process and

that of a baseline system are shown in Figure 2. The boundary in the baseline system consists of the

water supply process, including water treatment and wastewater treatment processes. In addition, the

boundary in the alternative system includes the water reclamation process. The water reclamation

process improves treated water quality to meet the needs of domestic use and heat supply facilities, thus

enabling heat recovery and recovery of valuable materials, along with water recovery. Consequently, the

benefits of cost-effectiveness are estimated from the reduction in the amount of the water supply and

water treatment in the alternative system. An examp
...

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