Plastics — Methods for marine exposure

This document describes three methods for the exposure of plastics in a marine environment. Method A covers exposures where specimens float on the surface, method B covers exposures where specimens are partially immersed method C covers exposures where specimens are completely immersed. Although intended for marine (salt water) exposure, the methodology can be used with outdoor brackish water and fresh-water exposures as well. Direct weathering of plastics on land is described in ISO 877-1, ISO 877-2 and ISO 877-3. Method A is particularly applicable to enhanced-degradability plastics where the environmental degradation under marine floating exposure is expected to be accelerated relative to that of regular plastic materials. This document specifies the general requirements for the apparatus, and procedures for using the test methods described. It lists properties that can be used to evaluate changes in plastics subjected to marine exposure. More specific information about methods for determining the changes in properties of plastics on exposure and reporting these results is given in ISO 4582.

Plastiques — Méthodes d'exposition aux intempéries marines

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Aug-2018
Completion Date
03-Aug-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15314
Second edition
2018-08
Plastics — Methods for marine
exposure
Plastiques — Méthodes d'exposition aux intempéries marines
Reference number
ISO 15314:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Significance ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Requirements for apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Requirements for method A, floating exposure .......................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Requirements for method B, partial-immersion exposure ............................................................................... 4

5.4 Requirements for method C, shallow-immersion exposure ............................................................................ 5

6 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1 Form and preparation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Number of test specimens ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Storage and conditioning ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Specific procedure for method A, marine floating exposure ........................................................................... 9

7.3 Specific procedure for method B, partial-immersion exposure ................................................................... 9

7.4 Specific procedure for method C, shallow-immersion exposure ................................................................. 9

7.5 Evaluation of specimens after exposure ........................................................................................................................... 9

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 6, Ageing,

chemical and environmental resistance.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 15314:2004), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.

— The term “sunlight” has been replaced by “solar radiation” or “global solar radiation”.

— ISO 293, ISO 294-1, ISO 294-2, ISO 294-3, ISO 295 and ISO 3167 have been moved to the bibliography.

— In Clause 2, the withdrawn International Standard ISO 877 has been replaced by ISO 877-1, ISO 877-2,

and ISO 877-3.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
Introduction

Plastics are often used in outdoor applications where they are immersed or partially immersed in water.

In some cases, materials made from plastic are designed to float on water. In others, plastic articles

that are discarded end up as floating debris. In addition to the effects of global solar radiation and

heat, plastic polymers or products exposed in marine environments may be subjected to hydrolysis,

water absorption, extraction of stabilizers, erosion by wave action, corrosion by salts and/or attack by

seaborne microorganisms. These stresses are not simulated in typical weathering exposures conducted

in accordance with ISO 877-1, ISO 877-2 and ISO 877-3. Therefore, it is necessary to define procedures

that realistically and consistently stress plastic materials in the same way that they would be in

products used or discarded in marine environments. This document describes three procedures for

the exposure of plastic materials in the same way as they could be when used in marine environments.

There are four primary reasons why the rate of degradation of plastics exposed at sea can be different

from that for the same plastic exposed on land:

a) exposure in moist conditions is known to accelerate degradation of some polymers — small

amounts of absorbed water can act as a plasticizer, increasing accessibility of the matrix to oxygen,

or can leach out stabilizing additives;

b) differences in heat build-up between plastics exposed in water or on the surface compared to

plastics exposed on land;

c) the action of microorganisms that can shield the plastic from UV radiation or can enhance

biodegradation processes;

d) the action of macroorganism settlements that can produce disfigurement of surfaces.

It is essential to establish appropriate exposure procedures in order to properly assess the performance

of plastics used in marine environments, and to evaluate how long plastics discarded as litter will

persist in marine environments.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15314:2018(E)
Plastics — Methods for marine exposure
1 Scope

This document describes three methods for the exposure of plastics in a marine environment. Method A

covers exposures where specimens float on the surface, method B covers exposures where specimens

are partially immersed method C covers exposures where specimens are completely immersed.

Although intended for marine (salt water) exposure, the methodology can be used with outdoor

brackish water and fresh-water exposures as well. Direct weathering of plastics on land is described in

ISO 877-1, ISO 877-2 and ISO 877-3.

Method A is particularly applicable to enhanced-degradability plastics where the environmental

degradation under marine floating exposure is expected to be accelerated relative to that of regular

plastic materials.

This document specifies the general requirements for the apparatus, and procedures for using the test

methods described.

It lists properties that can be used to evaluate changes in plastics subjected to marine exposure. More

specific information about methods for determining the changes in properties of plastics on exposure

and reporting these results is given in ISO 4582.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 877-1, Plastics — Methods of exposure to solar radiation — Part 1: General guidance

ISO 877-2, Plastics — Methods of exposure to solar radiation — Part 2: Direct weathering and exposure

behind window glass

ISO 877-3, Plastics — Methods of exposure to solar radiation — Part 3: Intensified weathering using

concentrated solar radiation
ISO 2818, Plastics — Preparation of test specimens by machining

ISO 4582, Plastics — Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure to

glass-filtered solar radiation, natural weathering or laboratory radiation sources

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
3.1
control

material which is of similar composition and construction to the test material, and which

is exposed at the same time for comparison with the test material

Note 1 to entry: An example of the use of a control material would be when a formulation different from one

currently being used is being evaluated. In that case, the control would be the plastic made with the original

formulation.
3.2
file specimen

portion of the material to be tested which is stored under conditions in which it is stable, and is used for

comparison between the exposed state and the original state
4 Principle
4.1 General

Replicate specimens of the appropriate size and shape are exposed floating on the surface of water,

partially immersed in water or completely immersed in water. After the prescribed exposure interval,

the specimens are removed from the water and tested/examined for changes in chemical, physical and/

or appearance properties. In addition, the specimens may be tested for the type and severity of microbial

growth or biofouling. Unless otherwise specified, test specimens are exposed in an unstrained state.

The exposure intervals at which the specimens are tested/examined are typically defined in terms of

a given length of time. In some cases, however, the exposure interval may be expressed in terms of

the total solar or solar ultraviolet radiant exposure. The climatic conditions are monitored during the

exposure and reported with the other conditions of exposure.
4.2 Significance

The relative durability of materials in marine exposures can vary depending on the location of the

exposure because of differences in ultraviolet radiation, ambient air temperature, water temperature,

microorganisms, tidal action and contaminants in the water. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that

results from one exposure in a particular location will be useful in determining the relative durability

in another location. Exposures in several locations which represent a broad range of anticipated service

conditions are recommended.

Exposure of the same material for the same length of time at different marine sites is not expected to

result in identical degrees of degradation. This is also true for exposures at the same site, but during

different seasons or in different years. Thus, the length of exposure is only a general indication of the

extent of exposure and should always be considered in relation to the characteristics of the exposure

site. Because of year-to-year climatic variations, results from a single exposure test cannot be used to

predict the absolute rate at which a material degrades in marine exposures. Several years of repeat

exposures are needed to get an “average” test result for a given location.

It is strongly recommended that at least one control material be part of any marine exposure evaluation.

It is preferable to use two control materials, one with relatively good durability and one with relatively

poor durability.

This document covers plastic materials in film, sheet, laminate, monofilament, fibre, rope or netting

form. This includes, but is not limited to, packaging films, fishing gear, monofilament fibres and ropes.

When filaments, fibres, ropes or netting are exposed, it may be appropriate to apply a stress or use

weights during exposure to give a more realistic estimate of performance in actual service.

When marine exposures are used to evaluate enhanced-degradability plastic material, a comparable

material not formulated for enhanced degradability might be used for comparison. The test results can

then be used to obtain the rate of breakdown of the enhanced-degradability material relative to the other

2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15314:2018(E)

material. For most enhanced-degradability materials, particularly the enhanced-photodegradability

materials, the time to embrittlement (reduction of ultimate extensibility to <2 %, and therefore failure

of the material) is only a few months of exposure. Therefore, the test results will depend heavily on the

time of year the exposure is conducted.

For materials that are intended to have enhanced degradability, it is important to evaluate the degraded

material after exposure to determine whether it is biodegradable.

The test results pertain solely to the geographical location where the test was carried out. Marine

weathering exposure test sites should be chosen on the basis of the geographical region in which the

plastic products are intended to be used. Selecting a location with high levels of solar radiation and a

high ambient temperature is recommended when high rates of breakdown are desirable in comparative

studies of several different materials.

With plastic materials expected to undergo enhanced biodegradation (of any of their components), it

might be important to select a test site where the incidence of microorganisms and biofouling species is

relatively high all year round. This allows the exposure to be completed in a relatively short time.

5 Requirements for apparatus
5.1 General requirements

Unless otherwise specified, the test site selected shall be free from oil contamination, with no visible

sheen of petroleum oil on the water surface, and free from any chemical influx from land-based sources

of pollution. The exposure raft shall be placed at a location that has a depth of at least 1 m at low tide.

Care shall be taken to ensure that no shadows from nearby structures or other obstructions fall on the

exposure raft or specimen-mounting racks.

NOTE Contaminated sites can be used to assess the effect of specific contaminants or environments.

Materials used to construct the exposure raft and racks shall be resistant to corrosion and not interact

with or contaminate the specimens being exposed. Unless otherwise specified, use nonmetallic

fasteners to attach specimens to the exposure raft and racks. Use of plastic pipe components for

exposure raft and rack construction is recommended.
5.2 Requirements for method A, floating exposure

The floating rack shall be constructed of heavy-duty plastic pipe material that is not susceptible to

microbial attack, and with a sufficient number of floats to ensure that the rack will not sink. Securely

anchor the floating rack and ensure that specimens are always in contact with the surface of the water,

regardless of tidal movements. Position the floating rack in a location where the water depth is at least

1 m at low tide. Structural members of the rack shall not provide backing or support for materials

exposed on it. Figure 1 is a diagram showing a typical floating rack, used for method A, that is made

from 15 mm to 25 mm diameter plastic pipe.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 15314:2018(E)
Dimensions in metres
Key

1 T-fittings for plastic tubing [the use of non-corroding bolts (brass or stainless steel) in addition to glue is

recommended for all joints]
2 15 mm to 25 mm diameter heavy-duty plastic tubing

3 foam float connected to frame using a plastic pipe that passes through the float (the use of three or more

floats is recommended for a 4 m rack)

Figure 1 — Diagram of typical test rack used for floating exposures conducted in accordance

with method A
5.3 Requirements for method B, partial-immersion exposure

Attach the test rack to a securely anchored floating raft to maintain the correct position in the water.

Use a minimum amount of decking on the raft to ensure maximum exposure to global solar radiation

of the surface of the test specimens. The exposure rack shall allow vertical installation of specimens

and shall be positioned so that the prevailing tidal
...

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