This document specifies a method, by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide evolved, for the determination of the degree of aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials, including those containing formulation additives. The test material is exposed in a synthetic medium under standardized laboratory conditions to an inoculum from activated sludge under aerobic conditions. The conditions used in this document do not necessarily correspond to the optimum conditions allowing maximum biodegradation to occur, but this test method is designed to measure the biodegradation of plastic materials and give an indication of their potential biodegradability. The method enables the assessment of the biodegradation to be improved by calculating a carbon balance (optional, see Annex C). The method applies to the following materials: —   natural and/or synthetic polymers, copolymers or mixtures thereof; —   plastic materials which contain additives such as plasticizers, colorants or other compounds; —   water-soluble polymers; —   materials which, under the test conditions, do not inhibit the microorganisms present in the inoculum. Inhibitory effects can be determined using an inhibition control or by another appropriate method (see, for example, ISO 8192[1]). If the test material is inhibitory to the inoculum, a lower test concentration, another inoculum or a pre-exposed inoculum can be used.

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This document specifies test procedures for the acquisition and presentation of multipoint data which demonstrate the behaviour of plastics under the following environments: —   prolonged exposure to heat; —   liquid chemicals; —   environmental stress cracking under a constant tensile stress; —   artificial weathering. The tests are listed in order of increasing severity of the environment. By testing under the least severe environments first, it is possible to make informed judgements regarding whether tests under more severe conditions are worthwhile.

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This document specifies test procedures for the acquisition and presentation of multipoint data on the following mechanical properties of plastics: —   dynamic modulus; —   tensile properties at constant test speed; —   ultimate stress and strain; —   tensile stress-strain curves; —   tensile creep; —   Charpy impact strength; —   puncture impact behaviour. The test methods and test conditions apply predominantly to those plastics that can be injection- or compression-moulded or prepared as sheets of specified thickness from which specimens of the appropriate size can be machined.

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This document specifies the general principles of rotational and oscillatory rheometry.
Detailed information is presented in Annex A. Further background information is covered in subsequent
parts of the ISO 3219 series, which are currently in preparation.

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This document specifies test methods for the measurement of the physical degradation of samples made with plastics materials when exposed to marine environmental matrices under aerobic conditions at laboratory scale. This document is not suitable for the assessment of degradation caused by heat (thermo-degradation) or light exposure (photo-degradation).

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This document specifies general terms and definitions that are used in the context of rotational and
oscillatory rheometry.
Further terms and definitions can be found in the other parts of the ISO 3219 series where they are
used.

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This document covers the determination of the total luminous transmittance, in the visible region of the spectrum, of planar transparent plastics and substantially colourless plastics, using a double-beam scanning spectrophotometer. This document cannot be used for plastics which contain fluorescent materials. This document is applicable to transparent moulding materials, films and sheets not exceeding 10Â mm in thickness. NOTEÂ 1Â Â Total luminous transmittance can also be determined by a single-beam instrument as in ISOÂ 13468-1. NOTEÂ 2Â Â Substantially colourless plastics include those which are faintly tinted. NOTEÂ 3Â Â Specimens more than 10Â mm thick can be measured provided the instrument can accommodate them, but the results cannot be comparable with those obtained using specimens less than 10Â mm thick.

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This document specifies a procedure for the determination of an elasticity index based on measurements of the shear storage modulus using oscillatory rheometers, establishes general principles, and gives guidelines for performance of measurements. The elasticity index is applicable to all thermoplastics and viscoelastic materials for which the elastic behaviour is a crucial application property.

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This document specifies a method for the separation of overlapping thermal transitions of plastics related to reversing and non-reversing heat flow rate, using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

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This document specifies general terms and definitions that are used in the context of rotational and oscillatory rheometry. Further terms and definitions can be found in the other parts of the ISOÂ 3219 series where they are used.

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This document specifies the general principles of rotational and oscillatory rheometry. Detailed information is presented in Annex A. Further background information is covered in subsequent parts of the ISO 3219 series, which are currently in preparation.

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This document defines a test method used to determine the degree of disintegration of plastic materials
in a pilot-scale aerobic composting test under defined conditions. It forms part of an overall scheme for
the evaluation of the industrial compostability of plastics as outlined in ISO 17088.
The test method laid down in this document is also used to determine the influence of the test material
on the composting process and the quality of the compost obtained. This test method cannot be used to
determine the aerobic biodegradability of a test material.
NOTE Other methods are available for this test (for example, see ISO 14851, ISO 14852 or ISO 14855-1 and
ISO 14855-2).

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This document specifies procedures and requirements for plastics, and products made from plastics, that are suitable for recovery through organic recycling. The four following aspects are addressed: a) disintegration during composting; b) ultimate aerobic biodegradation; c) no adverse effects of compost on terrestrial organisms; d) control of constituents. These four aspects are suitable to assess the effects on the industrial composting process. This document is intended to be used as the basis for systems of labelling and claims for compostable plastics materials and products. This document does not provide information on requirements for the biodegradability of plastics which end up in the environment as litter. It is also not applicable to biological treatment undertaken in small installations by householders. NOTE 1   The recovery of compostable plastics through composting can be carried out under the conditions found in well-managed industrial composting processes, where the temperature, water content, aerobic conditions, carbon/nitrogen ratio and processing conditions are optimized. Such conditions are generally obtained in industrial and municipal composting plants. Under these conditions, compostable plastics disintegrate and biodegrade at rates comparable to yard trimmings, kraft paper bags and food scraps. NOTE 2   “Compostable” or “compostable in municipal and industrial composting facilities” are expressions considered to be equivalent to organically recyclable for the purposes of this document.

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This document defines the general conditions for the determination of the reduced viscosity, intrinsic
viscosity and K‑value of organic polymers in dilute solution. It defines the standard parameters that are
applied to viscosity measurement.
This document is used to develop standards for measuring the viscosities in solution of individual types
of polymer. It is also used to measure and report the viscosities of polymers in solution for which no
separate standards exist.

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This document describes a method for defining requirements for plastic materials used in extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. Materials include unfilled, filled, and reinforced plastic materials suitable for processing into parts. These materials can also contain special additives (e.g. flame retardants, stabilizers, etc.). Processes include all material extrusion-based AM processes.
This document is intended for use by manufacturers of materials, feedstocks, plastic parts or any combination of the three using material extrusion-based AM.
NOTE In some cases, material manufacturers can also be feedstock manufacturers. In other cases, a material manufacturer can supply materials (example: pellets) to a feedstock manufacturer (example: converter of pellets into filaments).
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies the general principles of a method for determining the transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts. The procedure details the measurement of polymer melt specimens stretched uniaxially under conditions of constant strain rate and constant temperature. The method is capable of measuring the transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts at Hencky strain rates typically in the range 0,01 s–1 to 1 s–1, at Hencky strains up to approximately 4 and at temperatures up to approximately 250 °C (see NOTEs 1 and 2). It is suitable for measuring transient extensional viscosity values typically in the range from approximately 104 Pa⋅s to 107 Pa⋅s (see NOTE 3). NOTE 1  Hencky strains and strain rates are used (see Clause 3). NOTE 2  Values of strain, strain rate and temperature outside these limiting values can be attained. NOTE 3  The operating limit of an instrument, in terms of the lowest transient extensional viscosity values that can be measured, is due to a combination of factors, including the ability of the specimen to maintain its shape during testing and the resolution of the instrument.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the minimum volume fraction of oxygen, in admixture with nitrogen, at ambient temperature, that supports combustion of small vertical sheet test specimen under a specified gas velocity that is higher than that specified in ISOÂ 4589-2. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The result is expressed as a high gas velocity oxygen index (HOI). In addition, this document specifies the testing apparatus for determining the HOI. The test method is applicable to materials in the form of sheets up to 2Â mm thick. It is also applicable to flexible sheet materials that are supported vertically by a specified specimen holder.

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This document establishes a method for determination of the thermal conductivity of solid unfilled and
filled or fibre reinforced plastics and composites by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
It is applicable for materials with thermal conductivities of up to 1 W/(m⋅K).

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This document specifies a bending-vibration method based upon resonance curves for determining the
flexural complex modulus Ef
* of homogeneous plastics and the damping properties of laminated
plastics intended for acoustic insulation, for example systems consisting of a metal sheet coated with a
damping plastic layer, or sandwich systems consisting of two sheet-metal layers with an intermediate
plastic layer. For many purposes, it is useful to determine these properties as a function of temperature
and frequency.

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This document specifies general procedures to determine the quantity of water sprayed on specimens during a spray cycle in a xenon arc weathering test apparatus.

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This document defines a test method used to determine the degree of disintegration of plastic materials in a pilot-scale aerobic composting test under defined conditions. It forms part of an overall scheme for the evaluation of the industrial compostability of plastics as outlined in ISO 17088. The test method laid down in this document is also used to determine the influence of the test material on the composting process and the quality of the compost obtained. This test method cannot be used to determine the aerobic biodegradability of a test material. NOTE Other methods are available for this test (for example, see ISO 14851, ISO 14852 or ISO 14855-1 and ISO 14855-2).

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This document specifies methods for determining the specific heat capacity of plastics by differential
scanning calorimetry.

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This document defines the general conditions for the determination of the reduced viscosity, intrinsic viscosity and K‑value of organic polymers in dilute solution. It defines the standard parameters that are applied to viscosity measurement. This document is used to develop standards for measuring the viscosities in solution of individual types of polymer. It is also used to measure and report the viscosities of polymers in solution for which no separate standards exist.

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This document specifies methods for determining the fluidity of plastics melts subjected to shear stresses at rates and temperatures approximating to those arising in plastics processing. Testing plastics melts in accordance with these methods is of great importance since the fluidity of plastics melts is generally not dependent solely on temperature, but also on other parameters; in particular shear rate and shear stress. The methods described in this document are useful for determining melt viscosities from 10 Pa∙s to 107 Pa∙s, depending on the measurement range of the pressure and/or force transducer and the mechanical and physical characteristics of the rheometer. The shear rates occurring in extrusion rheometers range from 1 s−1 to 106 s−1. Elongational effects at the die entrance cause extrudate swelling at the die exit. Methods for assessing extrudate swelling have also been included. The rheological techniques described are not limited to the characterization of wall-adhering thermoplastics melts only; for example, thermoplastics exhibiting "slip" effects[1][2] and thermosetting plastics can be included. However, the methods used for determining the shear rate and shear viscosity are invalid for materials which are not wall-adhering. Nevertheless, this document can be used to characterize the rheological behaviour of such fluids for a given geometry.

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This document specifies a bending-vibration method based upon resonance curves for determining the flexural complex modulus E*f of homogeneous plastics and the damping properties of laminated plastics intended for acoustic insulation, for example systems consisting of a metal sheet coated with a damping plastic layer, or sandwich systems consisting of two sheet-metal layers with an intermediate plastic layer. For many purposes, it is useful to determine these properties as a function of temperature and frequency.

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This document specifies the characteristics of non-adiabatic fast differential scanning calorimeters, also covered by the general abbreviation FSC having an open specimen geometry in which specimens are placed directly onto active measurement areas of chip sensors based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) membrane technology, without encapsulation in closed crucibles and ovens. Due to the open specimen geometry, this document is applicable to very small specimens having masses of not greater than 1 µg only. The occurrence of high temperature gradients during measurements can be prevented by keeping specimen thicknesses as small as possible. The use of very low specimen masses enables achievement of very high scanning rates in the order of several thousand K/s, both in heating and cooling mode whereby lower specimen masses and thicknesses allow higher heating and cooling rates. Typically, low scanning rates of FSC overlap with high scanning rates of conventional DSC covered by ISO 11357‑1, thus enabling connection to conventional DSC results. NOTE 1 Due to the sensor layout FSC is also called chip calorimetry. NOTE 2 FSC stands for Fast Scanning Calorimetry but also for Fast Scanning Calorimeter. In practice from the context the choice can be made quite easily. FSC is suitable for thermal analysis of fast kinetic effects of polymers, polymer blends and composites, such as: — thermoplastics (polymers, moulding compounds and other moulding materials, with or without fillers, fibres or reinforcements); — thermosets (uncured or cured materials, with or without fillers, fibres or reinforcements); — elastomers (with or without fillers, fibres or reinforcements). This document specifies methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of fast physical and chemical processes showing changes in heat flow rate. This includes measurement of characteristic temperatures as well as caloric values of both, solid and liquid materials. This document is particularly applicable for the observation of fast kinetics of thermal effects such as: — physical transitions (glass transition, phase transitions such as melting and crystallization, polymorphic transitions, etc.); — metastability and related processes like reorganization, (re)crystallization, annealing, ageing, amorphization; — chemical reactions (hydration, oxidation, polymerisation, crosslinking and curing of elastomers and thermosets, decomposition, etc.); — isothermal measurements of fast crystallising systems or chemical reactions. It is also applicable for the determination of heat capacity and related changes of thermodynamic functions. FSC provides a technique to analyse material behaviour at similarly high heating or cooling rates used in industrial polymer processing. FSC can also enable separation of overlapping thermal effects with different kinetics such as: — melting and decomposition: higher heating rates can shift decomposition to higher temperatures and allow unperturbed measurement of melting; — glass transition and cold crystallisation of polymers: higher heating rates can suppress cold crystallisation resulting in unperturbed measurement of glass transition as a function of cooling / heating rates; — reorganisation of amorphous or semi-crystalline polymers upon cooling and heating: depending on the cooling rate used specimens with different crystallinities can be generated and their reorganisation upon heating analysed using different scanning rates. This document establishes general aspects of FSC, such as the principle and the apparatus, sampling, calibration and general aspects of the procedure and test report.

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This document establishes a method for determination of the thermal conductivity of solid unfilled and filled or fibre reinforced plastics and composites by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is applicable for materials with thermal conductivities of up to 1 W/(m⋅K).

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This document specifies methods for determining the specific heat capacity of plastics by differential scanning calorimetry.

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This document specifies the dimensions, the method of sampling, the preparation of the test specimens and the conditions for performing the tensile test in order to determine the short term tensile welding factor.
A tensile test may be used in conjunction with other tests (e.g. bend, tensile creep, macro) to assess the performance of welded assemblies, made from thermoplastics materials.
The test is applicable to welded assemblies made from thermoplastics materials filled or unfilled, but not reinforced, irrespective of the welding process used.

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This document provides the requirements for the tests made on welded thermoplastics semi-finished products.
The selection of the appropriate test method(s) should be made in accordance with the particular type and application of welded product.
The test results depend on the conditions of manufacture for the test specimen and on the test conditions. They can therefore only be related to the behaviour of the product or can only be used for designing a structure, if the test conditions can be related to the service conditions.

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This document describes a method for defining requirements and assuring component integrity for plastic parts created using material extrusion based additive manufacturing processes. It covers the process, equipment and operational parameters. Processes include all material extrusion based additive manufacturing processes.

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This document specifies an analysis method for determining the activation energy using the Ozawa-Friedman plot. It also specifies the preparation of master plots for verification of the reaction kinetics determined by thermogravimetry.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the activation energy, Ea, in the Arrhenius formula for the decomposition of polymers using a thermogravimetric technique. The method is applicable only if the reaction proceeds by a single mechanism. It is applicable to multistage reactions if they consist of clearly separated single-stage steps.

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This document specifies a system for sampling procedures for testing plastics waste and recyclates which take into account the specifics of the plastics waste and recyclates. It is intended to cover all stages of the plastic recycling process.
The sampling procedures include the statistical specifics of the plastic waste and the behaviour of recyclates.
The sampling method is expected to produce a representative testing sample. Differences can arise due to:
-   the mixture of plastics;
-   the origin (e.g. green dot in Germany, or electronic/automotive industry);
-   the previous use of the plastic material;
-   the residual contents (e.g. of containers);
-   inert, residual or moisture content on or in the material.
This document is without prejudice to any existing legislation.

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This document describes and classifies a range of laboratory ignition sources for use in fire tests on plastics and products consisting substantially of plastics. These sources vary in intensity and area of impingement. They are suitable for use to simulate the initial thermal abuse to which plastics are potentially exposed in certain actual fire risk scenarios. This compilation of standard ignition sources describes the ignition sources used by different standards development organizations and contained in standard test methods, specifications, or regulations used to assess the fire properties or plastics and of products containing plastic materials. The ignition sources described in this document are associated with flaming and non-flaming ignition. This document describes the relevant ignition sources and references the associated standard. This compilation of ignition sources does not discuss the application of the standard referenced in any specific clause in which the ignition source is described, and this compilation is likely not to be a fully comprehensive list of ignition sources. This document does not address detailed test procedures.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the ultimate anoxic biodegradability of plastics made of organic compounds, where the amount of the produced nitrogen and carbon dioxide at the end of the test is measured.
The test substance is exposed to an inoculum stemming from the denitrification tank of a wastewater treatment plant. Testing is performed under defined laboratory conditions.

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This document specifies a laboratory test method for determining the degree and rate of the aerobic biodegradation level of plastic materials. Biodegradation of plastic materials is determined by measuring the oxygen demand in a closed respirometer when exposed to seawater sampled from coastal areas under laboratory conditions. The conditions described in this document might not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the maximum degree of biodegradation, however this test method is designed to give an indication of the potential biodegradability of plastic materials. NOTE This document addresses plastic materials but can also be used for other materials.

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This document specifies a laboratory test method for determining the degree and rate of the aerobic biodegradation level of plastic materials. Biodegradation is determined by measuring the CO2 evolved from plastic materials when exposed to seawater sampled from coastal areas under laboratory conditions. The conditions described in this document might not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the maximum degree of biodegradation, however this test method is designed to give an indication of the potential biodegradability of plastic materials. NOTE This document addresses plastic materials but can also be used for other materials.

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This document establishes a method for measurement of specific heat capacity, cp, using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

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This document gives a brief overview of the current (2019) situation in plastic recycling systems, relevant existing standards and short description of different recycling techniques. It aims to identify the necessity of standards in the plastics recycling system and give direction for the adoption of regional standards and/or the development of new and existing standards. This document addresses various recycling options, with focus on, but not limited to, mechanical recycling, chemical and/or feedstock recycling and the corresponding preparatory activities. This document excludes organic recycling (also designated as biological recycling) and energy recovery.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of abrasive wear resistance of plastics using abrasive material on a reciprocating motion. It also specifies calculation method for specific wear rate.

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This document specifies requirements and guidelines for the quantification and reporting of the process carbon footprint of biobased plastics (see ISO 22526-1), being a partial carbon footprint of a bioplastic product, based on ISO 14067 and consistent with International Standards on life cycle assessment (ISO 14040 and ISO 14044). This document is applicable to process carbon footprint studies (P-CFP) of plastic materials, being a partial carbon footprint of a product, whether or not the results are intended to be publicly available. Requirements and guidelines for the quantification of a partial carbon footprint of a product (partial CFP) are provided in this document. The process carbon footprint study is carried out according to ISO 14067 as a partial carbon footprint, using the specific conditions and requirements specified in this document. Where the results of a P-CFP study are reported according to this document, procedures are provided to support transparency and credibility, and also to allow for informed choices. Offsetting is outside of the scope of this document.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of the surface tension of polymer dispersions and rubber latices (natural and synthetic). — Method A is the ring method (Du Noüy ring method). — Method B is the plate method (Wilhelmy plate method). Method A is suitable valid for polymer dispersions and rubber latices with a viscosity less than 200 mPa·s. Method B is not suitable for polymer dispersions and rubber latices containing cationic surfactants. Methods A and B are also suitable for prevulcanized latices and compounded material. In case of dispute, the preferred method is method A (the ring method).

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This document describes a test method to determine the activation energy (Ea) of photochemical degradation reactions in accelerated weathering tests according to the Arrhenius model in the most comprehensive manner.

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This document specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic biodegradation of
plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between seawater and the
seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide (CO2). This test method can also be applied to other
solid materials.
This test method is a simulation under laboratory conditions of the habitat found in different seawater/
sediment-areas in the sea, e.g. in a benthic zone where sunlight reaches the ocean floor (photic zone)
that, in marine science, is called sublittoral zone
The determination of biodegradation of plastic materials and other solid materials buried in marine
sediment is outside the scope of this document.
NOTE Measurement of aerobic biodegradation can also be obtained by monitoring the oxygen consumption,
as described in ISO 18830.
The conditions described in this document do not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the
maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.

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This document specifies methods for exposing specimen to alternating outdoor weathering supported with artificial radiation. This method utilizes, as much as possible, the natural outdoor exposure which are then assisted by the artificial radiation during night time and in cloudy conditions. This document is applicable to polyolefin materials as well as to products and portions of products. The artificial and natural outdoor exposures and their practices applicable to this document are described in ISO 4892-1, ISO 4892-3 and ISO 877-1, ISO 877-2 and ISO 877-3, respectively.

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1.1 This document specifies a method for determining Charpy impact properties of plastics from
force-deflection diagrams. Different types of rod-shaped test specimens and test configurations, as well
as test parameters depending on the type of material, the type of test specimen and the type of notch, are
defined in ISO 179-1.
Dynamic effects such as load-cell/striker resonance, test specimen resonance and initial-contact/
inertia peaks are described in this document (see Figure 1, Curve b, and Annex A).
1.2 ISO 179-1 is suitable for characterizing the impact behaviour by the impact strength only and for
using apparatus whose potential energy is matched approximately to the particular energy to break
to be measured (see ISO 13802:2015, Annex E). This document is used to record a force-deflection or
force-time diagram for detailed characterization of the impact behaviour, and for developing automatic
apparatus, i.e. avoiding the need to match energy.
The method described in this document is also suitable for:
— acquiring more and different materials characteristics under impact conditions;
— supervising the Charpy test procedure, as this instrumentation allows detection of typical
operational mistakes, such as the specimen not being in close contact with the supports;
— automatically detecting the type of break;
— pendulum type instruments to avoid frequent changes of pendulum hammers;
— measuring fracture mechanical properties described in other ISO standards.
1.3 For the range of materials which can be tested by this method, see ISO 179-1:2010, Clause 1.
1.4 For the general comparability of test results, see ISO 179-1:2010, Clause 1.
1.5 Information on the typical behaviour of materials can be obtained by testing at different
temperatures, by varying the notch radius and/or specimen thickness and by testing specimens prepared
under different conditions.
It is not the purpose of this document to give an interpretation of the mechanism occurring at every
point on the force-deflection diagram. These interpretations are a task for on-going scientific research.
1.6 The test results obtained with this method are comparable only if the conditions of test specimen
preparation, as well as the test conditions, are the same. The impact behaviour of finished products
cannot, therefore, be predicted directly from this test.

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This document specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic biodegradation of plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between seawater and the seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide (CO2). This test method can also be applied to other solid materials. This test method is a simulation under laboratory conditions of the habitat found in different seawater/sediment-areas in the sea, e.g. in a benthic zone where sunlight reaches the ocean floor (photic zone) that, in marine science, is called sublittoral zone The determination of biodegradation of plastic materials and other solid materials buried in marine sediment is outside the scope of this document. NOTE Measurement of aerobic biodegradation can also be obtained by monitoring the oxygen consumption, as described in ISO 18830. The conditions described in this document do not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.

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EN-IEC 62788-6-2 provides methods for measuring the steady-state water vapour transmissionrate (WVTR), water vapour permeability (P), diffusivity (D), solubility (S), and moisturebreakthrough time (?10) (defined as the time to reach 10 % of the steady state WVTR) forpolymeric materials such as encapsulants, edge seals, frontsheets and backsheets. Thesemeasurements can be made at selected temperatures and humidity levels as deemedappropriate for evaluation of their performance in PV modules. Measurement is accomplishedby inspection of the transient WVTR curve and by fitting it to a theoretical Fickian model. Thisdocument is best applied to monolithic films. If multilayer films are used, the D and S values areonly apparent values, but the steady-state values can still be measured.This document was written for the measurement of water permeation, but it can equally be usedfor other permeants such as O2. In this case the same diffusion equations, fitting procedures,and scaling arguments are used.

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1.1 This document specifies a method for determining Charpy impact properties of plastics from force-deflection diagrams. Different types of rod-shaped test specimens and test configurations, as well as test parameters depending on the type of material, the type of test specimen and the type of notch, are defined in ISO 179-1. Dynamic effects such as load-cell/striker resonance, test specimen resonance and initial-contact/inertia peaks are described in this document (see Figure 1, Curve b, and Annex A). 1.2 ISO 179-1 is suitable for characterizing the impact behaviour by the impact strength only and for using apparatus whose potential energy is matched approximately to the particular energy to break to be measured (see ISO 13802:2015, Annex E). This document is used to record a force-deflection or force-time diagram for detailed characterization of the impact behaviour, and for developing automatic apparatus, i.e. avoiding the need to match energy. The method described in this document is also suitable for: — acquiring more and different materials characteristics under impact conditions; — supervising the Charpy test procedure, as this instrumentation allows detection of typical operational mistakes, such as the specimen not being in close contact with the supports; — automatically detecting the type of break; — pendulum type instruments to avoid frequent changes of pendulum hammers; — measuring fracture mechanical properties described in other ISO standards. 1.3 For the range of materials which can be tested by this method, see ISO 179-1:2010, Clause 1. 1.4 For the general comparability of test results, see ISO 179-1:2010, Clause 1. 1.5 Information on the typical behaviour of materials can be obtained by testing at different temperatures, by varying the notch radius and/or specimen thickness and by testing specimens prepared under different conditions. It is not the purpose of this document to give an interpretation of the mechanism occurring at every point on the force-deflection diagram. These interpretations are a task for on-going scientific research. 1.6 The test results obtained with this method are comparable only if the conditions of test specimen preparation, as well as the test conditions, are the same. The impact behaviour of finished products cannot, therefore, be predicted directly from this test.

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